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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627349/recurrent-ethylene-glycol-poisoning-with-elevated-lactate-levels-to-obtain-opioid-medications
#1
Matthew Zuckerman, Tim Vo
BACKGROUND: Malingering is when a patient feigns illness for secondary gain. While most patients with malingering manufacture or exaggerate symptoms, some patients may induce illness. Previous reports of malingering patients inducing illness include sepsis, kidney pain, migraine, and chest pain. However, acute poisoning as a manifestation of malingering appears to be rare. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 39-year-old man who presented to the emergency department complaining of diffuse body pain...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590406/medical-evaluation-board-involvement-non-credible-cognitive-testing-and-emotional-response-bias-in-concussed-service-members
#2
Scott R Mooney, Jane Stafford, Elizabeth Seats
Introduction: Military Service Members (SMs) with post-concussive symptoms are commonly referred for further evaluation and possible treatment to Department of Defense Traumatic Brain Injury Clinics where neuropsychological screening/evaluations are being conducted. Understudied to date, the base rates of noncredible task engagement/performance validity testing (PVT) during cognitive screening/evaluations in military settings appears to be high. The current study objectives are to: (1) examine the base rates of noncredible PVTs of SMs undergoing routine clinical or Medical Evaluation Board (MEB) related workups using multiple objective performance-based indicators; (2) determine whether involvement in MEB is associated with PVT or symptom exaggeration/symptom validity testing (SVT) results; (3) elucidate which psychiatric symptoms are associated with noncredible PVT performances; and (4) determine whether MEB participation moderates the relationship between psychological symptom exaggeration and whether or not SM goes on to demonstrate PVTs failures - or vice versa...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577785/botulism-in-pregnancy-a-clinical-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#3
Bassam H Rimawi
Botulism is a life-threatening toxin mediated disease that often presents with a sudden rapid onset of paralysis of their skeletal muscles with subsequent respiratory compromise and sudden death. Given the natural physiological changes during pregnancy, pregnant women with botulism may experience a more exaggerated course and have worse outcomes compared to nonpregnant women. Medical providers caring for such patients should not only maintain a high level of suspicion for botulism, but administration of an antitoxin early in their care can help reduce morbidity and mortality, while awaiting confirmatory laboratory results...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576731/aggressiveness-violence-homicidality-homicide-and-lyme-disease
#4
Robert C Bransfield
Background: No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD). Materials and methods: Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Results: Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575406/knee-high-compression-socks-minimize-head-up-tilt-induced-cerebral-and-cardiovascular-responses-following-dynamic-exercise
#5
Tristan W Dorey, Myles W O'Brien, Susan A Robinson, Derek S Kimmerly
INTRODUCTION: In healthy individuals during a non-exercised state, knee-high compression socks (CS) may reduce the magnitude of lower limb venous pooling during orthostasis but are not effective at minimizing the incidence of presyncopal symptoms. However, exaggerated reductions in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBV), and cardiac stroke volume (SV) occur during passive head-up tilt (HUT) testing following dynamic exercise. It is unknown if CS can minimize post-exercise HUT-induced decrements in CBV and SV in this population...
March 25, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554985/interpersonal-processes-in-paranoia-a-systematic-review
#6
Susanne F Meisel, Philippa A Garety, Daniel Stahl, Lucia R Valmaggia
Paranoid ideation is a core feature of psychosis, and models of paranoia have long proposed that it arises in the context of disturbances in the perception of the self. However, to develop targeted interventions, there is a benefit in clarifying further, which aspects of self-perception are implicated. Interpersonal sensitivity is a personality trait which has been associated with the risk of paranoid thinking in the general population. However, not all studies have found this link. We aimed to review the empirical literature assessing the association between interpersonal sensitivity and paranoia in both general population and clinical samples; and to explore if associations found differed depending on whether state or trait paranoia was assessed...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526172/investigating-ethnic-variations-in-reporting-of-psychotic-symptoms-a-multiple-group-confirmatory-factor-analysis-of-the-psychosis-screening-questionnaire
#7
Hein Heuvelman, James Nazroo, Dheeraj Rai
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests risk for psychosis varies with ethnicity in Western countries. However, there is little evidence to date on the cross-cultural validity of screening instruments used for such comparisons. METHODS: Combining two existing UK population-based cohorts, we examined risk for reporting psychotic symptoms across White British (n = 3467), White Irish (n = 851), Caribbean (n = 1899), Indian (n = 2590), Pakistani (n = 1956) and Bangladeshi groups (n = 1248)...
