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History of neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913203/incidence-of-recurrent-intracerebral-hemorrhages-in-a-multiethnic-south-asian-population
#1
Liming Qiu, Trisha Upadhyaya, Angela An Qi See, Yew Poh Ng, Nicolas Kon Kam King
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for approximately 25% of all strokes in Singapore. Incidence of recurrent ICH is not well studied, and previous studies have reported inconsistent findings in the rate and risk factors associated with ICH recurrences. We aimed to study the incidence of recurrent ICHs in Singapore and to identify the associated risk factors as well as pattern of ICH recurrence. METHODS: A retrospective review of all consecutive admissions for intracerebral hemorrhage at the National Neuroscience Institute between January 2006 and November 2013 was performed...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909400/the-demise-of-the-synapse-as-the-locus-of-memory-a-looming-paradigm-shift
#2
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891018/legal-challenges-in-neurological-practice
#3
REVIEW
Sita Jayalakshmi, Sudhindra Vooturi
Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810002/korea-brain-initiative-integration-and-control-of-brain-functions
#4
Sung-Jin Jeong, Haejin Lee, Eun-Mi Hur, Youngshik Choe, Ja Wook Koo, Jong-Cheol Rah, Kea Joo Lee, Hyun-Ho Lim, Woong Sun, Cheil Moon, Kyungjin Kim
This article introduces the history and the long-term goals of the Korea Brain Initiative, which is centered on deciphering the brain functions and mechanisms that mediate the integration and control of brain functions that underlie decision-making. The goal of this initiative is the mapping of a functional connectome with searchable, multi-dimensional, and information-integrated features. The project also includes the development of novel technologies and neuro-tools for integrated brain mapping. Beyond the scientific goals this grand endeavor will ultimately have socioeconomic ramifications that not only facilitate global collaboration in the neuroscience community, but also develop various brain science-related industrial and medical innovations...
November 2, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810001/brain-canada-one-brain-one-community
#5
Inez Jabalpurwala
Building on the long history of neuroscience in Canada, Brain Canada is accelerating the funding of transformative brain research across Canada, primarily through an innovative $240-million CAN public-private partnership with the Government of Canada and numerous partners. This article describes Brain Canada's "One Brain One Community" approach and its views on international collaboration and the future of brain research.
November 2, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797836/impact-of-demographic-and-obstetric-factors-on-infant-brain-volumes-a-population-neuroscience-study
#6
Rebecca C Knickmeyer, Kai Xia, Zhaohua Lu, Mihye Ahn, Shaili C Jha, Fei Zou, Hongtu Zhu, Martin Styner, John H Gilmore
Individual differences in neuroanatomy are associated with intellectual ability and psychiatric risk. Factors responsible for this variability remain poorly understood. We tested whether 17 major demographic and obstetric variables were associated with individual differences in brain volumes in 756 neonates assessed with MRI. Gestational age at MRI, sex, gestational age at birth, and birthweight were the most significant predictors, explaining 31% to 59% of variance. Unexpectedly, earlier born babies had larger brains than later born babies after adjusting for other predictors...
October 26, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794691/the-origins-of-cognitive-deficits-in-victimized-children-implications-for-neuroscientists-and-clinicians
#7
Andrea Danese, Terrie E Moffitt, Louise Arseneault, Ben A Bleiberg, Perry B Dinardo, Stephanie B Gandelman, Renate Houts, Antony Ambler, Helen L Fisher, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi
OBJECTIVE: Individuals reporting a history of childhood violence victimization have impaired brain function. However, the clinical significance, reproducibility, and causality of these findings are disputed. The authors used data from two large cohort studies to address these research questions directly. METHOD: The authors tested the association between prospectively collected measures of childhood violence victimization and cognitive functions in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood among 2,232 members of the U...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791968/the-whole-versus-the-sum-of-some-of-the-parts-toward-resolving-the-apparent-controversy-of-clitoral-versus-vaginal-orgasms
#8
James G Pfaus, Gonzalo R Quintana, Conall Mac Cionnaith, Mayte Parada
BACKGROUND: The nature of a woman's orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. METHOD: We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776122/relative-contributions-of-specific-activity-histories-and-spontaneous-processes-to-size-remodeling-of-glutamatergic-synapses
#9
Roman Dvorkin, Noam E Ziv
The idea that synaptic properties are defined by specific pre- and postsynaptic activity histories is one of the oldest and most influential tenets of contemporary neuroscience. Recent studies also indicate, however, that synaptic properties often change spontaneously, even in the absence of specific activity patterns or any activity whatsoever. What, then, are the relative contributions of activity history-dependent and activity history-independent processes to changes synapses undergo? To compare the relative contributions of these processes, we imaged, in spontaneously active networks of cortical neurons, glutamatergic synapses formed between the same axons and neurons or dendrites under the assumption that their similar activity histories should result in similar size changes over timescales of days...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768983/optimizing-laboratory-animal-stress-paradigms-the-h-h-experimental-design
#10
REVIEW
Richard McCarty
Major advances in behavioral neuroscience have been facilitated by the development of consistent and highly reproducible experimental paradigms that have been widely adopted. In contrast, many different experimental approaches have been employed to expose laboratory mice and rats to acute versus chronic intermittent stress. An argument is advanced in this review that more consistent approaches to the design of chronic intermittent stress experiments would provide greater reproducibility of results across laboratories and greater reliability relating to various neural, endocrine, immune, genetic, and behavioral adaptations...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746252/surgical-approaches-in-psychiatry-a-survey-of-the-world-literature-on-psychosurgery
#11
REVIEW
Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioral or affective changes in humans remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience, and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and careful appraisal of its 2 sides is warranted: namely, the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude freehand operations into a multidisciplinary treatment of last resort...
