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History of neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154287/did-you-know-that-your-animals-have-consciousness
#1
P A Accorsi, E Mondo, M Cocchi
Consciousness is the greatest enigma in human history. For centuries scientists and researchers have tried to describe it without coming to conclusions. In the last years with the neurosciences development, consciousness has become the common goal of numerous studies. But consciousness has always been studied only in humans, but after "Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness" in 2012, even non-human animalsthey feel possessed of the consciousness. According to "theory Orch-OR" of Hameroff and Penrose we have conducted a study on Alaskan malamute and German shepherd to analysed a triplet of platelet fatty acids (linoleic acid; palmitic acid; arachidonic acid)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142094/standardized-automated-training-of-rhesus-monkeys-for-neuroscience-research-in-their-housing-environment
#2
Michael Berger, Antonino Calapai, Valeska Stephan, Michael Niessing, Leonore Burchardt, Alexander Gail, Stefan Treue
Teaching non-human primates the complex cognitive behavioral tasks that are central to cognitive neuroscience research is an essential and challenging endeavor. It is crucial for the scientific success that the animals learn to interpret the often complex task rules, and reliably and enduringly act accordingly. To achieve consistent behavior and comparable learning histories across animals, it is desirable to standardize training protocols. Automatizing the training can significantly reduce the time invested by the person training the animal...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135273/-neuroscience-of-mental-flexibility
#3
Zoltán Janka
Mental flexibility enabling shifts from the usual prepotent behaviour to new strategies and solutions is a significant factor in the successful adaptation to the changing environment. Components of mental flexibility comprise attention, salience detection, inhibition, working memory and switch processes which can be measured by neurocognitive tests. Data derived from examinations by the methods of cognitive neuroscience can be compared to the features, observed under resting state and during task performance, of brain structures and functions...
November 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117032/a-preliminary-observational-study-of-anovulatory-uterine-bleeding-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#4
Suzanne M Brown, Susan W Fifield, Michael A Pizzi, David Alejos, Alexa N Richie, Tri A Dinh, William P Cheshire, Shon E Meek, William D Freeman
INTRODUCTION: It was observed that women with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) tended to have earlier menses than a typical 21- to 28-day cycle. The goal was to determine whether there is an association between aSAH and early onset of menses. METHODS: All cases of aSAH in women aged 18 to 55 years who were admitted to our facility's neuroscience intensive care unit from June 1, 2011, to June 30, 2012, were reviewed. The electronic healthcare record for each of these patients was examined for documentation of menses onset, computed tomography of the head, brain aneurysm characteristics, modified Fisher score and Glasgow Coma Scale on admission, presence/absence of vasospasm, medical/surgical history, and use of medications that affect the menstrual cycle...
December 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114309/pneumocephalus-following-dorsal-laminectomy-an-unusual-complication
#5
Brajesh Kumar, Chirantan Banerjee, Samarendra Nath Ghosh
A 16-year-old male presented at Bangur Institute of Neurosciences Neurosurgery Outpatient Department with history of gradually progressive paraparesis for 5 months associated with stiffness, urinary hesitancy, and urge incontinence for last 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging spine was done which showed cystic intradural extramedullary space occupying lesion at D4/D5 to D9. Patient had 2 episodes of generalized tonic-clonic seizure on the day 4. Computed tomography scan showed pneumocephalus. Histopathological examination report was that of nonspecific inflammatory cyst...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105063/distinguishing-characteristics-of-headache-in-nontraumatic-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#6
Brian Mac Grory, Linh Vu, Shawna Cutting, Evadne Marcolini, Christopher Gottschalk, David Greer
INTRODUCTION: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening emergency that is frequently missed due to its varied and often subtle presentation. The most common presentation of SAH is with a severe headache. The classical adjective used in SAH is "thunderclap"; however, this has not been well defined in the literature, rendering it a challenge to triage patients in clinical practice presenting with severe headache. METHODS: We undertook a prospective, observational study at a tertiary academic medical center examining the clinical characteristics of the presenting headache in SAH...
