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History of neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302564/tackling-maladaptive-memories-through-reconsolidation-from-neural-to-clinical-science
#1
James W B Elsey, Merel Kindt
Behavioral neuroscience has greatly informed how we understand the formation, persistence, and plasticity of memory. Research has demonstrated that memory reactivation can induce a labile period, during which previously consolidated memories are sensitive to change, and in need of restabilization. This process is known as reconsolidation. Such findings have advanced not only our basic understanding of memory processes, but also hint at the prospect of harnessing these insights for the development of a new generation of treatments for disorders of emotional memory...
March 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262022/stimulated-emission-depletion-microscopy
#2
Hans Blom, Jerker Widengren
Despite its short history, diffraction-unlimited fluorescence microscopy techniques have already made a substantial imprint in the biological sciences. In this review, we describe how stimulated emission depletion (STED) imaging originally evolved, how it compares to other optical super-resolution imaging techniques, and what advantages it provides compared to previous golden-standards for biological microscopy, such as diffraction-limited optical microscopy and electron microscopy. We outline the prerequisites for successful STED imaging experiments, emphasizing the equally critical roles of instrumentation, sample preparation, and photophysics, and describe major evolving strategies for how to push the borders of STED imaging even further in life science...
March 6, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236267/pros-it-cnr-an-italian-prostate-cancer-monitoring-project
#3
Marianna Noale, Stefania Maggi, Walter Artibani, Pier Francesco Bassi, Filippo Bertoni, Sergio Bracarda, Giario Natale Conti, Renzo Corvò, Mauro Gacci, Pierpaolo Graziotti, Stefano Maria Magrini, Riccardo Maurizi Enrici, Vincenzo Mirone, Rodolfo Montironi, Giovanni Muto, Stefano Pecoraro, Angelo Porreca, Umberto Ricardi, Andrea Tubaro, Vittorina Zagonel, Filiberto Zattoni, Gaetano Crepaldi
AIMS: The Pros-IT CNR project aims to monitor a sample of Italian males ≥18 years of age who have been diagnosed in the participating centers with incident prostate cancer, by analyzing their clinical features, treatment protocols and outcome results in relation to quality of life. METHODS: Pros-IT CNR is an observational, prospective, multicenter study. The National Research Council (CNR), Neuroscience Institute, Aging Branch (Padua) is the promoting center...
February 24, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216769/the-insanity-defense-related-issues
#4
REVIEW
T V Asokan
For the past 150 years, there is no change in the understanding and knowledge other than autonomy and capacity to choose the right and wrong for criminal liability. The alternative concept that human behavior is the result of an interaction between biological and environmental factors other than free choice failed to impress the criminal justice system because of a direct threat to a society's deep seated need to blame someone than themselves for criminal harms that occur. The insanity defense has a long history, and is evolved after many tests that have been tried and tested...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170220/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-haloperidol
#5
Marshall W Tyler, Josefa Zaldivar-Diez, Stephen J Haggarty
The discovery of haloperidol catalyzed a breakthrough in our understanding of the biochemical basis of schizophrenia, improved the treatment of psychosis, and facilitated deinstitutionalization. In doing so, it solidified the role for chemical neuroscience as a means to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. In this Review, we will cover aspects of haloperidol's synthesis, manufacturing, metabolism, pharmacology, approved and off-label indications, and adverse effects. We will also convey the fascinating history of this classic molecule and the influence that it has had on the evolution of neuropsychopharmacology and neuroscience...
February 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169519/monitoring-molecules-in-neuroscience-then-and-now
#6
Margaret E Rice
The 16th International Conference on Monitoring Molecules in Neuroscience (MMiN) was held in Gothenburg, Sweden in late spring 2016. This conference originated as a methods meeting focused on in vivo voltammetric techniques and microdialysis. Over time, however, the scope has evolved to include a number of other methods for neurochemical detection that range from single-cell fluorescence in vitro and in vivo in animal models to whole-brain imaging in humans. Overall, MMiN provides a unique forum for introducing new developments in neurochemical detection, as well as for reporting exciting neurobiological insights provided by established and novel methods...