March 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516171/tomato-ve-resistance-locus-defense-or-growth
#8
Ross N Nazar, Xin Xu, Hakeem Shittu, Alexander Kurosky, Jane Robb
Verticillium colonization does induce a cascade of defense/stress proteins but the Ve1 gene also promotes enhanced root growth, which appears to allow the plant to outgrow the pathogen and avoid symptoms associated with an exaggerated defense response. In tomato, the Ve1 gene provides resistance to the vascular pathogen, Verticillium dahliae, race 1; ve1 plants are susceptible. However, the physiological basis of the resistance is unknown. While developing alternative lines of mutant Ve1 gene transformants to address this question a striking difference was observed in transformation frequency resulting from the inefficient rooting of plantlets from ve1 callus relative to Ve1 callus...
March 7, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499561/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-trpv4-expression-on-the-nerve-fibers-of-human-dental-pulp-is-upregulated-under-inflammatory-condition
#9
Marina M Bakri, Farhana Yahya, Khalil Munawar Makhdum Munawar, Junichi Kitagawa, Mohammad Zakir Hossain
OBJECTIVE: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) has been considered as a mechano-, thermo- and osmo-receptor. Under inflammatory conditions in dental pulp, teeth can become sensitive upon exposure to a variety of innocuous stimuli. The objective of the present study was to investigate the expression of the TRPV4 channel on nerve fibers in human dental pulp of non-symptomatic and symptomatic teeth associated with inflammatory conditions. DESIGN: Dental pulp from extracted human permanent teeth was processed for fluorescence immunohistochemistry...
February 21, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468166/suspicion-of-postanesthetic-femoral-paralysis-of-the-non-dependent-limb-in-a-horse
#10
Alessandro Mirra, Micaël David Klopfenstein Bregger, Olivier Louis Levionnois
A 15-year-old Selle Francais gelding was presented to the equine referral hospital for treatment of a left guttural pouch mycosis previously diagnosed. After induction, the horse was shortly hoisted by all four feet, moved on a padded surgical table, and positioned in right lateral recumbency. In order to reduce the risk of bleeding during surgical manipulation of the carotid and maxillary arteries, a mean arterial pressure between 60 and 70 mmHg was targeted. After surgery, the horse was moved in a padded recovery box keeping the same lateral recumbency...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464188/glycine-receptor-modulating-antibody-predicting-treatable-stiff-person-spectrum-disorders
#11
Shannon R Hinson, A Sebastian Lopez-Chiriboga, James H Bower, Joseph Y Matsumoto, Anhar Hassan, Eati Basal, Vanda A Lennon, Sean J Pittock, Andrew McKeon
Background: Glycine receptor alpha-1 subunit (GlyRα1)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) is diagnostic of stiff-person syndrome (SPS) spectrum but has been reported detectable in other neurologic diseases for which significance is less certain. Methods: To assess GlyRα1-IgGs as biomarkers of SPS spectrum among patients and controls, specimens were tested using cell-based assays (binding [4°C] and modulating [antigen endocytosing, 37°C]). Medical records of seropositive patients were reviewed...
March 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460826/defining-clinical-posturographic-and-intra-posturographic-discordances-what-do-these-two-concepts-mean
#12
REVIEW
Philippe Perrin, Art Mallinson, Christian Van Nechel, Laetitia Peultier-Celli, Hannes Petersen, Mans Magnusson, Herman Kingma, Raphaël Maire
The European Society for Clinical Evaluation of Balance Disorders - ESCEBD - Executive Committee meets yearly to identify and address clinical equilibrium problems that are not yet well understood. This particular discussion addressed "discordances" (defined as "lack of agreement") in clinical assessment. Sometimes there is disagreement between a clinical assessment and measured abnormality (ies); sometimes the results within the assessment do not agree. This is sometimes thought of as "malingering" or an attempt to exaggerate what is wrong, but this is not always the case...
February 20, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458924/effect-of-olfactory-stimulation-with-essential-oils-on-cardiovascular-reactivity-during-the-moving-beans-task-in-stroke-patients-with-anxiety
#13
Kazuaki Iokawa, Masahiro Kohzuki, Toshimasa Sone, Satoru Ebihara
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of olfactory stimulation with essential oils on cardiovascular reactivity during the "moving beans" rehabilitation task in stroke patients with anxiety. METHODS: Twenty-eight stroke patients participated in this study. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after finger movement tasks (e.g., moving beans and the Purdue pegboard test). Olfactory stimulation with lavender oil, grapefruit oil, and distilled water were conducted during finger tasks...
