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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222151/bayesian-stock-assessment-of-pacific-herring-in-prince-william-sound-alaska
#1
Melissa L Muradian, Trevor A Branch, Steven D Moffitt, Peter-John F Hulson
The Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) population in Prince William Sound, Alaska crashed in 1993 and has yet to recover, affecting food web dynamics in the Sound and impacting Alaskan communities. To help researchers design and implement the most effective monitoring, management, and recovery programs, a Bayesian assessment of Prince William Sound herring was developed by reformulating the current model used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The Bayesian model estimated pre-fishery spawning biomass of herring age-3 and older in 2013 to be a median of 19,410 mt (95% credibility interval 12,150-31,740 mt), with a 54% probability that biomass in 2013 was below the management limit used to regulate fisheries in Prince William Sound...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222083/patients-experiences-with-multiple-myeloma-a-meta-aggregation-of-qualitative-studies
#2
Brynja Hauksdóttir, Marianne E Klinke, Sigríður Gunnarsdóttir, Kristín Björnsdóttir
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: To systematically review qualitative evidence regarding patients' experiences of living with multiple myeloma. The main objective was to gain structured understanding of this experience, which is a prerequisite for advancing nursing care and ensuring it is effective.
. LITERATURE SEARCH: Qualitative research articles from January 2005 to March 2016 were located in CINAHL®, PubMed, and Scopus. Supplementary resources were found by scrutinizing reference lists and performing citation tracking...
March 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220448/multidimensional-treatment-of-cancer-pain
#3
REVIEW
Weiyang Christopher Liu, Zhong Xi Zheng, Kian Hian Tan, Gregory J Meredith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Though numerous treatment options are available to address cancer pain, inadequate management continues to be an ongoing problem worldwide. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic review of the recent scientific literature was conducted with attention to new therapies along with reports of general consensus that were analyzed. Pain research continues to be difficult and though numerous guidelines have been developed, adequate powered studies are not common...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220328/the-provision-of-dietary-and-physical-activity-advice-for-men-diagnosed-with-prostate-cancer-a-qualitative-study-of-the-experiences-and-views-of-health-care-professionals-patients-and-partners
#4
Eileen Sutton, Lucy E Hackshaw-McGeagh, Jonathan Aning, Amit Bahl, Anthony Koupparis, Raj Persad, Richard M Martin, J Athene Lane
PURPOSE: To explore the views and experiences of health care professionals (HCPs), men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer and their partners about the provision of advice on diet and physical activity after diagnosis and treatment for localised prostate cancer. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews with ten HCPs (Consultant Urological Surgeons, Uro-Oncology Clinical Nurse Specialists and Allied Health Professionals: see Table 1) and sixteen men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer and seven of their partners...
February 20, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218160/research-misconduct-a-neglected-plague
#5
REVIEW
Manjiri A Deshmukh, Arun S Dodamani, Mahesh R Khairnar, Rahul G Naik
Truthfulness and honesty are absolute essentials of research. But to sustain in the not-so-pleasant "publish-or-perish" environment and "cut-throat" competition to increase the credibility associated with one's name, many individual researchers as well as research groups are turning towards research misconduct and this plague is gradually reaching epidemic and pandemic proportions. This overview highlights the various types and means of research misconduct and gives suggestions aiming to curb this academic menace so that research sanctity and integrity can be preserved and scientific research does not get polluted by the dirt of misreported or fabricated data...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217934/population-dynamics-of-wild-rodents-induce-stochastic-fadeouts-of-a-zoonotic-pathogen
#6
Giorgio Guzzetta, Valentina Tagliapietra, Sarah E Perkins, Heidi C Hauffe, Piero Poletti, Stefano Merler, Annapaola Rizzoli
Stochastic processes play an important role in the infectious disease dynamics of wildlife, especially in species subject to large population oscillations. Here we study the case of a free ranging population of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) in northern Italy, where circulation of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus (DOBV) has been detected intermittently since 2001, until an outbreak emerged in 2010. We analyzed the transmission dynamics of the recent outbreak using a computational model that accounts for seasonal changes of the host population and territorial behavior...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213940/estimating-mating-rates-in-wild-drosophila-melanogaster-females-by-decay-rates-of-male-reproductive-proteins-in-their-reproductive-tracts
#7
Thomas J Giardina, Andrew G Clark, Anthony C Fiumera
Female Drosophila melanogaster frequently mate with multiple males in nature as shown through parentage analysis. Although polyandry is well documented, we know little about the timing between mating events in wild Drosophila populations due to the challenge of following behaviors of individual females. In this study we used the presence of a male reproductive protein that is transferred to the female during mating (Sex Peptide, SP) to determine whether she had recently mated. We sampled females throughout the day, conducted control matings to determine the decay rate of SP within the female reproductive tract and performed computer simulations to fit the observed proportion of mated females to a non-homogenous Poisson process that defined the expected time between successive matings for a given female...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213874/disease-burden-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-in-the-netherlands-1989-2014-the-gap-between-females-and-males-is-diminishing