February 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012951/apomorphine-and-levodopa-in-parkinson-s-disease-two-revolutionary-drugs-from-the-1950-s
#7
Atbin Djamshidian, Werner Poewe
This article reviews the history of apomorphine and levodopa, which were both discovered in the 1950's and have revolutionized treatment paradigms of Parkinson's disease. Although the discovery of levodopa is a prime example of successful translation of basic neuroscience into clinical routine, the history of apomorphine was based on less solid evidence. Despite this, both drugs are, more than 6 decades after the first clinical experiments, still the two most efficacious medications to treat patients with Parkinson's disease...
December 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997262/a-10-year-evaluation-on-adolescents-with-anxiety-disorders-are-they-at-risk-of-bipolarity
#8
Andrea Aguglia, Andrea Di Stefano, Giuseppe Maina
OBJECTIVE: Anxiety disorders are the most frequent disorders comorbid with bipolar disorder (BD) often preceding the BD onset. The presence of comorbid anxiety in patients diagnosed with BD is associated with worsening of their BD symptoms, increased risky behaviour, decreased response to pharmacological treatment and deterioration in their quality of life and global functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate if anxiety disorders in adolescence could be considered as predictors of BD...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965557/the-multivariate-temporal-response-function-mtrf-toolbox-a-matlab-toolbox-for-relating-neural-signals-to-continuous-stimuli
#9
Michael J Crosse, Giovanni M Di Liberto, Adam Bednar, Edmund C Lalor
Understanding how brains process sensory signals in natural environments is one of the key goals of twenty-first century neuroscience. While brain imaging and invasive electrophysiology will play key roles in this endeavor, there is also an important role to be played by noninvasive, macroscopic techniques with high temporal resolution such as electro- and magnetoencephalography. But challenges exist in determining how best to analyze such complex, time-varying neural responses to complex, time-varying and multivariate natural sensory stimuli...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913203/incidence-of-recurrent-intracerebral-hemorrhages-in-a-multiethnic-south-asian-population
#10
Liming Qiu, Trisha Upadhyaya, Angela An Qi See, Yew Poh Ng, Nicolas Kon Kam King
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for approximately 25% of all strokes in Singapore. Incidence of recurrent ICH is not well studied, and previous studies have reported inconsistent findings in the rate and risk factors associated with ICH recurrences. We aimed to study the incidence of recurrent ICHs in Singapore and to identify the associated risk factors as well as pattern of ICH recurrence. METHODS: A retrospective review of all consecutive admissions for intracerebral hemorrhage at the National Neuroscience Institute between January 2006 and November 2013 was performed...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909400/the-demise-of-the-synapse-as-the-locus-of-memory-a-looming-paradigm-shift
#11
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891018/legal-challenges-in-neurological-practice
#12
REVIEW
Sita Jayalakshmi, Sudhindra Vooturi
Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810002/korea-brain-initiative-integration-and-control-of-brain-functions
#13
Sung-Jin Jeong, Haejin Lee, Eun-Mi Hur, Youngshik Choe, Ja Wook Koo, Jong-Cheol Rah, Kea Joo Lee, Hyun-Ho Lim, Woong Sun, Cheil Moon, Kyungjin Kim
This article introduces the history and the long-term goals of the Korea Brain Initiative, which is centered on deciphering the brain functions and mechanisms that mediate the integration and control of brain functions that underlie decision-making. The goal of this initiative is the mapping of a functional connectome with searchable, multi-dimensional, and information-integrated features. The project also includes the development of novel technologies and neuro-tools for integrated brain mapping. Beyond the scientific goals this grand endeavor will ultimately have socioeconomic ramifications that not only facilitate global collaboration in the neuroscience community, but also develop various brain science-related industrial and medical innovations...
