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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928982/heterogeneity-and-the-origins-of-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca Scherzer, Mitchell H Grayson
OBJECTIVE: It is a well-known fact that there is significant heterogeneity in the origins of asthma in adults and children. This article examines the roots of asthma across the ages including atopy, the role of the microbiome and viral infections, along with comorbidities/confounders such as obesity, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), neutrophilic asthma, cigarette smoking and the possibility of an asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome. DATA SOURCES: Data was taken from various scientific search engines including PubMed and Science Direct databases...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928523/muscle-atrophy-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-molecular-basis-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#2
REVIEW
Esther Barreiro, Ariel Jaitovich
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience several systemic manifestations such skeletal muscle dysfunction with and without muscle mass loss. Moreover, frequent comorbidities such as nutritional abnormalities, heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension, which are frequently associated with COPD may further contribute to skeletal muscle mass loss and dysfunction. Muscle dysfunction impairs the patients' exercise capacity and quality of life as daily life activities may be hampered by this problem...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928521/pulmonary-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-an-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
REVIEW
Sarah E Jones, Ruth E Barker, Claire M Nolan, Suhani Patel, Matthew Maddocks, William D C Man
Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are one of the most common causes of emergency hospital admission and place great burden upon healthcare systems. Furthermore, AECOPD represent an important life event for patients, and are associated with significant reductions in physical activity, skeletal muscle function, exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life. Pulmonary rehabilitation, an intervention comprising supervised exercise-training and education, may counteract these negative consequences and target modifiable risk factors for hospital readmission...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928520/can-muscle-protein-metabolism-be-specifically-targeted-by-nutritional-support-and-exercise-training-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
REVIEW
Ramzi Lakhdar, Roberto A Rabinovich
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associates with several extra-pulmonary effects. Muscle dysfunction and wasting is one of the most prominent extra-pulmonary effects and contributes to exercise limitation and health related quality of life (HRQoL), morbidity as well as mortality. The loss of muscle mass is characterised by an impaired balance between protein synthesis (anabolism) and protein breakdown (catabolism) which relates to nutritional disturbances, muscle disuse and the presence of a systemic inflammation, among other factors...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928519/can-muscle-protein-metabolism-be-specifically-targeted-by-exercise-training-in-copd
#5
REVIEW
Davina C M Simoes, Ioannis Vogiatzis
Patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) frequently exhibit unintentional accentuated peripheral muscle loss and dysfunction. Skeletal muscle mass in these patients is a strong independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. Factors including protein anabolism/catabolism imbalance, hypoxia, physical inactivity, inflammation, and oxidative stress are involved in the initiation and progression of muscle wasting in these patients. Exercise training remains the most powerful intervention for reversing, in part, muscle wasting in COPD...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928518/effects-of-aging-and-comorbidities-on-nutritional-status-and-muscle-dysfunction-in-patients-with-copd
#6
REVIEW
Bruno-Pierre Dubé, Pierantonio Laveneziana
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent, complex and debilitating disease which imposes a formidable burden on patients and the healthcare system. The recognition that COPD is a multifaceted disease is not new, and increasing evidence have outlined the importance of its extra-pulmonary manifestations and its relation to other comorbid conditions in the clinical course of the disease and its societal cost. The relationship between aging, COPD and its comorbidities on skeletal muscle function and nutritional status is complex, multidirectional and incompletely understood...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928517/nutritional-status-and-muscle-dysfunction-in-chronic-respiratory-diseases-stable-phase-versus-acute-exacerbations
#7
REVIEW
Joaquim Gea, Antoni Sancho-Muñoz, Roberto Chalela
Nutritional abnormalities are frequent in different chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis (CF), interstitial fibrosis and lung cancer, having important clinical consequences. However, nutritional abnormalities often remained underdiagnosed due to the relative lack of awareness of health professionals. Therefore, systematic anthropometry or even better, assessment of body composition, should be performed in all patients with chronic respiratory conditions, especially following exacerbation periods when malnutrition becomes more accentuated...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928118/inhaled-glycopyrrolate-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
