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History of neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757600/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-morphine
#1
Andrea L Devereaux, Susan L Mercer, Christopher W Cunningham
As the major psychoactive agent in opium and direct precursor for heroin, morphine is a historically critical molecule in chemical neuroscience. A structurally complex phenanthrene alkaloid produced by Papaver somniferum, morphine has fascinated chemists seeking to disentangle pharmacologically beneficial analgesic effects from addiction, tolerance, and dependence liabilities. In this review, we will detail the history of morphine, from the first extraction and isolation by Sertürner in 1804 to the illicit use of morphine and proliferation of opioid use and abuse disorders currently ravaging the United States...
May 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755332/neurofeedback-and-the-neural-representation-of-self-lessons-from-awake-state-and-sleep
#2
Andreas A Ioannides
Neurofeedback has been around for half a century, but despite some promising results it is not yet widely appreciated. Recently, some of the concerns about neurofeedback have been addressed with functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography adding their contributions to the long history of neurofeedback with electroencephalography. Attempts to address other concerns related to methodological issues with new experiments and meta-analysis of earlier studies, have opened up new questions about its efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744995/what-difference-do-brain-images-make-in-us-criminal-trials
#3
Valerie Gray Hardcastle, Edward Lamb
One of the early concerns regarding the use of neuroscience data in criminal trials is that even if the brain images are ambiguous or inconclusive, they still might influence a jury in virtue of the fact that they appear easy to understand. By appearing visually simple, even though they are really statistically constructed maps with a host of assumptions built into them, a lay jury or a judge might take brain scans to be more reliable or relevant than they actually are. Should courts exclude brain scans for being more prejudicial than probative? Herein, we rehearse a brief history of brain scans admitted into criminal trials in the United States, then describe the results of a recent analysis of appellate court decisions that referenced 1 or more brain scans in the judicial decision...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695153/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-risperidone
#4
Trevor C Chopko, Craig W Lindsley
After identifying the influence of serotonergic receptors in ameliorating the negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia, atypical antipsychotics were developed incorporating dopamine and serotonin antagonism. Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal, was the second atypical antipsychotic developed following clozapine, but quickly became a first-line treatment for acute and chronic schizophrenia due to its preferential side effect profile. Despite initial FDA-approval 25 years ago, risperidone continues to be a fundamental treatment in schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder, and autism-related irritability...
April 25, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673530/brief-introduction-to-electroencephalography
#5
Alex Proekt
Electroencephalography (EEG) has a long history in neuroscience starting with its original description in humans by Hans Berger in 1929 (Berger, 1932). Investigations of EEG under anesthesia started soon after in the mid-1930s (Gibbs, 1937). No single methodology paper can credibly cover all of the issues relating to this rich field. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce some caveats that complicate and inform analysis of the EEG. Special emphasis will be given to common issues such as choice of reference electrode, filtering, artifact rejection, and spectral analysis...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670517/computational-models-for-calcium-mediated-astrocyte-functions
#6
REVIEW
Tiina Manninen, Riikka Havela, Marja-Leena Linne
The computational neuroscience field has heavily concentrated on the modeling of neuronal functions, largely ignoring other brain cells, including one type of glial cell, the astrocytes. Despite the short history of modeling astrocytic functions, we were delighted about the hundreds of models developed so far to study the role of astrocytes, most often in calcium dynamics, synchronization, information transfer, and plasticity in vitro , but also in vascular events, hyperexcitability, and homeostasis. Our goal here is to present the state-of-the-art in computational modeling of astrocytes in order to facilitate better understanding of the functions and dynamics of astrocytes in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601227/the-use-of-pain-neuroscience-education-in-older-adults-with-chronic-back-and-or-lower-extremity-pain
#7
Adam Rufa, Katherine Beissner, Michelle Dolphin
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain due to musculoskeletal disorders is the leading cause of disability among older adults and is associated with a lower quality of life, reduced function, and increased risk of institutionalization. Pain Neuroscience Education (PNE) has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing pain and improving pain self-efficacy in individuals under 60 years of age, but there is a paucity of research examining its use with older adults. If PNE has similar effects in older adults, it has the potential to be a useful non-pharmacological intervention for this population...
