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Gayathri Sivakumar, Marie-Louise Mares
How do patients respond when advice on health websites differs from advice given by a doctor? To test effects of advice concordance, 418 participants 25-80 years old were randomly assigned to read real websites that varied in quality of information about diabetes: high (medically accurate and complete), medium (accurate but incomplete), and low (inaccurate). The control group read travel sites. Participants then watched a video of a physician making treatment recommendations for a diabetic patient, and indicated how they would respond if they were the patient...
October 21, 2016: Health Communication
Katherine Picho, Lauren A Maggio, Anthony R Artino
Recent crises over the credibility of research in psychology and the biomedical sciences have highlighted the need for researchers to view and treat replication research as essential to the accumulation of knowledge. In this article, the authors make the case for the utility of replication in medical education research. Specifically, the authors contend that because research in medical education often adopts theories from other disciplines, replication is necessary to gauge the applicability of those theories to the specific medical education context...
October 20, 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
Bria Dexter, Sarah Frank, Louise Seguin
PURPOSE: To understand how and where parents of infants and young children (children ≤5 years old) prefer to receive nutrition information. METHODS: A 1-page survey was developed and pilot tested at 2 community agencies. The final survey was distributed at 18 community health centres (CHCs) in Calgary and surrounding rural areas. Any parent attending a well-child visit (child ≤5 years old) was able to participate. RESULTS: Five hundred and twenty-nine surveys were completed...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Quan Hoang Vuong
This data article introduces a data set containing 1459 observations that can enable researchers to examine issues related to and perform statistical investigations into questions of relationships between sources of health care information, data sufficiency, trust levels between patients and healthcare experts (and the advice). The data set also records assessment of Vietnamese patients on whether their choice of health care provider is best available (optimal vs. nonoptimal). The data come from a survey in many hospitals in Hanoi and several neighboring provinces/cities in the North of Vietnam, during the last quarter of 2015...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Anjali Nagpal, Chris Juttner, Monica Anne Hamilton-Bruce, Paul Rolan, Simon A Koblar
The encouraging pace of discovery and development in the field of regenerative medicine holds tremendous potential for bringing therapies to the clinic that may offer meaningful benefit to patients, particularly in diseases with no or suboptimal therapeutic options. Academic researchers will continue to play a critical role in developing concepts and therapies, thus determining whether regenerative medicine will be able to live up to this potential that clearly excites clinicians, researchers and patients alike...
October 17, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Rossella Letizia Mancusi, Massimo Andreoni, Daniela d'Angela, Cesare Sarrecchia, Federico Spandonaro
Between western European countries, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) endemic is highest in Italy. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the endemic diffusion of hepatitis C at the national level and by geographical area, with an extrapolation at the regional level and by uniform cohorts of subjects (by sex and year of birth). The secondary objective is a stratification by gravity of the estimated statistical figures to provide an overview of possible targets of the new anti-HCV treatments.PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant Italian populations studies regarding HCV prevalence...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zongshi Qin, Jiani Wu, Jinhui Tian, Jing Zhou, Yali Liu, Zhishun Liu
Alpha-blockers and antibiotics are most commonly used to treat chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in clinical practice. Currently, increasing evidence also suggests acupuncture as an effective strategy. This network meta-analysis intended to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of acupuncture, alpha-blockers and antibiotics for CP/CPPS. Twelve trials involving 1203 participants were included. Based on decreases in the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score, a network meta-analysis indicated that electro-acupuncture (standard mean difference [SMD]: 4...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Johannes F Wentzel, Martani J Lombard, Lissinda H Du Plessis, Lizelle Zandberg
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by a range of fungi and are common contaminants of agricultural crops. These toxins are chemically diverse and structurally stable, enabling them to enter the food chain which can lead to numerous adverse health effects in animals and humans. Although mycotoxin exposure is associated with the development of several cancers, it has proved challenging to show a direct connection between exposure and oncogenic change. This study investigates the in vitro cytotoxicity, molecular mechanisms and secondary signalling responses associated with the exposure to three major mycotoxins, fumonisin B1 (FB1), deoxynivalenol (Don) and zearalenone (Zea)...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Gordon D Ko, Sara L Bober, Sean Mindra, Jason M Moreau
Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Matthew Stephens
SummaryWe introduce a new Empirical Bayes approach for large-scale hypothesis testing, including estimating false discovery rates (FDRs), and effect sizes. This approach has two key differences from existing approaches to FDR analysis. First, it assumes that the distribution of the actual (unobserved) effects is unimodal, with a mode at 0. This "unimodal assumption" (UA), although natural in many contexts, is not usually incorporated into standard FDR analysis, and we demonstrate how incorporating it brings many benefits...
October 17, 2016: Biostatistics
Carl Savage, Louise Parke, Mia von Knorring, Pamela Mazzocato
BACKGROUND: Health care has experimented with many different quality improvement (QI) approaches with greater variation in name than content. This has been dubbed pseudoinnovation. However, it could also be that the subtleties and differences are not clearly understood. To explore this further, the purpose of this study was to explore how hospital managers perceive lean in the context of QI. METHODS: We used a qualitative study design with semi-structured interviews to explore twelve top managers' perceptions of the relationship between lean and quality improvement (QI) at a university-affiliated hospital...