February 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425773/cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-peptide-cart-alleviates-mk-801-induced-schizophrenic-dementia-like-symptoms
#14
Chandrashekhar D Borkar, Ashish P Bharne, B Nagalakshmi, Amul J Sakharkar, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Exaggerated thoughts, diminished mood and impaired cognition are the hallmarks of the schizophrenia-like condition. These symptoms are attributed to the dysregulation of dopamine and glutamate signaling in the brain. Since cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) modulates actions of dopamine as well as glutamate, we tested the role of this peptide in MK-801-induced schizophrenic dementia-like condition. MK-801-treated rats were allowed to interact with conspecific juvenile and tested for short-term (30-min) and long-term (24-h) social memory acquisition and recall...
April 1, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388694/an-extension-of-the-perseverative-cognition-hypothesis-to-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptomatology-cardiovascular-recovery-in-relation-to-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-severity-and-cognitive-appraisals-of-stress
#15
Jeffrey L Kibler
Beyond the construct of cardiovascular reactivity, the measurement of cardiovascular recovery from stress represents an important index of exaggerated physiological arousal and disease risk. Cardiovascular recovery in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not received adequate attention. The present study examined whether cardiovascular recovery following an oral speaking stressor was associated with the severity of PTSD symptoms, and whether cognitive stress appraisals of threat and challenge were significantly associated with PTSD severity and recovery...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382814/social-affective-context-reveals-altered-network-dynamics-in-schizophrenia-patients
#16
Talma Hendler, Gal Raz, Solnik Shimrit, Yael Jacob, Tamar Lin, Leor Roseman, Wahid Madah Wahid, Ilana Kremer, Marina Kupchik, Moshe Kotler, Maya Bleich-Cohen
Impairments in social cognition and interactions are core psychopathologies in schizophrenia, often manifesting as an inability to appropriately relate to the intentions and feelings of others. Neuroimaging has helped to demarcate the dynamics of two distinct functional connectivity circuits underlying the social-affective processes related to mentalization (known as Theory of Mind, ToM) and somatic-affiliation (known as Embodied Simulation, ES). While evidence points to abnormal activation patterns within these networks among those suffering from schizophrenia, it is yet unclear however, if these patients exhibit this abnormal functional connectivity in the context of social-affective experiences...
January 31, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382712/corticosterone-production-during-repeated-social-defeat-causes-monocyte-mobilization-from-the-bone-marrow-glucocorticoid-resistance-and-neurovascular-adhesion-molecule-expression
#17
Anzela Niraula, Yufen Wang, Jonathan P Godbout, John F Sheridan
Repeated social defeat (RSD) stress promotes the release of bone marrow-derived monocytes into circulation that are recruited to the brain, where they augment neuroinflammation and cause prolonged anxiety-like behavior. Physiological stress activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis, and both of these systems play a role in the physiological, immunological, and behavioral responses to stress. The purpose of this study was to delineate the role of HPA activation and corticosterone production in the immunological responses to stress in male C57/BL6 mice...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381817/oscillatory-activity-in-the-cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamic-neural-circuits-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Arun Singh
Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter that maintains the balance within the basal ganglia between the direct pathway, which promotes movement, and the indirect pathway, which inhibits movement. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra increases the influence of the indirect pathway, resulting in motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). The direct and indirect pathways are composed of cortical areas, basal ganglia, and thalamic nuclei, which are interconnected via independent parallel loop circuits and often referred to as cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic (CBT) neural circuits...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379734/botulinum-toxin-and-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#19
REVIEW
Lay Guat Ng
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a clinical condition where lower urinary tract symptoms are caused by both a physically obstructing prostate as well as tight smooth muscles around the bladder outlet. Treatment of this condition with botulinum toxin has been used since 2003, but this interest has somewhat died down after two large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing equivalence of results between their treatment and placebo arms. However, with review of animal studies and unexplained exaggerated effect of the placebo arms of the two RCTs, together with recent data of sustained benefits after 18 months of treatment, the place of botulinum toxin in the BPH field is probably still present...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343965/postural-tachycardia-syndrome-current-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Rachel Wells, Andrew J Spurrier, Dominik Linz, Celine Gallagher, Rajiv Mahajan, Prashanthan Sanders, Amanda Page, Dennis H Lau
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is the combination of an exaggerated heart rate response to standing, in association with symptoms of lightheadedness or pre-syncope that improve when recumbent. The condition is often associated with fatigue and brain fog, resulting in significant disruptions at a critical time of diagnosis in adolescence and young adulthood. The heterogeneity of the underlying pathophysiology and the variable response to therapeutic interventions make management of this condition challenging for both patients and physicians alike...
2018: Vascular Health and Risk Management
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