#8
Scott A McDonald, Venetia Qendri, Johannes Berkhof, Hester E de Melker, Johannes A Bogaards
PURPOSE: Besides cervical cancer, HPV infection is linked to a multitude of diseases in both males and females, suggesting that vaccination programmes should be re-evaluated, with a judicious assessment made of the disease burden stratified by sex, age, and genotype. Projections of burden into the near future are also needed to provide a benchmark for evaluating the impact of vaccination programmes, and to assess the need for scaling-up preventive measures. METHODS: Using the disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) measure, we estimated the total HPV-associated disease burden in the Netherlands...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212677/fit-for-purpose-perspectives-on-rapid-reviews-from-end-user-interviews
#9
Lisa Hartling, Jeanne-Marie Guise, Susanne Hempel, Robin Featherstone, Matthew D Mitchell, Makalapua L Motu'apuaka, Karen A Robinson, Karen Schoelles, Annette Totten, Evelyn Whitlock, Timothy J Wilt, Johanna Anderson, Elise Berliner, Aysegul Gozu, Elisabeth Kato, Robin Paynter, Craig A Umscheid
BACKGROUND: There is increasing demand for rapid reviews and timely evidence synthesis. The goal of this project was to understand end-user perspectives on the utility and limitations of rapid products including evidence inventories, rapid responses, and rapid reviews. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with key informants representing: guideline developers (n = 3), health care providers/health system organizations (n = 3), research funders (n = 1), and payers/health insurers (n = 1)...
February 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211839/use-of-speech-generating-devices-can-improve-perception-of-qualifications-for-skilled-verbal-and-interactive-jobs
#10
Steven E Stern, Chelsea M Chobany, Alexander A Beam, Brittany N Hoover, Thomas T Hull, Melissa Linsenbigler, Courtney Makdad-Light, Courtney N Rubright
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that when speech generating devices (SGD) are used as assistive technologies, they are preferred over the users' natural voices. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether using SGDs would affect listener's perceptions of hirability of people with complex communication needs. METHODS: In a series of three experiments, participants rated videotaped actors, one using SGD and the other using their natural, mildly dysarthric voice, on (a) a measurement of perceptions of speaker credibility, strength, and informedness and (b) measurements of hirability for jobs coded in terms of skill, verbal ability, and interactivity...
February 17, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210100/the-cost-effectiveness-of-a-nsclc-patient-assistance-program-for-pemetrexed-maintenance-therapy-in-people-s-republic-of-china
#11
Qiang Shi, Shanlian Hu, Wesley E Furnback, Gregory F Guzauskas, Jiejing Shen, Bruce Cm Wang
BACKGROUND: Eli Lilly and the China Primary Health Care Foundation are currently implementing a patient assistance program (PAP) in China, which allows first-line nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who complete four cycles of pemetrexed induction therapy to receive free, continuous pemetrexed maintenance therapy. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of pemetrexed maintenance therapy vs basic standard care (BSC) and the economic impacts of providing a PAP for pemetrexed maintenance therapy to NSCLC patients who have completed pemetrexed induction therapy in a Chinese health care setting...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202952/imputation-approach-for-deducing-a-complete-mitogenome-sequence-from-low-depth-coverage-next-generation-sequencing-data-application-to-ancient-remains-from-the-moon-pyramid-mexico
#12
Fuzuki Mizuno, Masahiko Kumagai, Kunihiko Kurosaki, Michiko Hayashi, Saburo Sugiyama, Shintaroh Ueda, Li Wang
It is considered that more than 15 depths of coverage are necessary for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data to obtain reliable complete nucleotide sequences of the mitogenome. However, it is difficult to satisfy this requirement for all nucleotide positions because of problems obtaining a uniform depth of coverage for poorly preserved materials. Thus, we propose an imputation approach that allows a complete mitogenome sequence to be deduced from low-depth-coverage NGS data. We used different types of mitogenome data files as panels for imputation: a worldwide panel comprising all the major haplogroups, a worldwide panel comprising sequences belonging to the estimated haplogroup alone, a panel comprising sequences from the population most closely related to an individual under investigation, and a panel comprising sequences belonging to the estimated haplogroup from the population most closely related to an individual under investigation...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202934/the-food-industry-and-conflicts-of-interest-in-nutrition-research-a-latin-american-perspective
#13
Joaquin Barnoya, Marion Nestle
Conflicts of interest arise when corporations marketing harmful products establish financial relationships with research institutions, researchers, or public health organizations. As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, such relationships threaten to jeopardize the integrity of scientific research. Latin America, a region undergoing rapid development, is particularly vulnerable to such conflicts. Here, we provide examples of how food and beverage companies are funding nutrition-focused research and institutions in Latin America, putting their credibility at risk...
