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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089652/hippocampal-prefrontal-connectivity-as-a-translational-phenotype-for-schizophrenia
#1
REVIEW
Florian Bähner, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Finding novel biological targets in psychiatry has been difficult, partly because current diagnostic categories are not defined by pathophysiology and difficult to model in animals. The study of species-conserved systems-level mechanisms implicated in psychiatric disease could be a promising strategy to address some of these difficulties. Altered hippocampal-prefrontal (HC-PFC) connectivity during working memory (WM) processing is a candidate for such a translational phenotype as it has been repeatedly associated with impaired cognition in schizophrenia patients and animal models for psychiatric risk factors...
January 12, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079793/oral-health-related-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-patients-under-general-anesthesia-a-prospective-study
#2
Lanlan Li, Hongwei Wang, Xueping Han
Our goal was to evaluate how dental treatments under general anesthesia (GA) affect the quality of life by a prospective pair-matched design. Pediatric patients, who had received dental treatments under GA, were enrolled and were asked to complete the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) before the treatment and 1 month after the treatment. To shield the observed impacts, a pair-matched control group was performed. Patients in the control group were also required to complete the ECOHIS at these different points in time...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079566/retesting-the-hypothesis-of-a-clinical-randomized-controlled-trial-in-a-simulation-environment-to-validate-anesthesia-simulation-in-error-research-the-vaser-study
#3
Alan F Merry, Jacqueline A Hannam, Craig S Webster, Kylie-Ellen Edwards, Jane Torrie, Chris Frampton, Daniel W Wheeler, Arun K Gupta, Ravi P Mahajan, Rachel Evley, Jennifer M Weller
BACKGROUND: Simulation has been used to investigate clinical questions in anesthesia, surgery, and related disciplines, but there are few data demonstrating that results apply to clinical settings. We asked "would results of a simulation-based study justify the same principal conclusions as those of a larger clinical study?" METHODS: We compared results from a randomized controlled trial in a simulated environment involving 80 cases at three centers with those from a randomized controlled trial in a clinical environment involving 1,075 cases...
January 12, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078617/changes-in-the-first-postoperative-night-bispectral-index-of-patients-after-thyroidectomy-with-different-types-of-primary-anesthetic-management-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Wen-Fei Tan, Zhi-Lin Wang, Hong Ma, Feng Jin, Huang-Wei Lu
Despite major advances in anesthesia management and developments in anesthetic agents, postoperative sleep disturbances remain dissatisfactory for many patients. We hypothesized that propofol might have a subtle influence on sleep after thyroidectomy compared to sevoflurane. A randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial was conducted at the First Hospital of China Medical University from October 2014 to October 2015. One hundred and twenty-four patients undergoing thyroidectomy were enrolled and received sevoflurane (sevoflurane group) or propofol (propofol group) as anesthesia maintenance...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053912/management-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-a-treacher-collins-syndrome-patient-using-distraction-osteogenesis-of-the-mandible
#5
İbrahim Damlar, Ahmet Altan, Berk Turgay, Soydan Kiliç
In this study, we present the surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in a child with Treacher Collins syndrome. A 10-year-old girl with a past history of Treacher Collins syndrome presented to our clinic with her parents for respiratory distress and insomnia. The patient was referred to a sleep laboratory where she was diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea, which was a consequence of her Treacher Collins syndrome. The patient underwent mandibular distraction osteogenesis under general anesthesia. The mandible was expanded by 15 mm using internal bilateral distractors...