March 30, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589321/a-history-and-overview-of-the-behavioral-neuroscience-of-learning-and-memory
#8
Robert E Clark
Here, I provide a basic history of important milestones in the development of theories for how the brain accomplishes the phenomenon of learning and memory. Included are the ideas of Plato, René Descartes, Théodule Ribot, William James, Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, Karl Lashley, and others. The modern era of learning and memory research begins with the description of H.M. by Brenda Milner and the gradual discovery that the brain contains multiple learning and memory systems that are supported by anatomically discrete brain structures...
2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572061/voxel-based-lesion-analysis-of-brain-regions-underlying-reading-and-writing
#9
Juliana V Baldo, Natalie Kacinik, Carl Ludy, Selvi Paulraj, Amber Moncrief, Vitória Piai, Brian Curran, And Turken, Tim Herron, Nina F Dronkers
The neural basis of reading and writing has been a source of inquiry as well as controversy in the neuroscience literature. Reading has been associated with both left posterior ventral temporal zones (termed the "visual word form area") as well as more dorsal zones, primarily in left parietal cortex. Writing has also been associated with left parietal cortex, as well as left sensorimotor cortex and prefrontal regions. Typically, the neural basis of reading and writing are examined in separate studies and/or rely on single case studies exhibiting specific deficits...
March 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566792/an-integrative-framework-for-sensory-motor-and-cognitive-functions-of-the-posterior-parietal-cortex
#10
REVIEW
David J Freedman, Guilhem Ibos
Throughout the history of modern neuroscience, the parietal cortex has been associated with a wide array of sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. The use of non-human primates as a model organism has been instrumental in our current understanding of how areas in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) modulate our perception and influence our behavior. In this Perspective, we highlight a series of influential studies over the last five decades examining the role of the PPC in visual perception and motor planning...
March 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549820/resiliency-is-independently-associated-with-greater-quality-of-life-among-informal-caregivers-to-neuroscience-intensive-care-unit-patients
#11
Emily L Zale, Tessa J Heinhuis, Tara Tehan, Danielle Salgueiro, Jonathan Rosand, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
OBJECTIVE: Every year, millions of Americans become informal caregivers to loved ones admitted to Neuroscience Intensive Care Units (Neuro-ICU), and face challenges to Quality of Life (QoL). This study sought to identify associations between resiliency, distress, and caregiver QoL at time of Neuro-ICU admission. METHODS: Informal caregivers (N = 79, Mage  = 53, 64% female) of Neuro-ICU patients were recruited and completed self-report questionnaires during the hospitalization...
May 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546404/moving-beyond-individual-choice-in-policies-to-reduce-health-inequalities-the-integration-of-dynamic-with-individual-explanations
#12
N M Kriznik, A L Kinmonth, T Ling, M P Kelly
Background: A strong focus on individual choice and behaviour informs interventions designed to reduce health inequalities in the UK. We review evidence for wider mechanisms from a range of disciplines, demonstrate that they are not yet impacting on programmes, and argue for their systematic inclusion in policy and research. Methods: We identified potential mechanisms relevant to health inequalities and their amelioration from different disciplines and analysed six policy documents published between 1976 and 2010 using Bacchi's 'What's the problem represented to be?' framework for policy analysis...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522609/-history-from-neuropsychology-to-cognitive-neurosciences-in-argentina
#13
Ricardo F Allegri, Pablo Bagnatti
The first step from the neuropsychology in Argentina was in 1883 with the thesis of Antonio Piñeiro about the brain localization of the language and vision disorders, only few years after Broca. The aim of this work has been to describe the development of the neuropsychology in Argentina and its relation with the psychology, neurology and psychiatry. The first period was into the neurology with its French school in?uence. In 1907, Jose Ingeniero published in French his book about "amusia", Cristofredo Jakob the "folia neurobiologica" where he described the organization of the human brain, Vicente Dimitri in 1933 his book "aphasia" and Bernardo de Quiros in 1959 his works about dyslexia...