October 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745722/-the-severe-chronic-irritability-concept-a-clinical-dimension-to-consider-in-child-and-adolescent
#12
P Fourneret, H Desombre
INTRODUCTION: For a decade, the concept of irritability has known a renewed interest in infant and child psychopathology. Indeed, longitudinal follow-up studies clearly highlighted their predictive value - in the short, medium and long terms - of a broad field of behavioral disorders and emotion dysregulation. This dimensional and transnosographic approach of irritability, coupled with the latest neuroscience data, points out that irritability could be the equivalent of a psychopathological marker, covering both a neurobiological, cognitive and emotional component...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719514/lifetime-alcohol-use-and-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults
#13
Raj K Kalapatapu, Maria I Ventura, Deborah E Barnes
Substance use is an important clinical issue in the older adult population. As older adults are susceptible to cognitive disorders, the intersection of the fields of substance use and cognitive neuroscience is an active area of research. Prior studies of alcohol use and cognitive performance are mixed, and inconsistencies may be due to under- or over-adjustment for confounders. This article adds to this literature by conducting a secondary analysis of self-reported lifetime history of alcohol use and cognitive performance in older adults (n = 133)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706919/the-common-marmoset-an-overview-of-its-natural-history-ecology-and-behavior
#14
Nicola Schiel, Antonio Souto
Callithrix jacchus are small-bodied Neotropical primates popularly known as common marmosets. They are endemic to Northeast Brazil and occur in contrasting environments such as the humid Atlantic Forest and the dry scrub forest of the Caatinga. Common marmosets live in social groups, usually containing only one breeding pair. These primates have a parental care system in which individuals help by providing assistance to the infants even when they are not related to them. Free-ranging groups use relatively small home ranges (0...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684551/the-first-25-years-of-the-journal-of-the-history-of-the-neurosciences
#15
Stanley Finger, Peter J Koehler, Frank W Stahnisch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683911/impact-of-sex-and-menopausal-status-on-episodic-memory-circuitry-in-early-midlife
#16
Emily G Jacobs, Blair K Weiss, Nikos Makris, Sue Whitfield-Gabrieli, Stephen L Buka, Anne Klibanski, Jill M Goldstein
UNLABELLED: Cognitive neuroscience of aging studies traditionally target participants age 65 and older. However, epidemiological surveys show that many women report increased forgetfulness earlier in the aging process, as they transition to menopause. In this population-based fMRI study, we stepped back by over a decade to characterize the changes in memory circuitry that occur in early midlife, as a function of sex and women's reproductive stage. Participants (N = 200; age range, 45-55) performed a verbal encoding task during fMRI scanning...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676932/experimental-feasibility-pilot-study-music-therapy-and-rehabilitation-care-following-a-stroke
#17
Marie Orentin, Victorine Quintaine, Alain Yelnik, Marylène Jousse, Leila Tlili, Anna Bernard, Maryse Guillemette
OBJECTIVE: Music therapy enhances awareness of sound perception and musical sensorial experience often highly impaired following a stroke, confirmed by music's neurosciences. The study aims to verify its reception and utility in a Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PMR) service with professional team and patients. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven hospitalized patients were included after stoke (without regular instrumental practice, speech disorder, severe hearing loss nor psychiatric history)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676667/subtle-sensory-abnormalities-detected-by-quantitative-sensory-testing-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#18
Herta Flor, Dirk Rasche, Ariyan Pirayesh Islamian, Claudia Rolko, Pinar Yilmaz, Marc Ruppolt, H Holger Capelle, Volker Tronnier, Joachim K Krauss
BACKGROUND: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by paroxysmal pain attacks affecting the somatosensory distributions of the trigeminal nerve. It is thought to be associated with a neurovascular conflict most frequently, but pathomechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In general, no sensory deficit is found in routine clinical examination. There is limited data available, however, showing subtle subclinical sensory deficits upon extensive testing. OBJECTIVE: We used quantitative sensory testing (QST) to detect abnormalities in sensory processing in patients with TN by comparing the affected and non-affected nerve branches with their contralateral counterparts and by comparing the results of the patients with those of controls...
September 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642807/historiography-affect-and-the-neurosciences
#19
Larry S McGrath
Recent historiography has put to rest debates over whether to address the neurosciences. The question is how? In this article, I stage a dialogue between neurohistory and the history of the emotions. My primary goal is to survey these two clusters and clarify their conceptual commitments. Both center on the role of affect in embodied subjectivity; but their accounts widely diverge. Whereas neurohistorians tend to treat affects as automatic bodily processes, historians of the emotions generally emphasize that affects are meaningful and volitional activities...
September 19, 2016: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618632/clinical-neuropsychology-in-south-korea
#20
Myung-Sun Kim, Jeanyung Chey
OBJECTIVE: Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. METHOD: The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. RESULTS: We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea...
November 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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