December 2016: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045036/speed-hysteresis-and-noise-shaping-of-traveling-fronts-in-neural-fields-role-of-local-circuitry-and-nonlocal-connectivity
#6
Cristiano Capone, Maurizio Mattia
Neural field models are powerful tools to investigate the richness of spatiotemporal activity patterns like waves and bumps, emerging from the cerebral cortex. Understanding how spontaneous and evoked activity is related to the structure of underlying networks is of central interest to unfold how information is processed by these systems. Here we focus on the interplay between local properties like input-output gain function and recurrent synaptic self-excitation of cortical modules, and nonlocal intermodular synaptic couplings yielding to define a multiscale neural field...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011172/wake-sleep-and-cardiovascular-regulatory-changes-in-rats-made-obese-by-a-high-fat-diet
#7
Marco Luppi, Abed A Al-Jahmany, Flavia Del Vecchio, Matteo Cerri, Alessia Di Cristoforo, Timna Hitrec, Davide Martelli, Emanuele Perez, Giovanni Zamboni, Roberto Amici
Obesity is known to be associated with alterations in wake-sleep (WS) architecture and cardiovascular parameters. This study was aimed at assessing the possible influence of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on sleep homeostasis and on the WS state-dependent levels of arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate in the rat. Two groups of age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high-fat hypercaloric diet, leading to DIO, or a normocaloric standard diet (lean controls) for 8 weeks. While under general anesthesia, animals were implanted with instrumentation for the recording of electroencephalogram, electromyogram, arterial pressure, and deep brain temperature...
December 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979371/melatonin-premedication-improves-quality-of-recovery-following-bariatric-surgery-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-prospective-study
#8
Michal Ivry, Goitein David, Welly Wiam, Berkenstadt Haim
BACKGROUND: Melatonin has hypnotic, sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, and is a widely used sleep agent. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of melatonin premedication on postoperative recovery in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. SETTING: University Hospital, Israel. METHODS: Patients undergoing bariatric surgery were randomized to receive either 5 mg melatonin (M group) or placebo (P group) once on the night before surgery and again 2 hours before surgery...
November 3, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973611/publication-trends-in-acupuncture-research-a-20-year-bibliometric-analysis-based-on-pubmed
#9
Yan Ma, Ming Dong, Kehua Zhou, Carol Mita, Jianping Liu, Peter M Wayne
OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture has become popular and widely practiced in many countries around the world. Despite the large amount of acupuncture-related literature that has been published, broader trends in the prevalence and scope of acupuncture research remain underexplored. The current study quantitatively analyzes trends in acupuncture research publications in the past 20 years. METHODS: A bibliometric approach was used to search PubMed for all acupuncture-related research articles including clinical and animal studies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920726/hrvanalysis-a-free-software-for-analyzing-cardiac-autonomic-activity
#10
Vincent Pichot, Frédéric Roche, Sébastien Celle, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Florian Chouchou
Since the pioneering studies of the 1960s, heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly used non-invasive tool for examining cardiac autonomic functions and dysfunctions in various populations and conditions. Many calculation methods have been developed to address these issues, each with their strengths and weaknesses. Although, its interpretation may remain difficult, this technique provides, from a non-invasive approach, reliable physiological information that was previously inaccessible, in many fields including death and health prediction, training and overtraining, cardiac and respiratory rehabilitation, sleep-disordered breathing, large cohort follow-ups, children's autonomic status, anesthesia, or neurophysiological studies...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918326/anesthetic-considerations-for-patients-with-congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#11
Saptashree M Basu, Frances F Chung, Shireen F AbdelHakim, Jean Wong
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a form of sleep-disordered breathing characterized by a diminished drive to breathe during sleep, despite progressive hypercapnia and hypoxia. The condition results from mutations in the paired-like homeobox 2B (PHOX2B) gene. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic search of the current data on CCHS as it relates to perioperative considerations and to discuss the classification, prevalence, pathophysiology, presentation, genetics, and management of the condition...
