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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891086/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-mechanisms-of-depression
#1
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
According to our model of the regulation of appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors, the motivation to display these essential conducts is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical, re-entry circuits, including the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side, to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, controls the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (pre)frontal and limbic cortices...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847933/the-role-of-s100b-protein-as-a-potential-marker-in-affective-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager, Magdalena Pawlaczyk
INTRODUCTION: Both recurrent depressive disorders and affective bipolar disorders are characterized by the changes in glial tissue. S100B protein is a calcium-binding molecule, mainly secreted by glial cells, which, depending on its concentration, has a trophic or toxic effect on neuronal cells. In the recent years, due to the postulated glial hypothesis of affective disorders and the ideas concerning brain neuroplasticity, there has been a growing interest in S100B protein and its role in affective disorders...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843149/jnk1-controls-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-imposes-cell-autonomous-control-of-anxiety-behaviour-from-the-neurogenic-niche
#3
H Mohammad, F Marchisella, S Ortega-Martinez, P Hollos, K Eerola, E Komulainen, N Kulesskaya, E Freemantle, V Fagerholm, E Savontous, H Rauvala, B D Peterson, H van Praag, E T Coffey
Promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis is expected to induce neuroplastic changes that improve mood and alleviate anxiety. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown and the hypothesis itself is controversial. Here we show that mice lacking Jnk1, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor-treated mice, display increased neurogenesis in adult hippocampus characterized by enhanced cell proliferation and survival, and increased maturation in the ventral region. Correspondingly, anxiety behaviour is reduced in a battery of tests, except when neurogenesis is prevented by AraC treatment...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800654/biological-hypotheses-and-biomarkers-of-bipolar-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Ekaterina Sigitova, Zdeněk Fišar, Jana Hroudová, Tereza Cikánková, Jiří Raboch
The most common mood disorders are major depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is complex, multifactorial, and not fully understood. Creation of new hypotheses in the field gives impetus for studies and searching new biomarkers of the bipolar disorder. Conversely, new biomarkers facilitate not only diagnosis of a disorder and monitoring of biological effects of treatment, but also formulation of new hypotheses of the causes and pathophysiology of the bipolar disorder...
October 31, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678087/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-effects-of-vortioxetine-on-molecules-associated-with-neuroplasticity
#5
Pirathiv Kugathasan, Jessica Waller, Ligia Westrich, Aicha Abdourahman, Joseph A Tamm, Alan L Pehrson, Elena Dale, Maria Gulinello, Connie Sanchez, Yan Li
Neuroplasticity is fundamental for brain functions, abnormal changes of which are associated with mood disorders and cognitive impairment. Neuroplasticity can be affected by neuroactive medications and by aging. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant, has shown positive effects on cognitive functions in both pre-clinical and clinical studies. In rodent studies, vortioxetine increases glutamate neurotransmission, promotes dendritic branching and spine maturation, and elevates hippocampal expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510505/the-neurobiology-of-depression-an-integrated-overview-from-biological-theories-to-clinical-evidence
#6
F Ferrari, R F Villa
Depressive disorders are heterogeneous diseases, and the complexity of symptoms has led to the formulation of several aethiopathological hypotheses. This heterogeneity may account for the following open issues about antidepressant therapy: (i) antidepressants show a time lag between pharmacological effects, within hours from acute drug administration, and therapeutic effects, within two-four weeks of subchronic treatment; (ii) this latency interval is critical for the patient because of the possible further mood worsening that may result in suicide attempts for the seemingly ineffective therapy and for the apparent adverse effects; (iii) and only 60-70 % of treated patients successfully respond to therapy...
August 10, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435420/acute-deep-brain-stimulation-in-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-protects-against-acute-stress-and-modulates-initial-events-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#7
Víctor Manuel Magdaleno-Madrigal, Christopher Rodrigo Pantoja-Jiménez, Adrián Bazaldúa, Rodrigo Fernández-Mas, Salvador Almazán-Alvarado, Fernanda Bolaños-Alejos, Leonardo Ortíz-López, Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodriguez
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used as an alternative therapeutic procedure for pharmacoresistant psychiatric disorders. Recently the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) gained attention due to the description of a novel pathway from the amygdala to this nucleus suggesting that may be differentially disrupted in mood disorders. The limbic system is implicated in the regulation of these disorders that are accompanied by neuroplastic changes. The hippocampus is highly plastic and shows the generation of new neurons, process affected by stress but positively regulated by antidepressant drugs...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100095/action-based-cognitive-remediation-for-individuals-with-serious-mental-illnesses-effects-of-real-world-simulations-and-goal-setting-on-functional-and-vocational-outcomes
#8
Christopher R Bowie, Michael Grossman, Maya Gupta, Katherine Holshausen, Michael W Best
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive remediation programs often have larger effects on cognition compared with everyday outcomes. We compared changes across cognitive, functional competence, and vocational domains in 2 cognitive remediation programs. METHOD: A sequential enrollment, nonrandom design with 50 individuals with serious mental illnesses (psychotic and mood disorders) from a community vocational rehabilitation program. Action-Based Cognitive Remediation (ABCR), a new program that combines traditional cognitive training techniques with simulated workplace situations and goal setting for engaging with cognitively demanding activities (N = 24; 19 completers) was compared with traditional cognitive remediation (tCR; N = 26; 15 completers)...
