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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886306/a-network-analysis-of-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-functional-impairment-in-uk-treatment-seeking-veterans
#1
Jana Ross, Dominic Murphy, Cherie Armour
Network analysis is a relatively new methodology for studying psychological disorders. It focuses on the associations between individual symptoms which are hypothesized to mutually interact with each other. The current study represents the first network analysis conducted with treatment-seeking military veterans in UK. The study aimed to examine the network structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and four domains of functional impairment by identifying the most central (i.e., important) symptoms of PTSD and by identifying those symptoms of PTSD that are related to functional impairment...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879885/vagal-stimulation-facilitates-improving-effects-of-ranolazine-on-cardiac-function-in-rats-with-chronic-ischemic-heart-failure
#2
S Teng, Z Ren, K Zhao
Ranolazine is generally used to treat anginal symptoms for patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina pectoris. By improving ischemia-reperfusion, ranolazine is also observed to have protective effects on myocardial ischemic injury in animal models. It is noteworthy to find interventions that can decrease adverse effects of this drug and thereby increase its clinical application. Thus, in this report we used a rat model of chronic ischemic heart failure (CHF) to examine if vagal stimulation can strengthen the effects of ranolazine on worsened cardiac function in CHF...
June 7, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873075/caspase-1-activity-influences-juvenile-batten-disease-cln3-pathogenesis
#3
Maria Burkovetskaya, Megan E Bosch, Nikolay Karpuk, Rachel Fallet, Tammy Kielian
Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in CLN3. Symptoms appear between 5-10 years of age, beginning with blindness and seizures, followed by progressive cognitive and motor decline, and premature death. Glial activation and impaired neuronal activity are early signs of pathology in the Cln3Δex7/8 mouse model of JNCL, whereas neuron death occurs much later in the disease process. We previously reported that Cln3Δex7/8 microglia are primed towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype typified by exaggerated caspase-1 inflammasome activation and here we extend those findings to demonstrate heightened caspase activity in the Cln3Δex7/8 mouse brain...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870423/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptom-association-with-subsequent-risky-and-problem-drinking-initiation
#4
Kara M Bensley, Amber D Seelig, Richard F Armenta, Anna C Rivera, Arthur V Peterson, Isabel G Jacobson, Alyson J Littman, Charles Maynard, Jonathan B Bricker, Edward J Boyko, Rudolph P Rull, Emily C Williams
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and unhealthy alcohol use are commonly associated conditions. It is unknown whether specific symptoms of PTSD are associated with subsequent initiation of unhealthy alcohol use. METHODS: Data from the first 3 enrollment panels (n = 151,567) of the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study of military personnel were analyzed (2001-2012). Complementary log-log models were fit to estimate whether specific PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters were associated with subsequent initiation of 2 domains of unhealthy alcohol use: risky and problem drinking (experience of 1 or more alcohol-related consequences)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865932/detection-of-symptom-over-reporting-on-the-neurobehavioral-symptom-inventory-in-oef-oif-ond-veterans-with-history-of-mild-tbi
#5
Anjuli S Bodapati, Hannah L Combs, Nicholas J Pastorek, Brian Miller, Maya Troyanskaya, Jennifer Romesser, Anita Sim, John Linck
OBJECTIVE: As part of routine care at Veterans Affairs facilities, veterans with a service-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) are administered a self-report post-concussive symptom measure, the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). Interpreting the NSI can be problematic given that over-reporting on self-report measures is often found in both civilian and military patient populations. This study investigates embedded scales on the NSI that identify possible and probable symptom exaggeration...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850866/the-minnesota-multiphasic-personality-inventory-2-rf-in-treatment-seeking-veterans-with-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
S M Jurick, L D Crocker, A V Keller, S N Hoffman, J Bomyea, M W Jacobson, A J Jak
Objective: This study examined the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second Edition-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) to better understand symptom presentation in a sample of treatment-seeking Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with self-reported history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Method: Participants underwent a comprehensive clinical neuropsychological battery including performance and symptom validity measures and self-report measures of depressive, posttraumatic, and post-concussive symptomatology...
May 30, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849262/exaggerated-arthropod-bite-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-mimics
#7
Sagah Ahmed, Elaine Bromberek, Joelle Borhart
Exaggerated arthropod bite reactions causing hemorrhagic or necrotic bullous lesions can mimic other serious conditions such as cutaneous anthrax, brown recluse spider bite, and tularemia. A 55- year-old, healthy woman presented to the emergency department with a 3.5-centimeter painless, collapsed hemorrhagic bulla at the left costal margin. She was afebrile and had no systemic symptoms. Laboratory evaluation was unremarkable. She was prescribed silver sulfadiazine cream and mupirocin ointment. The area denuded two days later and the lesion completely healed...
