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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906081/vacht-overexpression-increases-acetylcholine-at-the-synaptic-cleft-and-accelerates-aging-of-neuromuscular-junctions
#1
Satoshi Sugita, Leland L Fleming, Caleb Wood, Sydney K Vaughan, Matheus P S M Gomes, Wallace Camargo, Ligia A Naves, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Cristina Guatimosim, Gregorio Valdez
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic dysfunction occurs during aging and in a variety of diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, it remains unknown whether changes in cholinergic transmission contributes to age- and disease-related degeneration of the motor system. Here we investigated the effect of moderately increasing levels of synaptic acetylcholine (ACh) on the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), muscle fibers, and motor neurons during development and aging and in a mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
October 5, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886082/ultra-low-power-optical-sensor-for-xylophagous-insect-detection-in-wood
#2
Angel Perles, Ricardo Mercado, Juan V Capella, Juan José Serrano
The early detection of pests is key for the maintenance of high-value masterpieces and historical buildings made of wood. In this work, we the present detailed design of an ultra-low power sensor device that permits the continuous monitoring of the presence of termites and other xylophagous insects. The operating principle of the sensor is based on the variations of reflected light induced by the presence of termites, and specific processing algorithms that deal with the behavior of the electronics and the natural ageing of components...
November 23, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862139/differential-diagnosis-of-hyponatraemia-moving-forward
#3
Ewout J Hoorn
Hyponatraemia is a resident's nightmare. A water balance disorder disguised as decreased serum sodium concentration. A plethora of diagnostic algorithms that seem to have been developed with the sole purpose of getting you lost as quickly as possible. Nothing but untrustworthy parameters to guide you through this dark wood. And when you finally see light at the end of the tunnel, there is always some staff member, alias electrolyte aficionado, who enjoys public interrogation and makes you feel you're back to square one...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833338/intraoperative-computed-tomography-in-bilateral-sagittal-split-osteotomy
#4
Jimoh Olubanwo Agbaje, Ahmed Sobhy Salem, Ivo Lambrichts, Luc Daems, Paul Legrand, Constantinus Politis
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to show the importance of intraoperative computed tomography as an aid for ensuring inferior alveolar nerve safety during bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included ten patients who underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy procedure. All patients were treated for orthognathic reasons. The unerupted lower third molars, if present, were removed at least 6 months prior to Sagittal Split Osteotomy...
December 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816032/factor-structure-and-psychometric-properties-of-a-state-version-of-the-body-appreciation-scale-2
#5
Kristin J Homan
Body appreciation is an important construct in the growing area of positive body image. It is often assessed with the recently revised Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015) and regarded as a trait-level variable. In light of the growing research interest in positive body image, there is a need for a validated measure of body appreciation that is sensitive to fluctuations in body appreciation; thus, the present study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of a state version of the BAS-2 (SBAS-2)...
December 2016: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796094/analysis-of-the-biotechnological-potential-of-a-lentinus-crinitus-isolate-in-the-light-of-its-secretome
#6
Geison Cambri, Mirta Mittelstedt Leal de Sousa, Davi de Miranda Fonseca, Fabricio Marchini, Joana Lea Meira da Silveira, Jaime Paba
Analysis of fungal secretomes is a prospection tool for the discovery of new catalysts with biotechnological application. Since enzyme secretion is strongly modulated by environmental factors, evaluation of growth conditions is of utmost importance to achieve optimal enzyme production. Here, a non-sequenced wood-rotting fungus, L. crinitus, was used for secretome analysis by enzymatic assays and a proteomics approach. Enzyme production was assessed after culturing the fungus in five different carbon sources and three nitrogen containing compounds...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773665/pulmonary-effects-of-immediate-versus-deferred-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-individuals-a-nested-substudy-within-the-multicentre-international-randomised-controlled-strategic-timing-of-antiretroviral-treatment-start-trial
#7
Ken M Kunisaki, Dennis E Niewoehner, Gary Collins, Bitten Aagaard, Nafisah B Atako, Elzbieta Bakowska, Amanda Clarke, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Ernest Ekong, Sean Emery, Elizabeth B Finley, Eric Florence, Rosa M Infante, Cissy M Kityo, Juan Sierra Madero, Daniel E Nixon, Ellen Tedaldi, Jørgen Vestbo, Robin Wood, John E Connett
BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771446/cherenkov-light-production-from-the-%C3%AE-emitting-decay-chains-of-223-ra-212-pb-and-149-tb-for-cherenkov-luminescence-imaging
#8
V Wood, N L Ackerman
Cherenkov Luminescence Imaging (CLI) is a new method to image radioactive therapeutic and diagnostic agents, primarily in preclinical studies. This study used Geant4 and Python to generate the predicted Cherenkov light production as a function of time for a set of isotopic chains of interest for targeted alpha therapy: (223)Ra, (212)Pb, and (149)Tb. All are shown to produce substantial Cherenkov light, though time delays between initial decays and the production of Cherenkov light requires caution in interpreting CLI...