December 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198052/how-can-we-conceptualize-behavioural-addiction-without-pathologizing-common-behaviours
#14
Daniel Kardefelt-Winther, Alexandre Heeren, Adriano Schimmenti, Antonius van Rooij, Pierre Maurage, Michelle Carras, Johan Edman, Alexander Blaszczynski, Yasser Khazaal, Joël Billieux
Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction...
February 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196931/minimally-important-differences-in-patient-or-proxy-reported-outcome-studies-relevant-to-children-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Shanil Ebrahim, Kelsey Vercammen, Arunima Sivanand, Gordon H Guyatt, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Ricardo M Fernandes, Mark W Crawford, Gihad Nesrallah, Bradley C Johnston
CONTEXT: No study has characterized and appraised all anchor-based minimally important differences (MIDs) associated with patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments in pediatric studies. OBJECTIVE: To complete a comprehensive systematic survey and appraisal of published anchor-based MIDs associated with PRO instruments used in children. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO (1989 to February 11, 2015). STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting empirical ascertainment of anchor-based MIDs among PROs used in pediatric care...
February 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196849/a-population-based-study-of-sociodemographic-and-geographic-variation-in-hpv-vaccination
#16
Lila J Finney Rutten, Patrick M Wilson, Debra J Jacobson, Amenah A Agunwamba, Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Robert M Jacobson, Jennifer L St Sauver
BACKGROUND: HPV vaccination rates in the U.S. remain low and lag behind other recommended adolescent vaccines. Studies evaluating the association of geographic and area-level characteristics with HPV vaccination rates provide a valuable resource for public health planning. METHOD: We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project data linkage system to ascertain HPV vaccination rates between 2010 and 2015 in a 7-county region of southern MN. Geocoded individual patient data was spatially linked to socioeconomic data from the American Community Survey at the census block group level...
February 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196475/nutrition-and-dementia-care-developing-an-evidence-based-model-for-nutritional-care-in-nursing-homes
#17
Jane L Murphy, Joanne Holmes, Cindy Brooks
BACKGROUND: There is a growing volume of research to offer improvements in nutritional care for people with dementia living in nursing homes. Whilst a number of interventions have been identified to support food and drink intake, there has been no systematic research to understand the factors for improving nutritional care from the perspectives of all those delivering care in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to develop a research informed model for understanding the complex nutritional problems associated with eating and drinking for people with dementia...
February 14, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195777/hiv-prevention-opportunities-with-gps-based-social-and-sexual-networking-applications-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#18
Wendasha Jenkins Hall, Christina J Sun, Amanda E Tanner, Lilli Mann, Jason Stowers, Scott D Rhodes
The goal of this study was to gain insight on the sexual health needs of men who have sex with men (MSM) who use GPS-based social and sexual networking mobile applications (apps) and the future utility of app-based interventions. A health educator promoted HIV-testing resources in four popular apps used by MSM. Content analysis was used to identify salient themes that emerged from the conversations. Four major themes were identified: (1) soliciting sexual encounters, (2) relationship building, (3) HIV and STI-testing inquiries, and (4) seeking other sexual health information...
February 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195345/in-vivo-measurements-of-human-neck-skin-elasticity-using-mri-and-finite-element-modeling
#19
Yunqiang An, Changjin Ji, Yong Li, Jianxia Wang, Xinyue Zhang, Yaqi Huang
PURPOSE: The assessment of mechanical properties of the human skin is very important in investigating the mechanism of obstructive sleep apnea, a common disorder characterized by repetitive collapse and obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. In this study, a unique method, combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and finite element modeling (FEM), was developed to obtain the value of the in vivo elastic modulus of the neck skin. MEHTHOD: A total of 22 subjects, 16 males and 6 females, were recruited to participate in the MRI studies...
February 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193551/a-gibbs-sampling-method-to-determine-biomarkers-for-asthma
#20
Zhi-Jian Huang, Qin-Hai Shen, Yan-Sheng Wu, Ya-Li Huang
PURPOSE: To identify potential biomarkers and to uncover the mechanisms underlying asthma based on Gibbs sampling. METHODS: The molecular functions (MFs) with genes greater than 5 were determined using AnnotationMFGO of BAGS package, and the obtained MFs were then transformed to Markov chain (MC). Gibbs sampling was conducted to obtain a new MC. Meanwhile, the average probabilities of MFs were computed via MC Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm, followed by identification of differentially expressed MFs based on the probabilities of MF more than 0...
January 22, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
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