February 2018: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783010/translaminar-approach-for-treatment-of-hidden-zone-foraminal-lumbar-disc-herniations-considerations-on-the-surgical-technique-and-pre-operative-selection-of-patients-with-a-long-term-follow-up
#8
Christian Cossandi, Andrea Fanti, Andrea Gerosa, Andrea Bianco, Riccardo Fornaro, Emanuela Crobeddu, Sara Forgnone, Gabriele Panzarasa, Andrea Di Cristofori
BACKGROUND: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common degenerative disease of the lumbar spine with a prevalence of 1-3% in population studies according to some authors. In 10% of patients there is a fragment migrated cranially in the Macnab's "hidden zone". In selected cases, this fragment can be removed with a translaminar approach that has been described in 1998. Aim of our work is to provide a detailed description of the technical advantages and pitfalls of such approach reviewing a consecutive series of patients...
May 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744124/neurological-disorders-caused-by-two-cerebral-alveolar-hydatid-cysts-in-an-old-woman-a-rare-case-report
#9
Hossein Mokhtari, Mohammadamin Sadeghdoust, Farnaz Aligolighasemabadi, Amirhossein Hashemiattar, Vahid Ariabod, Saied Rahighi
Alveolar hydatid disease, caused by Echinococcus multilocularis , is a life-threatening infectious disease which primarily occurs in the liver. Intracranial hydatid disease is a rare presentation with reported incidence of ~1% of all cases. Here we reported a 60-year-old woman, with the past history of hydatid cysts in her liver, who was presented to us with progressive symptoms consist of headaches, diminished vision, cognitive disorders and delusion. She was disoriented in time, space and person. Bilateral mild papilledema and exaggerated reflexes were observed...
August 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743575/delayed-and-progressive-damages-to-juvenile-mice-after-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Shu Zhao, Xiaoting Wang, Xiang Gao, Jinhui Chen
Symptoms are commonly more severe in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients than in young adult TBI patients. To understand the mechanism, juvenile mice received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury at moderate level. Tissue lesion and cell death were measured and compared to our previous reports on brain injury in the young adult mice that received same level of impact using same injury device. Tissue lesion and cell death in the cortex was much less in the juvenile mouse brain in the first few hours after injury...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742462/the-link-between-interoceptive-processing-and-anxiety-in-children-diagnosed-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-extending-adult-findings-into-a-developmental-sample
#11
E R Palser, A Fotopoulou, E Pellicano, J M Kilner
Anxiety is a major associated feature of autism spectrum disorders. The incidence of anxiety symptoms in this population has been associated with altered interoceptive processing. Here, we investigated whether recent findings of impaired interoceptive accuracy (quantified using heartbeat detection tasks) and exaggerated interoceptive sensibility (subjective sensitivity to internal sensations on self-report questionnaires) in autistic adults, can be extended into a school-age sample of children and adolescents (n = 75)...
May 6, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734226/functional-neuroanatomy-of-emotion-and-its-regulation-in-ptsd
#12
Jacklynn M Fitzgerald, Julia A DiGangi, K Luan Phan
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating disorder, linked to profound mental, physical, occupational, and functional impairment. In addition, it is a highly complex disorder, characterized by symptom heterogeneity across multiple domains. Nevertheless, emotion dysregulation arising from the exaggerated response to threat or from the inability to regulate negative emotional states plays a defining role in the pathophysiology of PTSD. In order to improve our understanding of how emotion dysregulation manifests in this illness, functional neuroimaging research over the past 20 years provides great insight into underlying neuroanatomy of each component of emotion dysregulation in the context of PTSD...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729828/insula-activation-is-modulated-by-attention-shifting-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#13
Elizabeth R Duval, Sonalee A Joshi, Stefanie Russman Block, James L Abelson, Israel Liberzon
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by exaggerated reactivity to social threat, often documented by biased attention to threatening information, and increased activation in brain regions involved in salience/threat processing. Attention training has been developed to ameliorate the attention bias documented in individuals with SAD, with mixed results. We investigated patterns of brain activation underlying acute attention modulation in 41 participants (29 with SAD and 12 health controls). We then investigated how brain activation changed over time in both groups in response to a 4-session attention training protocol (toward threat, away from threat, no-training control)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717901/faking-good-an-investigation-of-social-desirability-and-defensiveness-in-an-inpatient-sample-with-personality-disorder-traits
#14
Margot M Williams, Richard Rogers, Allyson J Sharf, Colin A Ross
Accurate interpretations of psychological assessments rely heavily on forthright reporting. However, researchers and practitioners recognize that examinees can easily invalidate their test results by underreporting symptoms or overstating positive attributes. Rogers (2008) delineated two distinct but related forms of positive impression management (PIM): defensiveness (denying symptoms and psychological impairment) and social desirability (putting forth an exaggeratedly positive image). Although these two have often been combined in past research, this study sought to investigate each separately via a mixed within- and between-subjects simulation design...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709541/the-physiological-orienting-response-in-female-adolescents-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#15
Julian Koenig, Romuald Brunner, Peter Parzer, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
BACKGROUND: The reflexive startle- and orienting-response have been widely studied in psychiatric disorders. Existing evidence in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is mixed, and limited to adults. The present study addressed clinical correlates of the psychophysiological orienting response in adolescents with BPD. METHODS: Female adolescents (13-19 years) with BPD (n = 30), healthy controls (HC; n = 34), and psychiatric clinical controls (CC; n = 53) participated in the trial...