January 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909989/orexin-and-central-modulation-of-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-function
#12
Pascal Carrive, Tomoyuki Kuwaki
Orexin makes an important contribution to the regulation of cardiorespiratory function. When injected centrally under anesthesia, orexin increases blood pressure, heart rate, sympathetic nerve activity, and the amplitude and frequency of respiration. This is consistent with the location of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus and the distribution of orexin terminals at all levels of the central autonomic and respiratory network. These cardiorespiratory responses are components of arousal and are necessary to allow the expression of motivated behaviors...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906717/spectrum-of-postoperative-complications-in-pulmonary-hypertension-and-obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome
#13
Roop K Kaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to identify chronic pulmonary conditions which may often not be recognized preoperatively especially before elective noncardiac surgery and which carry the highest risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: This review discusses some of the most recent studies that highlight the perioperative complications, and their prevention and management strategies. SUMMARY: Pulmonary hypertension is a well recognized risk factor for postoperative complications after cardiac surgery but the literature surrounding noncardiac surgery is sparse...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898430/an-update-on-the-various-practical-applications-of-the-stop-bang-questionnaire-in-anesthesia-surgery-and-perioperative-medicine
#14
Mahesh Nagappa, Jean Wong, Mandeep Singh, David T Wong, Frances Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to provide an update on the various practical applications of the STOP-Bang questionnaire in anesthesia, surgery, and perioperative medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: The STOP-Bang questionnaire was originally validated as a screening tool to identify surgical patients who are at high-risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A recent meta-analysis confirmed that STOP-Bang is validated for use in the sleep clinic, surgical, and general population...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891080/enhanced-burst-suppression-and-disruption-of-local-field-potential-synchrony-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-exhibiting-spike-wave-seizures
#15
Anthony J Williams, Chen Zhou, Qian-Quan Sun
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890061/preoperative-screening-for-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-children-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
Erin E Bauer, Rebecca Lee, Yasmine N Campbell
Clinicians frequently underestimate or do not assess sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children in ambulatory surgical centers. Identifying the disorder and obtaining information relevant to anesthesia management can be assisted by the use of a standard questionnaire during preoperative assessment. We wanted to determine whether a preoperative screening tool increases clinician awareness of SDB in children and leads to a decrease in perioperative respiratory adverse events. We reviewed 21 articles to identify reliable screening tools for pediatric SDB in ambulatory surgical centers and selected six articles for the review...
December 2016: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885537/safety-analysis-of-bariatric-patients-undergoing-outpatient-upper-endoscopy-with-non-anesthesia-administered-propofol-sedation
#17
Tyler McVay, John C Fang, Linda Taylor, Alexander Au, Wesley Williams, Angela P Presson, Ragheed Al-Dulaimi, Eric Volckmann, Anna Ibele
BACKGROUND: Non-anesthesia administered propofol (NAAP) has been shown to be a safe and effective method of sedation for patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. Bariatric surgery patients are potentially at a higher risk for sedation-related complications due to co-morbidities including obstructive sleep apnea. The outcomes of NAAP in bariatric patients have not been previously reported. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, severely obese patients undergoing pre-surgical outpatient esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) were compared to non-obese control patients (BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2)) undergoing diagnostic EGD at our institution from March 2011-September 2015 using our endoscopy database...
November 24, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883901/tapping-the-brakes-cellular-and-synaptic-mechanisms-that-regulate-thalamic-oscillations
#18
REVIEW
P Michelle Fogerson, John R Huguenard
Thalamic oscillators contribute to both normal rhythms associated with sleep and anesthesia and abnormal, hypersynchronous oscillations that manifest behaviorally as absence seizures. In this review, we highlight new findings that refine thalamic contributions to cortical rhythms and suggest that thalamic oscillators may be subject to both local and global control. We describe endogenous thalamic mechanisms that limit network synchrony and discuss how these protective brakes might be restored to prevent absence seizures...
November 23, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872353/feed-and-wrap-mri-technique-in-infants
#19
Nina K Antonov, Carrie B Ruzal-Shapiro, Kimberly D Morel, William S Millar, Sudha Kashyap, Christine T Lauren, Maria C Garzon
The feed and wrap technique refers to the use of feeding and swaddling to induce natural sleep in infants. It can be used prior to an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, avoiding sedation or anesthesia. We performed a retrospective review of feed and wrap MRI scans in infants 3 months or younger over a 2-year period at our center (279 scans) to evaluate the efficacy of this technique. Of scan results reviewed, 79% addressed the clinical question, 20% partially addressed the clinical question, and 1% were technically inadequate...
November 20, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861433/understanding-phenotypes-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-applications-in-anesthesia-surgery-and-perioperative-medicine
#20
Yamini Subramani, Mandeep Singh, Jean Wong, Clete A Kushida, Atul Malhotra, Frances Chung
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep-disordered breathing with potential long-term major neurocognitive and cardiovascular sequelae. The pathophysiology of OSA varies between individuals and is composed of different underlying mechanisms. Several components including the upper airway anatomy, effectiveness of the upper airway dilator muscles such as the genioglossus, arousal threshold of the individual, and inherent stability of the respiratory control system determine the pathogenesis of OSA...
January 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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