April 21, 2016: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27046644/the-role-of-adipokines-in-the-rapid-antidepressant-effects-of-ketamine
#9
R Machado-Vieira, P W Gold, D A Luckenbaugh, E D Ballard, E M Richards, I D Henter, R T De Sousa, M J Niciu, P Yuan, C A Zarate
We previously found that body mass index (BMI) strongly predicted response to ketamine. Adipokines have a key role in metabolism (including BMI). They directly regulate inflammation and neuroplasticity pathways and also influence insulin sensitivity, bone metabolism and sympathetic outflow; all of these have been implicated in mood disorders. Here, we sought to examine the role of three key adipokines-adiponectin, resistin and leptin-as potential predictors of response to ketamine or as possible transducers of its therapeutic effects...
April 5, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996196/neural-correlates-of-improved-executive-function-following-erythropoietin-treatment-in-mood-disorders
#10
K W Miskowiak, M Vinberg, L Glerup, O B Paulson, G M Knudsen, H Ehrenreich, C J Harmer, L V Kessing, H R Siebner, J Macoveanu
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in depression and bipolar disorder (BD) is insufficiently targeted by available treatments. Erythropoietin (EPO) increases neuroplasticity and may improve cognition in mood disorders, but the neuronal mechanisms of these effects are unknown. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of EPO on neural circuitry activity during working memory (WM) performance. METHOD: Patients with treatment-resistant major depression, who were moderately depressed, or with BD in partial remission, were randomized to eight weekly infusions of EPO (40 000 IU) (N = 30) or saline (N = 26) in a double-blind, parallel-group design...
June 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937001/neuroinflammatory-dynamics-underlie-memory-impairments-after-repeated-social-defeat
#11
Daniel B McKim, Anzela Niraula, Andrew J Tarr, Eric S Wohleb, John F Sheridan, Jonathan P Godbout
UNLABELLED: Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine stressor that recapitulates key physiological, immunological, and behavioral alterations observed in humans exposed to chronic psychosocial stress. Psychosocial stress promotes prolonged behavioral adaptations that are associated with neuroinflammatory signaling and impaired neuroplasticity. Here, we show that RSD promoted hippocampal neuroinflammatory activation that was characterized by proinflammatory gene expression and by microglia activation and monocyte trafficking that was particularly pronounced within the caudal extent of the hippocampus...
March 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26823985/neuromodulation-of-attentional-control-in-major-depression-a-pilot-deeptms-study
#12
Jodie Naim-Feil, John L Bradshaw, Dianne M Sheppard, Oded Rosenberg, Yechiel Levkovitz, Pinhas Dannon, Paul B Fitzgerald, Moshe Isserles, Abraham Zangen
While Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is primarily characterized by mood disturbances, impaired attentional control is increasingly identified as a critical feature of depression. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (deepTMS), a noninvasive neuromodulatory technique, can modulate neural activity and induce neuroplasticity changes in brain regions recruited by attentional processes. This study examined whether acute and long-term high-frequency repetitive deepTMS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can attenuate attentional deficits associated with MDD...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26763504/the-role-of-childhood-trauma-in-bipolar-disorders
#13
Monica Aas, Chantal Henry, Ole A Andreassen, Frank Bellivier, Ingrid Melle, Bruno Etain
This review will discuss the role of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders. Relevant studies were identified via Medline (PubMed) and PsycINFO databases published up to and including July 2015. This review contributes to a new understanding of the negative consequences of early life stress, as well as setting childhood trauma in a biological context of susceptibility and discussing novel long-term pathophysiological consequences in bipolar disorders. Childhood traumatic events are risk factors for developing bipolar disorders, in addition to a more severe clinical presentation over time (primarily an earlier age at onset and an increased risk of suicide attempt and substance misuse)...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26684921/post-stroke-depression-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Robert G Robinson, Ricardo E Jorge
Poststroke depression (PSD) has been recognized by psychiatrists for more than 100 years, but controlled systematic studies did not begin until the 1970s. Meta-analyses addressing almost all major clinical issues in the field have emerged because of the relatively small number of patients included in some stroke studies. In order to build large databases, these meta-analyses have merged patients with rigorously assessed mood disorders with major depressive features with patients scoring above arbitrary cutoff points on depression rating scales, thus missing important findings such as cognitive impairment associated with major but not minor depression...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26626456/clinical-and-genetic-factors-associated-with-suicide-in-mood-disorder-patients
#15
Niki Antypa, Daniel Souery, Mario Tomasini, Diego Albani, Federica Fusco, Julien Mendlewicz, Alessandro Serretti
Suicidality is a continuum ranging from ideation to attempted and completed suicide, with a complex etiology involving both genetic heritability and environmental factors. The majority of suicide events occur in the context of psychiatric conditions, preeminently major depression and bipolar disorder. The present study investigates clinical factors associated with suicide in a sample of 553 mood disorder patients, recruited within the 'Psy Pluriel' center, Centre Européen de Psychologie Médicale, and the Department of Psychiatry of Erasme Hospital (Brussels)...