October 12, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768773/optochemokine-tandem-for-light-control-of-intracellular-ca2
#9
Katrin Feldbauer, Jan Schlegel, Juliane Weissbecker, Frank Sauer, Phillip G Wood, Ernst Bamberg, Ulrich Terpitz
An optochemokine tandem was developed to control the release of calcium from endosomes into the cytosol by light and to analyze the internalization kinetics of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) by electrophysiology. A previously constructed rhodopsin tandem was re-engineered to combine the light-gated Ca2+-permeable cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2(L132C), CatCh, with the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in a functional tandem protein tCXCR4/CatCh. The GPCR was used as a shuttle protein to displace CatCh from the plasma membrane into intracellular areas...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753698/comparison-of-decompression-with-and-without-fusion-for-patients-with-synovial-facet-cysts
#10
Maarten van Dijke, Stein J Janssen, Thomas D Cha, Kirkham B Wood, Lawrence F Borges, Mitchel B Harris, Christopher M Bono, Joseph H Schwab
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To compare (1) recurrence of radiculopathy and (2) back pain after decompression with and without fusion for patients with a symptomatic synovial cyst. BACKGROUND: Previous work described favorable outcomes following cyst excision with and without fusion. Because of the association of facet cysts with spinal instability it is hypothesized that a decompression with fusion will lead to better outcomes...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726808/mycobacteria
#11
Patricia J Simner, Gail L Woods, Nancy L Wengenack
The immunocompromised host is at increased risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is a significant mycobacterial pathogen, nontuberculous mycobacteria causes substantial disease in those with suppressed immune responses. Mycobacterial infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in this patient population, and rapid identification and susceptibility testing of the mycobacterial species is paramount to patient management and outcomes...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723141/dendritic-cell-specific-transmembrane-protein-dc-stamp-regulates-osteoclast-differentiation-via-the-ca2-nfatc1-axis
#12
Ya-Hui Chiu, Edward Schwarz, Dongge Li, Yuexin Xu, Tzong-Ren Sheu, Jinbo Li, Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Changyong Feng, Baoli Wang, Jhih-Cheng Wang, Liz Albertorio-Saez, Ronald Wood, Minsoo Kim, Wensheng Wang, Christopher T Ritchlin
DC-STAMP is a multi-pass transmembrane protein essential for cell-cell fusion of osteoclast precursors during osteoclast (OC) development. DC-STAMP-/- mice have mild osteopetrosis and form mononuclear cells with limited resorption capacity. The identification of an Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Inhibitory Motif (ITIM) on the cytoplasmic tail of DC-STAMP suggested a potential signaling function but the absence of known DC-STAMP ligand has hindered examination of downstream signaling pathways. To address this problem, we engineered a light-activatable DC-STAMP chimeric molecule in which light exposure mimics ligand engagement that can be traced by downstream Ca2+ signaling...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716646/modelling-topical-photodynamic-therapy-treatment-including-the-continuous-production-of-protoporphyrin-ix
#13
C L Campbell, C T A Brown, K Wood, H Moseley
Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713817/vacht-overexpression-increases-acetylcholine-at-the-synaptic-cleft-and-accelerates-aging-of-neuromuscular-junctions
#14
Satoshi Sugita, Leland L Fleming, Caleb Wood, Sydney K Vaughan, Matheus P S M Gomes, Wallace Camargo, Ligia A Naves, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Cristina Guatimosim, Gregorio Valdez
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic dysfunction occurs during aging and in a variety of diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, it remains unknown whether changes in cholinergic transmission contributes to age- and disease-related degeneration of the motor system. Here we investigated the effect of moderately increasing levels of synaptic acetylcholine (ACh) on the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), muscle fibers, and motor neurons during development and aging and in a mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705009/treatment-precedes-positive-symptoms-in-north-american-adolescent-and-young-adult-clinical-high-risk-cohort
#15
Kristen A Woodberry, Larry J Seidman, Caitlin Bryant, Jean Addington, Carrie E Bearden, Kristin S Cadenhead, Tyrone D Cannon, Barbara A Cornblatt, Thomas H McGlashan, Daniel H Mathalon, Diana O Perkins, Ming T Tsuang, Elaine F Walker, Scott W Woods