REVIEW
Donald P Tashkin, Nicholas J Gross
Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), along with long-acting β2 -agonists (LABAs), are the mainstay for treatment of patients with COPD. Glycopyrrolate, or glycopyrronium bromide, like other LAMAs, inhibits parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic receptors. Glycopyrrolate is unusual in that it preferentially binds to M3 over M2 muscarinic receptors, thereby specifically targeting the primary muscarinic receptor responsible for bronchoconstriction occurring in COPD...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927965/genetic-profile-and-patient-reported-outcomes-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-systematic-review
#9
Hélder Melro, Jorge Gomes, Gabriela Moura, Alda Marques
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) impacts differently on patients at similar grades, suggesting that factors other than lung function may influence patients' experience of the disease. Recent studies have found associations between genetic variations and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Identifying these associations might be fundamental to predict the disease progression and develop tailored interventions. This systematic review aimed to identify the genetic variations associated with PROs in COPD...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927641/disparities-in-smoking-cessation-assistance-in-us-primary-care-clinics
#10
Steffani R Bailey, John Heintzman, R Lorie Jacob, Jon Puro, Miguel Marino
OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between patient factors and smoking cessation assistance in US safety-net clinics. METHODS: Using electronic health record data from the OCHIN network, we identified adults with at least 1 primary care visit to a study clinic (n = 143 clinics in 12 states) with at least 1 documented "current smoker" status during 2014 to 2016 (n = 136 314; 29.8%). We estimated odds ratios (ORs) of smoking cessation assistance receipt (none [reference], counseling, medication, or both) by patient covariates...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927346/the-effect-of-medical-technology-innovations-on-patient-outcomes-1990-2015-results-of-a-physician-survey
#11
David E Wamble, Michael Ciarametaro, Robert Dubois
BACKGROUND: Developments in diagnostics, medical devices, procedures, and prescription drugs have increased life expectancy and quality of life after diagnosis for many diseases. Previous research has shown that, overall, increased investment in medical technology has led to increased health outcomes. In addition, the value of investment in specific innovations, particularly in new pharmaceuticals or biopharmaceuticals, has frequently been shown through an evaluation of the associated health outcomes and costs...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927029/modified-peptide-inhibitors-of-the-keap1-nrf2-protein-protein-interaction-incorporating-unnatural-amino-acids
#12
Nikolaos D Georgakopoulos, Sandeep K Talapatra, Jemma Gatliff, Frank Kozielski, Geoff Wells
Non-covalent inhibitors of the Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction (PPI) have therapeutic potential in a range of disease states including neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and various inflammatory conditions. By stalling Keap1-mediated ubiquitination of Nrf2, such compounds can enhance Nrf2 transcriptional activity and activate the expression of a range of genes with antioxidant response elements (AREs) in their promoter regions. Keap1 inhibitors have been identified based on peptide and small molecule templates...
June 21, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927005/community-pharmacist-led-interventions-and-their-impact-on-patients-medication-adherence-and-other-health-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Aleksandra Milosavljevic, Trudi Aspden, Jeff Harrison
INTRODUCTION: Medication adherence can be defined as the extent to which one's medication-taking behaviour follows that mutually agreed upon by the prescribing physician. Optimal medication adherence is often deemed crucial for the success of a patient's treatment, as suboptimal adherence may lead to treatment failure and unnecessary medical expenditure. Increasing evidence has highlighted the positive contribution community pharmacist-led interventions can have on improving patients' adherence and health outcomes...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926908/intensive-care-doctors-preferences-for-arterial-oxygen-tension-levels-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#14
O L Schjørring, A P Toft-Petersen, K H Kusk, P Mouncey, E E Sørensen, P Berezowicz, M H Bestle, H-H Bülow, H Bundgaard, S Christensen, S A Iversen, I Kirkeby-Garstad, K B Krarup, M Kruse, J H Laake, L Liboriussen, R L Laebel, M Okkonen, L M Poulsen, L Russell, F Sjövall, K Sunde, E Søreide, T Waldau, A R Walli, A Perner, J Wetterslev, B S Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Oxygen is liberally administered in intensive care units (ICUs). Nevertheless, ICU doctors' preferences for supplementing oxygen are inadequately described. The aim was to identify ICU doctors' preferences for arterial oxygenation levels in mechanically ventilated adult ICU patients. METHODS: In April to August 2016, an online multiple-choice 17-part-questionnaire was distributed to 1080 ICU doctors in seven Northern European countries. Repeated reminder e-mails were sent...
