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History of neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521154/-the-world-is-upside-down-the-innsbruck-goggle-experiments-of-theodor-erismann-1883-1961-and-ivo-kohler-1915-1985
#1
Pierre Sachse, Ursula Beermann, Markus Martini, Thomas Maran, Markus Domeier, Marco R Furtner
The "Innsbruck Goggle Experiments" on long-term wearing of reversing mirrors, prismatic and half prismatic goggles, and colored half goggles represent a milestone in research on adaptation (adapting to the introduced "disturbance") and after-effects (after removal of the "disturbance"). By means of these goggles it is, for example, possible to invert or distort the visual field (such as flipping top and bottom or left and right), as well as to observe how individuals learn to change the image back to vertical or recognize left and right...
April 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506440/the-wistar-audiogenic-rat-war-strain-and-its-contributions-to-epileptology-and-related-comorbidities-history-and-perspectives
#2
Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Eduardo H L Umeoka, José A Cortes de Oliveira
In the context of modeling epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidities, we review the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR), first introduced to the neuroscience international community more than 25years ago. The WAR strain is a genetically selected reflex model susceptible to audiogenic seizures (AS), acutely mimicking brainstem-dependent tonic-clonic seizures and chronically (by audiogenic kindling), temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Seminal neuroethological, electrophysiological, cellular, and molecular protocols support the WAR strain as a suitable and reliable animal model to study the complexity and emergent functions typical of epileptogenic networks...
May 11, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497485/creating-chronicity
#3
Anna Luise Kirkengen
An authentic sickness history is the vantage point for juxtaposing a biomedical and a biographical-phenomenological reading. What, in a biomedical framework, appears to be a longstanding state of comorbidity of different and unrelated types of diseases is rendered transparent in a biographical reading. This particular reading, evidencing the shortcomings of a biomedical framework regarding identifying the social sources of an increasingly complex burden of disease, is reflected upon in light of recent research in the neurosciences...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497126/vulnerability-to-depression-in-youth-advances-from-affective-neuroscience
#4
Autumn Kujawa, Katie L Burkhouse
Vulnerability models of depression posit that individual differences in trait-like vulnerabilities emerge early in life and increase risk for the later development of depression. In this review, we summarize advances from affective neuroscience using neural measures to assess vulnerabilities in youth at high risk for depression due to parental history of depression or temperament style, as well as prospective designs evaluating the predictive validity of these vulnerabilities for symptoms and diagnoses of depression across development...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468946/novel-mode-of-antagonist-binding-in-nmda-receptors-revealed-by-the-crystal-structure-of-the-glun1-glun2a-ligand-binding-domain-complexed-to-nvp-aam077
#5
Annabel Romero-Hernandez, Hiro Furukawa
Competitive antagonists against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have played critical roles throughout the history of neuropharmacology and basic neuroscience. There are currently numerous NMDA receptor antagonists containing a variety of chemical groups. Among those compounds, a GluN2-specific antagonist, (R)-[(S)-1-(4-bromo-phenyl)-ethylamino]-(2,3-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxalin-5-yl)-methyl]-phosphonic acid (NVP-AAM077), contains a unique combination of a dioxoquinoxalinyl ring, a bromophenyl group, and a phosphono group...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461475/limitations-of-ex-vivo-measurements-for-in-vivo-neuroscience
#6
Alexander Opitz, Arnaud Falchier, Gary S Linn, Michael P Milham, Charles E Schroeder
A long history of postmortem studies has provided significant insight into human brain structure and organization. Cadavers have also proven instrumental for the measurement of artifacts and nonneural effects in functional imaging, and more recently, the study of biophysical properties critical to brain stimulation. However, death produces significant changes in the biophysical properties of brain tissues, making an ex vivo to in vivo comparison complex, and even questionable. This study directly compares biophysical properties of electric fields arising from transcranial electric stimulation (TES) in a nonhuman primate brain pre- and postmortem...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459656/a-short-guide-to-electrophysiology-and-ion-channels
#7
Hussein Nori Rubaiy
The birth and discovery of electrophysiological science took place in the 18--th century laying the path for our understanding of nerve membrane ionic currents. The pore-forming proteins, ion channels, are involved and play critical roles in very important physiological and pathological processes, such as neuronal signaling and cardiac excitability, therefore, they serve as therapeutic drug targets. The study of physiological, pharmacological and biophysical properties of ion channels can be done by patch clamp, a gold standard and powerful electrophysiological technique...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445399/advances-in-psychiatric-diagnosis-past-present-and-future
#8
EDITORIAL
Carol S North, Alina M Surís
This editorial examines controversies identified by the articles in this special issue, which explore psychopathology in the broad history of the classification of selected psychiatric disorders and syndromes over time through current American criteria. Psychiatric diagnosis has a long history of scientific investigation and application, with periods of rapid change, instability, and heated controversy associated with it. The articles in this issue examine the history of psychiatric nomenclature and explore current and future directions in psychiatric diagnosis through the various versions of accepted diagnostic criteria and accompanying research literature addressing the criteria...