November 2, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810001/brain-canada-one-brain-one-community
#14
Inez Jabalpurwala
Building on the long history of neuroscience in Canada, Brain Canada is accelerating the funding of transformative brain research across Canada, primarily through an innovative $240-million CAN public-private partnership with the Government of Canada and numerous partners. This article describes Brain Canada's "One Brain One Community" approach and its views on international collaboration and the future of brain research.
November 2, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797836/impact-of-demographic-and-obstetric-factors-on-infant-brain-volumes-a-population-neuroscience-study
#15
Rebecca C Knickmeyer, Kai Xia, Zhaohua Lu, Mihye Ahn, Shaili C Jha, Fei Zou, Hongtu Zhu, Martin Styner, John H Gilmore
Individual differences in neuroanatomy are associated with intellectual ability and psychiatric risk. Factors responsible for this variability remain poorly understood. We tested whether 17 major demographic and obstetric variables were associated with individual differences in brain volumes in 756 neonates assessed with MRI. Gestational age at MRI, sex, gestational age at birth, and birthweight were the most significant predictors, explaining 31% to 59% of variance. Unexpectedly, earlier born babies had larger brains than later born babies after adjusting for other predictors...
October 26, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794691/the-origins-of-cognitive-deficits-in-victimized-children-implications-for-neuroscientists-and-clinicians
#16
Andrea Danese, Terrie E Moffitt, Louise Arseneault, Ben A Bleiberg, Perry B Dinardo, Stephanie B Gandelman, Renate Houts, Antony Ambler, Helen L Fisher, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi
OBJECTIVE: Individuals reporting a history of childhood violence victimization have impaired brain function. However, the clinical significance, reproducibility, and causality of these findings are disputed. The authors used data from two large cohort studies to address these research questions directly. METHOD: The authors tested the association between prospectively collected measures of childhood violence victimization and cognitive functions in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood among 2,232 members of the U...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791968/the-whole-versus-the-sum-of-some-of-the-parts-toward-resolving-the-apparent-controversy-of-clitoral-versus-vaginal-orgasms
#17
James G Pfaus, Gonzalo R Quintana, Conall Mac Cionnaith, Mayte Parada
BACKGROUND: The nature of a woman's orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. METHOD: We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776122/relative-contributions-of-specific-activity-histories-and-spontaneous-processes-to-size-remodeling-of-glutamatergic-synapses
#18
Roman Dvorkin, Noam E Ziv
The idea that synaptic properties are defined by specific pre- and postsynaptic activity histories is one of the oldest and most influential tenets of contemporary neuroscience. Recent studies also indicate, however, that synaptic properties often change spontaneously, even in the absence of specific activity patterns or any activity whatsoever. What, then, are the relative contributions of activity history-dependent and activity history-independent processes to changes synapses undergo? To compare the relative contributions of these processes, we imaged, in spontaneously active networks of cortical neurons, glutamatergic synapses formed between the same axons and neurons or dendrites under the assumption that their similar activity histories should result in similar size changes over timescales of days...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768983/optimizing-laboratory-animal-stress-paradigms-the-h-h-experimental-design
#19
REVIEW
Richard McCarty
Major advances in behavioral neuroscience have been facilitated by the development of consistent and highly reproducible experimental paradigms that have been widely adopted. In contrast, many different experimental approaches have been employed to expose laboratory mice and rats to acute versus chronic intermittent stress. An argument is advanced in this review that more consistent approaches to the design of chronic intermittent stress experiments would provide greater reproducibility of results across laboratories and greater reliability relating to various neural, endocrine, immune, genetic, and behavioral adaptations...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746252/surgical-approaches-in-psychiatry-a-survey-of-the-world-literature-on-psychosurgery
#20
REVIEW
Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioral or affective changes in humans remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience, and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and careful appraisal of its 2 sides is warranted: namely, the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude freehand operations into a multidisciplinary treatment of last resort...
January 2017: World Neurosurgery
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