March 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26459976/a-neuroplastic-deafferentation-hypothesis-for-bipolar-disorder
#16
Jonathan Rogers, Jamie Mirams, Rashmi Patel
Bipolar disorder, characterised by extreme cyclical variations in mood between depression and mania, is a common, debilitating and sometimes fatal psychiatric condition with an unclear aetiology. In this paper we propose a hypothesis for the development of bipolar disorder through which neuroplastic changes in response to an index depressive episode leads to the amplification of subthreshold pleasurable stimuli that then drive conversion into a manic state. This 'pleasure deafferentation hypothesis' is reached through a discussion of the neuroscientific basis of deafferentation at the level of the neuron and its role in the development of various neurological and psychiatric phenomena before a case for deafferentation as applied to bipolar disorder is justified and its implications discussed...
December 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26363613/inflammation-as-a-neurobiological-substrate-of-cognitive-impairment-in-bipolar-disorder-evidence-pathophysiology-and-treatment-implications
#17
REVIEW
Joshua D Rosenblat, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo B Mansur, Nadia A Maruschak, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with cognitive impairment during depressed, manic and euthymic periods. Inflammation has been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of BD and cognitive impairment. METHODS: For this systematic review, the MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for relevant articles assessing the association between cognitive function and inflammatory markers in BD subjects...
December 1, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26329381/chronic-enhancement-of-serotonin-facilitates-excitatory-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induced-neuroplasticity
#18
Hsiao-I Kuo, Walter Paulus, Giorgi Batsikadze, Asif Jamil, Min-Fang Kuo, Michael A Nitsche
Serotonin affects memory formation via modulating long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD). Accordingly, acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) administration enhanced LTP-like plasticity induced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in humans. However, it usually takes some time for SSRI to reduce clinical symptoms such as anxiety, negative mood, and related symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. This might be related to an at least partially different effect of chronic serotonergic enhancement on plasticity, as compared with single-dose medication...
April 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26243838/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-prevention-of-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#19
Kuan-Pin Su, Yutaka Matsuoka, Chi-Un Pae
Psychiatric disorders in general, and major depression and anxiety disorders in particular, account for a large burden of disability, morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a range of neurobiological activities in modulation of neurotransmitters, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and neuroplasticity, which could contribute to psychotropic effects. Here we reviewed recent research on the benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplements in prevention against major depression, bipolar disorders, interferon-α-induced depression patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection, and posttraumatic stress disorder...
August 31, 2015: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26026487/memory-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-after-subchronic-or-chronic-amphetamine-treatment-in-an-animal-model-of-mania
#20
Gabriel R Fries, Samira S Valvassori, Hugo Bock, Laura Stertz, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Edimilson Mariot, Roger B Varela, Marcia Kauer-Sant'Anna, João Quevedo, Flávio Kapczinski, Maria Luiza Saraiva-Pereira
Progression of bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with cognitive impairment and changes in neuroplasticity, including a decrease in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, no study could examine BDNF levels directly in different brain regions after repeated mood episodes to date. The proposed animal model was designed to mimic several manic episodes and evaluate whether the performance in memory tasks and BDNF levels in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala would change after repeated amphetamine (AMPH) exposure...
September 2015: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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