April 26, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439228/from-engrams-to-pathologies-of-the-brain
#9
REVIEW
Christine A Denny, Evan Lebois, Steve Ramirez
Memories are the experiential threads that tie our past to the present. The biological realization of a memory is termed an engram-the enduring biochemical and physiological processes that enable learning and retrieval. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of engram research that suggests we are closing in on boundary conditions for what qualifies as the physical manifestation of memory. In this review, we provide a brief history of engram research, followed by an overview of the many rodent models available to probe memory with intersectional strategies that have yielded unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution over defined sets of cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418641/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-ketamine
#10
Marshall W Tyler, Harmony B Yourish, Dawn F Ionescu, Stephen J Haggarty
Ketamine, a molecule of many faces, has contributed immeasurably to numerous realms of clinical practice and scientific inquiry. From anesthesia and analgesia to depression and schizophrenia, it continues to shed light on the molecular underpinnings of pain, consciousness, and the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, research on ketamine's mechanism of action is providing new hope in the search for therapies for treatment-resistant depression and affords insights into disorders of glutamatergic dysfunction...
April 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399689/the-cognitive-neuroscience-of-placebo-effects-concepts-predictions-and-physiology
#11
Stephan Geuter, Leonie Koban, Tor D Wager
Placebos have been used ubiquitously throughout the history of medicine. Expectations and associative learning processes are important psychological determinants of placebo effects, but their underlying brain mechanisms are only beginning to be understood. We examine the brain systems underlying placebo effects on pain, autonomic, and immune responses. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), insula, amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray emerge as central brain structures underlying placebo effects...
April 7, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392765/the-emerging-neuroscience-of-intrinsic-motivation-a-new-frontier-in-self-determination-research
#12
REVIEW
Stefano I Di Domenico, Richard M Ryan
Intrinsic motivation refers to people's spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan and Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378287/pediatric-thoracic-sciwora-after-back-bend-during-dance-practice-a-retrospective-case-series-and-analysis-of-trauma-mechanisms
#13
Jian Ren, Gao Zeng, Yong-Jie Ma, Nan Chen, Zan Chen, Feng Ling, Hong-Qi Zhang
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to describe a unique type of low-energy traumatic pediatric thoracic spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) after a back bend during dance practice and analyze the trauma mechanisms and treatment protocols. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series from September 2007 to August 2016. The study was conducted at a tertiary medical center in Beijing, China (Xuanwu Hospital, China International Neuroscience Institute [China-INI], Capital Medical University)...