November 4, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054772/through-clinical-observation-the-history-of-priapism-after-spinal-cord-injuries
#7
REVIEW
Mihaela Dana Turliuc, Serban Turliuc, Andrei Ionut Cucu, Camelia Tamas, Alexandru Carauleanu, Catalin Buzduga, Anca Sava, Gabriela Florenta Dumitrescu, Claudia Florida Costea
Since ancient times, the physicians of Antiquity noted the occurrence of priapism in some spinal cord injuries. Although priests saw it as a consequence of curses and witchcraft, after clinical observations of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, first medical hypotheses emerged in the 17(th)-19(th) centuries completed and argued by neuroscience and neurology developed in the European laboratories and hospitals. This study aims to present a short overview of the history of clinical observations of posttraumatic male priapism after spinal cord injuries since Antiquity until the beginning of the 20(th) century...
October 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053770/tourette-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-social-decision-making-network
#8
Roger L Albin
Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic involuntary movements, tics, with both motor and phonic components. Tourette syndrome is usually conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, with an emphasis on striatal dysfunction. While considerable evidence is consistent with these concepts, imaging data suggest diffuse functional and structural abnormalities in Tourette syndrome brain. Tourette syndrome exhibits features that are difficult to explain solely based on basal ganglia circuit dysfunctions...
August 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042216/mapping-human-brain-lesions-and-their-functional-consequences
#9
REVIEW
Hans-Otto Karnath, Christoph Sperber, Christopher Rorden
Neuroscience has a long history of inferring brain function by examining the relationship between brain injury and subsequent behavioral impairments. The primary advantage of this method over correlative methods is that it can tell us if a certain brain region is necessary for a given cognitive function. In addition, lesion-based analyses provide unique insights into clinical deficits. In the last decade, statistical voxel-based lesion behavior mapping (VLBM) emerged as a powerful method for understanding the architecture of the human brain...
October 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033793/from-serotonin-to-neuroplasticity-evolvement-of-theories-for-major-depressive-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Bangshan Liu, Jin Liu, Mi Wang, Yan Zhang, Lingjiang Li
The serotonin (5-HT) hypothesis of depression has played an important role in the history of psychiatry, yet it has also been criticized for the delayed onset and inadequate efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). With evolvement of neuroscience, the neuroplasticity hypothesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been proposed and may provide a better framework for clarification the pathogenesis of MDD and antidepressant efficacy. In this article, we first summarized the evidence challenging the monoamine hypothesis and proposed that the antidepressant efficacy of SSRIs is not derived from elevated monoamine (5-HT, noradrenaline (NE), or dopamine (DA)) concentration or monoamine neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030249/sex-as-a-biological-variable-drug-use-and-abuse
#11
Anthony L Riley, Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen
The study of sex as a biological variable is a necessary emphasis across a wide array of endpoints, including basic neuroscience, medicine, mental health, physiology and behavior. The present review summarizes work from clinical and preclinical populations on sex differences in drug use and abuse, ranging from initiation to escalation/dysregulation and from drug cessation/abstinence to relapse. These differences are analyzed in the context of the addiction cycle conceptualization of Koob and his colleagues and address patterns of drug use (binge/intoxication), motivation underlying its use (withdrawal/negative affect) and likelihood and causes of craving and relapse of drug taking (anticipation/preoccupation)...
October 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993966/neuroscience-in-nigeria-the-past-the-present-and-the-future
#12
Wasiu Gbolahan Balogun, Ansa Emmanuel Cobham, Abdulbasit Amin
The science of the brain and nervous system cuts across almost all aspects of human life and is one of the fastest growing scientific fields worldwide. This necessitates the demand for pragmatic investment by all nations to ensure improved education and quality of research in Neurosciences. Although obvious efforts are being made in advancing the field in developed societies, there is limited data addressing the state of neuroscience in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we review the state of neuroscience development in Nigeria, Africa's most populous country and its largest economy, critically evaluating the history, the current situation and future projections...
October 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992053/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-approaches-to-understanding-trade-offs-food-sex-aggression-stress-and-longevity-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#13
Jill E Schneider, Pierre Deviche
Life history strategies are composed of multiple fitness components, each of which incurs costs and benefits. Consequently, organisms cannot maximize all fitness components simultaneously. This situation results in a dynamic array of trade-offs in which some fitness traits prevail at the expense of others, often depending on context. The identification of specific constraints and trade-offs has helped elucidate physiological mechanisms that underlie variation in behavioral and physiological life history strategies...