June 21, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926556/optimal-bronchodilation-for-copd-patients-are-all-long-acting-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-agonist-long-acting-muscarinic-antagonists-the-same
#15
REVIEW
Marc Miravitlles, Seungjae Baek, Vatsal Vithlani, Rahul Lad
Bronchodilators provide improvements in lung function and reductions in symptoms and exacerbations, and are the mainstay of pharmacological management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease strategy recommends the use of a combination of long-acting β₂-agonist/long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LABA/LAMA) as the first-line treatment option in the majority of symptomatic patients with COPD. This review provides an indirect comparison of available LABA/LAMA fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) through discussion of important efficacy and safety data from the key literature, with the objective of providing physicians with a framework for informed decision-making...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926554/revised-2018-copd-clinical-practice-guideline-of-the-korean-academy-of-tuberculosis-and-respiratory-disease-a-summary
#16
REVIEW
Yong Bum Park, Chin Kook Rhee, Hyoung Kyu Yoon, Yeon Mok Oh, Seong Yong Lim, Jin Hwa Lee, Kwang Ha Yoo, Joong Hyun Ahn
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in high morbidity and mortality among patients nationally and globally. The Korean clinical practice guideline for COPD was revised in 2018. The guideline was drafted by the members of the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases as well as the participating members of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, Korean Physicians' Association, and Korea Respiration Trouble Association. The revised guideline encompasses a wide range of topics, including the epidemiology, diagnosis, assessment, monitoring, management, exacerbation, and comorbidities of COPD in Korea...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926552/incidence-of-adverse-effects-and-discontinuation-rate-between-patients-receiving-250-micrograms-and-500-micrograms-of-roflumilast-a-comparative-study
#17
Hyonsoo Joo, Deokjae Han, Jae Ha Lee, Chin Kook Rhee
BACKGROUND: Roflumilast is the only approved oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients with chronic bronchitis and a history of frequent exacerbations. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of adverse effects associated with roflumilast treatment in a real-world setting. Further, we compared the incidence of adverse effects and the discontinuation rate among patients receiving different doses...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925846/-a-palliative-end-stage-copd-patient-does-not-exist-a-qualitative-study-of-barriers-to-and-facilitators-for-early-integration-of-palliative-home-care-for-end-stage-copd
#18
Charlotte Scheerens, Luc Deliens, Simon Van Belle, Guy Joos, Peter Pype, Kenneth Chambaere
Early integration of palliative home care (PHC) might positively affect people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, PHC as a holistic approach is not well integrated in clinical practice at the end-stage COPD. General practitioners (GPs) and community nurses (CNs) are highly involved in primary and home care and could provide valuable perspectives about barriers to and facilitators for early integrated PHC in end-stage COPD. Three focus groups were organised with GPs (n = 28) and four with CNs (n = 28), transcribed verbatim and comparatively analysed...
June 20, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925836/identifying-patients-with-asthma-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-overlap-syndrome-using-latent-class-analysis-of-electronic-health-record-data-a-study-protocol
#19
Mohammad A Al Sallakh, Sarah E Rodgers, Ronan A Lyons, Aziz Sheikh, Gwyneth A Davies
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two common different clinical diagnoses with overlapping clinical features. Both conditions have been increasingly studied using electronic health records (EHR). Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) is an emerging concept where clinical features from both conditions co-exist, and for which, however, there is no consensus definition. Nonetheless, we expect EHR data of people with ACOS to be systematically different from those with "asthma only" or "COPD only"...
June 20, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925707/periodontitis-modifies-the-association-between-smoking-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-japanese-men
#20
Jane Harland, Michiko Furuta, Kenji Takeuchi, Shunichi Tanaka, Yoshihisa Yamashita
Periodontitis was reported to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and both diseases are related to smoking. To identify associations between periodontitis, smoking, and COPD, this cross-sectional study enrolled 1474 Japanese men (mean age 55.2 ± 8.9 years) surveyed between 2003 and 2006. Periodontal status was evaluated by using the community periodontal index. Periodontitis was defined as the presence of at least one sextant with a pocket depth ≥4 mm. Lung function was measured by spirometry, and COPD was defined as ratio of forced expiratory volume after 1 second to forced vital capacity of <0...
2018: Journal of Oral Science
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