April 27, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704130/recurrent-corneal-erosion-caused-by-retained-sutures-in-blepharoplasty
#16
I-Hsin Ma, Bo-I Kuo, Yu-Chih Hou
PURPOSE: To present recurrent corneal erosion (RCE) caused by late suture exposure after blepharoplasty. METHODS: Four patients who have unilateral RCE were found to have previous blepharoplasty. The RCE was associated with late suture exposure. The clinical courses, characteristics, methods to identify the suture exposure and treatment were presented. RESULTS: The clinical presentations including local erosion of upper bulbar conjunctiva, corneal abrasion lines, local corneal epithelial defects with rough border, and subepithelial opacity were noticed in all four patients...
April 27, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703874/cytokine-profile-of-patients-with-leptospirosis-in-sabah-malaysia
#17
B J Mohd Iskandar, T William, J Daisy Vanitha
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with symptoms ranging from a mild, febrile illness to a severe form with multiorgan failure. Severe leptospirosis may require medical interventions in the form of dialysis and/or mechanical ventilation and often leads to mortality. An exaggerated host immune response-in particular, a "cytokine storm"-that causes endothelial and organ damage is associated with the disease severity and mortality. METHODS: Microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-positive and MAT-negative human serum samples (n=30) from patients with leptospirosis were obtained from the Public Health Laboratory, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia and control serum samples (n=10) were obtained from healthy student volunteers...
April 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703503/fasting-levels-of-glicentin-are-higher-in-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-patients-exhibiting-postprandial-hypoglycemia-during-a-meal-test
#18
Christine Poitou, Elodie Bouaziz-Amar, Laurent Genser, Jean-Michel Oppert, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Johanne Le Beyec
BACKGROUND: Post-bypass postprandial hypoglycemia (PPH) is a frequent complication of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) but predictors remain poorly identified and are needed to assess individual risk. After RYGB, exaggerated secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and insulin could lead to PPH, but other proglucagon-derived peptides, including glicentin and glucagon, could also contribute to this phenomenon. OBJECTIVES: To identify biological hypoglycemia in relation to the secretion of proglucagon-derived peptides during a mixed-meal test (MMT) in RYGB patients...
March 19, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696595/delay-discounting-mediates-the-association-between-posterior-insular-cortex-volume-and-social-media-addiction-symptoms
#19
Ofir Turel, Qinghua He, Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara
Addiction-like symptoms in relation to excessive and compulsive social media use are common in the general population. Because they can lead to various adverse effects, there is a growing need to understand the brain systems and processes that are involved in potential social media addiction. We focus on the morphology of the posterior subdivision of the insular cortex (i.e., the insula), because it has been shown to be instrumental to supporting the maintenance of substance addictions and problematic behaviors...
April 25, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696046/clinical-features-and-outcome-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-children
#20
Jafar Nasiri, Mohamadreza Ghazavi, Omid Yaghini, Mohamad Chaldavi
Objective: There are no reports about the clinical presentations and outcome of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in our region, therefore, we aimed to report some mentioned findings in children diagnosed with GBS in Isfahan, central Iran. Materials & Methods: In this retrospective study, pediatric diagnosed with GBS referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, the Pediatric Referral Center of Isfahan Province, central Iran were enrolled from 2011-2014. The following data were extracted from the medical files of patients; age, gender, early signs and symptoms of GBS, neurological features, sensory and motor and autonomic involvements, sphincter dysfunction, bulbar muscle involvement, respiratory failure, cranial nerve paralysis, delay time from onset to definite diagnosis and management of GBS and the outcome...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
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