November 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514722/dementia-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder-a-review-of-the-mental-health-risk-factors-for-dementia-in-the-military-veteran-population
#14
L A Rafferty, P E Cawkill, S A M Stevelink, K Greenberg, N Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Dementia is currently incurable, irreversible and a major cause of disability for the world's older population. The association between mental health difficulties, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), and dementia has a long history within the civilian population. Despite the increased importance of this link within the military veteran population, who suffer a greater propensity of mental health difficulties and consist largely of over 65s, attention is only recently being paid to the salience of such an association for this group...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496589/association-of-translocator-protein-total-distribution-volume-with-duration-of-untreated-major-depressive-disorder-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Elaine Setiawan, Sophia Attwells, Alan A Wilson, Romina Mizrahi, Pablo M Rusjan, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Sarita Sharma, Stephen Kish, Sylvain Houle, Jeffrey H Meyer
BACKGROUND: People with major depressive disorder frequently exhibit increasing persistence of major depressive episodes. However, evidence for neuroprogression (ie, increasing brain pathology with longer duration of illness) is scarce. Microglial activation, which is an important component of neuroinflammation, is implicated in neuroprogression. We examined the relationship of translocator protein (TSPO) total distribution volume (VT ), a marker of microglial activation, with duration of untreated major depressive disorder, and with total illness duration and antidepressant exposure...
April 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441169/perioperative-stroke-pathophysiology-and-management
#16
REVIEW
Sang-Bae Ko
Although perioperative stroke is uncommon during low-risk non-vascular surgery, if it occurs, it can negatively impact recovery from the surgery and functional outcome. Based on the Society for Neuroscience in Anesthesiology and Critical Care Consensus Statement, perioperative stroke includes intraoperative stroke, as well as postoperative stroke developing within 30 days after surgery. Factors related to perioperative stroke include age, sex, a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, cardiac surgery (aortic surgery, mitral valve surgery, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery), and neurosurgery (external carotid-internal carotid bypass surgery, carotid endarterectomy, or aneurysm clipping)...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395939/longitudinal-modeling-in-developmental-neuroimaging-research-common-challenges-and-solutions-from-developmental-psychology
#17
REVIEW
Kevin M King, Andrew K Littlefield, Connor J McCabe, Kathryn L Mills, John Flournoy, Laurie Chassin
Hypotheses about change over time are central to informing our understanding of development. Developmental neuroscience is at critical juncture: although the majority of longitudinal imaging studies have observations with two time points, researchers are increasingly obtaining three or more observations of the same individuals. The goals of the proposed manuscript are to draw upon the long history of methodological and applied literature on longitudinal statistical models to summarize common problems and issues that arise in their use...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376672/functional-brain-imaging-in-neuropsychology-over-the-past-25-years
#18
David R Roalf, Ruben C Gur
OBJECTIVE: Outline effects of functional neuroimaging on neuropsychology over the past 25 years. METHOD: Functional neuroimaging methods and studies will be described that provide a historical context, offer examples of the utility of neuroimaging in specific domains, and discuss the limitations and future directions of neuroimaging in neuropsychology. RESULTS: Tracking the history of publications on functional neuroimaging related to neuropsychology indicates early involvement of neuropsychologists in the development of these methodologies...
November 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363403/j-bogousslavsky-following-charcot-a-forgotten-history-of-neurology-and-psychiatry-frontiers-of-neurology-and-neuroscience-bogousslavsky-j-following-charcot-a-forgotten-history-of-neurology-and-psychiatry-frontiers-of-neurology-and-neuroscience-vol-29-karger
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342053/gradual-symmetric-progression-of-dfna34-hearing-loss-caused-by-an-nlrp3-mutation-and-cochlear-autoinflammation
#20
Hiroshi Nakanishi, Yoshiyuki Kawashima, Kiyoto Kurima, Julie A Muskett, H Jeffrey Kim, Carmen C Brewer, Andrew J Griffith
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the audiometric phenotype of autosomal-dominant DFNA34 hearing loss (HL) caused by a missense substitution in the NLRP3 gene. NLRP3 encodes a critical component of the NLRP3 inflammasome that is activated in innate immune responses. STUDY DESIGN: This study was conducted under protocol 01-DC-0229 approved by the NIH Combined Neurosciences IRB. We performed medical and developmental history interviews and physical and audiological examinations of affected individuals with DFNA34 HL caused by the p...
January 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
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