April 4, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368577/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-aripiprazole
#14
Austen B Casey, Clinton E Canal
Aripiprazole was the first antipsychotic developed to possess agonist properties at dopamine D2 autoreceptors, a groundbreaking strategy that presented a new vista for schizophrenia drug discovery. The dopamine D2 receptor is the crucial target of all extant antipsychotics, and all developed prior to aripiprazole were D2 receptor antagonists. Extensive blockade of these receptors, however, typically produces extrapyramidal (movement) side effects, which plagued first-generation antipsychotics, such as haloperidol...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344933/precision-medicine-the-golden-gate-for-detection-treatment-and-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
H Hampel, S E O'Bryant, J I Castrillo, C Ritchie, K Rojkova, K Broich, N Benda, R Nisticò, R A Frank, B Dubois, V Escott-Price, S Lista
During this decade, breakthrough conceptual shifts have commenced to emerge in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizing risk factors and the non-linear dynamic continuum of complex pathophysiologies amongst a wide dimensional spectrum of multi-factorial brain proteinopathies/neurodegenerative diseases. As is the case in most fields of medicine, substantial advancements in detecting, treating and preventing AD will likely evolve from the generation and implementation of a systematic precision medicine strategy...
December 2016: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326682/nervous-system-development-and-regeneration-in-freshwater-planarians
#16
REVIEW
Kelly G Ross, Ko W Currie, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302564/tackling-maladaptive-memories-through-reconsolidation-from-neural-to-clinical-science
#17
James W B Elsey, Merel Kindt
Behavioral neuroscience has greatly informed how we understand the formation, persistence, and plasticity of memory. Research has demonstrated that memory reactivation can induce a labile period, during which previously consolidated memories are sensitive to change, and in need of restabilization. This process is known as reconsolidation. Such findings have advanced not only our basic understanding of memory processes, but also hint at the prospect of harnessing these insights for the development of a new generation of treatments for disorders of emotional memory...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262022/stimulated-emission-depletion-microscopy
#18
Hans Blom, Jerker Widengren
Despite its short history, diffraction-unlimited fluorescence microscopy techniques have already made a substantial imprint in the biological sciences. In this review, we describe how stimulated emission depletion (STED) imaging originally evolved, how it compares to other optical super-resolution imaging techniques, and what advantages it provides compared to previous golden-standards for biological microscopy, such as diffraction-limited optical microscopy and electron microscopy. We outline the prerequisites for successful STED imaging experiments, emphasizing the equally critical roles of instrumentation, sample preparation, and photophysics, and describe major evolving strategies for how to push the borders of STED imaging even further in life science...
March 6, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236267/pros-it-cnr-an-italian-prostate-cancer-monitoring-project
#19
Marianna Noale, Stefania Maggi, Walter Artibani, Pier Francesco Bassi, Filippo Bertoni, Sergio Bracarda, Giario Natale Conti, Renzo Corvò, Mauro Gacci, Pierpaolo Graziotti, Stefano Maria Magrini, Riccardo Maurizi Enrici, Vincenzo Mirone, Rodolfo Montironi, Giovanni Muto, Stefano Pecoraro, Angelo Porreca, Umberto Ricardi, Andrea Tubaro, Vittorina Zagonel, Filiberto Zattoni, Gaetano Crepaldi
AIMS: The Pros-IT CNR project aims to monitor a sample of Italian males ≥18 years of age who have been diagnosed in the participating centers with incident prostate cancer, by analyzing their clinical features, treatment protocols and outcome results in relation to quality of life. METHODS: Pros-IT CNR is an observational, prospective, multicenter study. The National Research Council (CNR), Neuroscience Institute, Aging Branch (Padua) is the promoting center...
February 24, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216769/the-insanity-defense-related-issues
#20
REVIEW
T V Asokan
For the past 150 years, there is no change in the understanding and knowledge other than autonomy and capacity to choose the right and wrong for criminal liability. The alternative concept that human behavior is the result of an interaction between biological and environmental factors other than free choice failed to impress the criminal justice system because of a direct threat to a society's deep seated need to blame someone than themselves for criminal harms that occur. The insanity defense has a long history, and is evolved after many tests that have been tried and tested...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
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