September 11, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959219/investigating-behavioral-and-psychophysiological-reactions-to-conflict-related-and-individualized-stimuli-as-potential-correlates-of-repression
#14
Henrik Kessler, Anna Christine Schmidt, Oliver Hildenbrand, Daniela Scharf, Aram Kehyayan, Nikolai Axmacher
Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which "unbearable" mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts) are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theoretical background. This relationship is particularly relevant because it relates repression to current research in the affective neurosciences as well as to experimental studies on emotion regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957017/why-do-similarity-matching-objectives-lead-to-hebbian-anti-hebbian-networks
#15
Cengiz Pehlevan, Anirvan M Sengupta, Dmitri B Chklovskii
Modeling self-organization of neural networks for unsupervised learning using Hebbian and anti-Hebbian plasticity has a long history in neuroscience. Yet derivations of single-layer networks with such local learning rules from principled optimization objectives became possible only recently, with the introduction of similarity matching objectives. What explains the success of similarity matching objectives in deriving neural networks with local learning rules? Here, using dimensionality reduction as an example, we introduce several variable substitutions that illuminate the success of similarity matching...
September 28, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926765/texture-and-art-with-deep-neural-networks
#16
REVIEW
Leon A Gatys, Alexander S Ecker, Matthias Bethge
Although the study of biological vision and computer vision attempt to understand powerful visual information processing from different angles, they have a long history of informing each other. Recent advances in texture synthesis that were motivated by visual neuroscience have led to a substantial advance in image synthesis and manipulation in computer vision using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Here, we review these recent advances and discuss how they can in turn inspire new research in visual perception and computational neuroscience...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920067/a-history-of-dystonia-ancient-to-modern
#17
REVIEW
Rachel E Newby, Deborah E Thorpe, Peter A Kempster, Jane E Alty
Before 1911, when Hermann Oppenheim introduced the term dystonia, this movement disorder lacked a unifying descriptor. While words like epilepsy, apoplexy, and palsy have had their meanings since antiquity, references to dystonia are much harder to identify in historical documents. Torticollis is an exception, although there is difficulty distinguishing dystonic torticollis from congenital muscular torticollis. There are, nevertheless, possible representations of dystonia in literature and visual art from the pre-modern world...
July 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859557/pneumoencephalography-in-the-workup-of-neuropsychiatric-illnesses-a-historical-perspective
#18
Mariam Ishaque, David J Wallace, Ramesh Grandhi
Throughout history, neurosurgical procedures have been fundamental in advancing neuroscience; however, this has not always been without deleterious side effects or harmful consequences. While critical to the progression of clinical neuroscience during the early 20th century, yet, at the same time, poorly tolerated by patients, pneumoencephalography is one such procedure that exemplifies this juxtaposition. Presented herein are historical perspectives and reflections on the role of the pneumoencephalography in the diagnosis and treatment of neuropsychiatric illnesses...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835240/sharing-histories-a-transformative-learning-teaching-method-to-empower-community-health-workers-to-support-health-behavior-change-of-mothers
#19
Laura C Altobelli
BACKGROUND: One of the keys to improving health globally is promoting mothers' adoption of healthy home practices for improved nutrition and illness prevention in the first 1000 days of life from conception. Customarily, mothers are taught health messages which, even if simplified, are hard to remember. The challenge is how to promote learning and behavior change of mothers more effectively in low-resource settings where access to health information is poor, educational levels are low, and traditional beliefs are strong...
August 23, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831545/how-the-humble-insect-brain-became-a-powerful-experimental-model-system
#20
REVIEW
Heinrich Reichert
In the 21st century, neurobiological studies focused on the insect brain are revealing unprecedented insight into the molecular, cellular, developmental, and circuit aspects of brain organization and function, notably in the genetic model system of Drosophila melanogaster. Underlying this accelerating progress in understanding the insect brain is a century-long history of ground breaking experimental investigation, methodological advance, and conceptual insight catalyzed by the integration of two emerging research fields, neuroscience and genetics...
November 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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