October 19, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Nicholas J Lunn, Sabrina Servanty, Eric V Regehr, Sarah J Converse, Evan Richardson, Ian Stirling
Changes in the abundance and distribution of wildlife populations are common consequences of historic and contemporary climate change. Some Arctic marine mammals, such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), may be particularly vulnerable to such changes due to the loss of Arctic sea ice. We evaluated the impacts of environmental variation on demographic rates for the Western Hudson Bay (WH), polar bear subpopulation from 1984 to 2011 using live-recapture and dead-recovery data in a Bayesian implementation of multistate capture-recapture models...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
ByungSu Yoo
Hypertension is the most common risk factor for systolic and diastolic heart failure. Based on population-attributable risks, hypertension has the greatest impact on the development of heart failure, accounting for 39% of HF events in men and 59% in women. Higher blood pressure, longer duration of hypertension and older age are associated with higher incidence of heart failure however, long term control of hypertension reduces the risk of heart failure. Thus current guideline pointed the hypertension as the single most important modifiable risk factor for heart failure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Peter Szasz, Esther M Bonrath, Marisa Louridas, Andras B Fecso, Brett Howe, Adam Fehr, Michael Ott, Lloyd A Mack, Kenneth A Harris, Teodor P Grantcharov
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to (1) create a technical and nontechnical performance standard for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, (2) assess the classification accuracy and (3) credibility of these standards, (4) determine a trainees' ability to meet both standards concurrently, and (5) delineate factors that predict standard acquisition. BACKGROUND: Scores on performance assessments are difficult to interpret in the absence of established standards...
July 28, 2016: Annals of Surgery
E Teasdale, I Muller, M Santer
BACKGROUND: Childhood eczema is very common and can have substantial impact on quality of life. One of the main treatments is topical-corticosteroids, but these are often under-used by parents/carers for reasons that include concerns about safety. OBJECTIVES: To explore understandings and concerns about topical-corticosteroids amongst parents/carers of children with eczema who had posted messages in online forums. METHODS: A qualitative study of messages and their resultant discussions about topical-corticosteroids for childhood eczema posted by parents/carers on two UK-based discussion forums...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Matthew J Mimiaga, Elizabeth F Closson, Shanice Battle, Jeffrey H Herbst, Damian Denson, Nicole Pitts, Jeremy Holman, Stewart Landers, Gordon Mansergh
Men who have sex with men (MSM) of color are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using antiretroviral medications is a newer biomedical prevention modality with established efficacy for reducing the risk of acquiring HIV. We conducted formative qualitative research to explore audience reactions and receptivity to message concepts on PrEP as part of the development of prevention messages to promote PrEP awareness among black and Latino MSM in the United States...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
A Rosén, J Yi, I Kirsch, T J Kaptchuk, M Ingvar, K B Jensen
BACKGROUND: Expectancy is widely accepted as a key contributor to placebo effects. However, it is not known whether non-conscious expectancies achieved through semantic priming may contribute to placebo analgesia. In this study, we investigated if an implicit priming procedure, where participants were unaware of the intended priming influence, affected placebo analgesia. METHODS: In a double-blind experiment, healthy participants (n = 36) were randomized to different implicit priming types; one aimed at increasing positive expectations and one neutral control condition...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Susmita Chatterjee, Manish Pant, Pradeep Haldar, Mahesh Kumar Aggarwal, Ramanan Laxminarayan
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: India's Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is one of the largest programmes in the world in terms of quantities of vaccines administered, number of beneficiaries, number of immunization sessions, and geographical extent and diversity of areas covered. Strategic planning for the Programme requires credible information on the cost of achieving the objectives and the financial resources needed at national, State, and district levels. We present here expenditures on immunization services in India in 2012 (baseline) and projected costs for five years (2013-2017)...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
S McDougall, C W R Compton, N Botha
AIMS: To determine the factors associated with the selection of antimicrobials by dairy veterinarians, and the attitudes of those veterinarians and dairy farmers to antimicrobial usage and resistance. METHODS: Facilitated focus groups of dairy farmers (n=22) and an anonymous online survey of dairy cattle veterinarians (n=206 respondents) were used to determine prescribing behaviour, factors affecting prescribing of antimicrobials, and the attitudes of veterinarians and farmers to the use of antimicrobials and the risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR)...
October 16, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Charles DiMaggio, Stephen Mooney, Spiros Frangos, Stephen Wall
BACKGROUND: Pedestrian and bicyclist injury is an important public health issue. The retail environment, particularly the presence of alcohol outlets, may contribute the the risk of pedestrian or bicyclist injury, but this association is poorly understood. METHODS: This study quantifies the spatial risk of alcohol-related pedestrian injury in New York City at the census tract level over a recent 10-year period using a Bayesian hierarchical spatial regression model with Integrated Nested Laplace approximations...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
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