Early intervention for psychotic disorders, a growing international priority, typically targets help-seeking populations with emerging psychotic ("positive") symptoms. We assessed the nature of and degree to which treatment of individuals at high risk for psychosis preceded or followed the onset of positive symptoms. The North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study-2 collected psychosocial treatment histories for 745 (98%) of 764 high-risk participants (M age = 18.9, 57% male, 57.5% Caucasian, 19.1% Hispanic) recruited from 8 North American communities...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697790/further-clarity-on-cooperation-and-morality
#16
David S Oderberg
I explore the increasingly important issue of cooperation in immoral actions, particularly in connection with healthcare. Conscientious objection, especially as pertains to religious freedom in healthcare, has become a pressing issue in the light of the US Supreme Court judgement in Hobby Lobby Section 'Moral evaluation using the basic principles of cooperation' outlines a theory of cooperation inspired by Catholic moral theologians such as those cited by the court. The theory has independent plausibility and is at least worthy of serious consideration-in part because it is an instance of double-effect reasoning, which is also independently plausible despite its association with moral theology...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690076/bioelectromagnetics-research-within-an-australian-context-the-australian-centre-for-electromagnetic-bioeffects-research-acebr
#17
Sarah P Loughran, Md Shahriar Al Hossain, Alan Bentvelzen, Mark Elwood, John Finnie, Joseph Horvat, Steve Iskra, Elena P Ivanova, Jim Manavis, Chathuranga Keerawella Mudiyanselage, Alireza Lajevardipour, Boris Martinac, Robert McIntosh, Raymond McKenzie, Mislav Mustapic, Yoshitaka Nakayama, Elena Pirogova, M Harunur Rashid, Nigel A Taylor, Nevena Todorova, Peter M Wiedemann, Robert Vink, Andrew Wood, Irene Yarovsky, Rodney J Croft
Mobile phone subscriptions continue to increase across the world, with the electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by these devices, as well as by related technologies such as Wi-Fi and smart meters, now ubiquitous. This increase in use and consequent exposure to mobile communication (MC)-related EMF has led to concern about possible health effects that could arise from this exposure. Although much research has been conducted since the introduction of these technologies, uncertainty about the impact on health remains...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677399/the-origin-and-phylogenetic-relationships-of-the-new-zealand-ravens
#18
R Paul Scofield, Kieren J Mitchell, Jamie R Wood, Vanesa L De Pietri, Scott Jarvie, Bastien Llamas, Alan Cooper
The relationships of the extinct New Zealand ravens (Corvus spp.) are poorly understood. We sequenced the mitogenomes of the two currently recognised species and found they were sister-taxa to a clade comprising the Australian raven, little raven, and forest raven (C.coronoides, C. mellori and C. tasmanicus respectively). The divergence between the New Zealand ravens and Australian raven clade occurred in the latest Pliocene, which coincides with the onset of glacial deforestation. We also found that the divergence between the two putative New Zealand species C...
September 24, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638697/living-cells-and-dynamic-molecules-observed-with-the-polarized-light-microscope-the-legacy-of-shinya-inou%C3%A3
#19
Tomomi Tani, Michael Shribak, Rudolf Oldenbourg
In 1948, Shinya Inoué arrived in the United States for graduate studies at Princeton. A year later he came to Woods Hole, starting a long tradition of summer research at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), which quickly became Inoué's scientific home. Primed by his Japanese mentor, Katsuma Dan, Inoué followed Dan's mantra to work with healthy, living cells, on a fundamental problem (mitosis), with a unique tool set that he refined for precise and quantitative observations (polarized light microscopy), and a fresh and brilliant mind that was unafraid of challenging current dogma...
August 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609991/consistent-small-effects-of-treefall-disturbances-on-the-composition-and-diversity-of-four-amazonian-forests
#20
Timothy R Baker, Dilys M Vela Díaz, Victor Chama Moscoso, Gilberto Navarro, Abel Monteagudo, Ruy Pinto, Katia Cangani, Nikolaos M Fyllas, Gabriela Lopez Gonzalez, William F Laurance, Simon L Lewis, Jonathan Lloyd, Hans Ter Steege, John W Terborgh, Oliver L Phillips
Understanding the resilience of moist tropical forests to treefall disturbance events is important for understanding the mechanisms that underlie species coexistence and for predicting the future composition of these ecosystems. Here, we test whether variation in the functional composition of Amazonian forests determines their resilience to disturbance.We studied the legacy of natural treefall disturbance events in four forests across Amazonia that differ substantially in functional composition. We compared the composition and diversity of all free-standing woody stems 2-10 cm diameter in previously disturbed and undisturbed 20 × 20 m subplots within 55, one-hectare, long-term forest inventory plots...
March 2016: Journal of Ecology
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