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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691648/diversity-biomass-relationship-across-forest-layers-implications-for-niche-complementarity-and-selection-effects
#1
Sylvanus Mensah, Ben du Toit, Thomas Seifert
Forest stratification plays a crucial role in light interception and plant photosynthetic activities. However, despite the increased number of studies on biodiversity-ecosystem function, we still lack information on how stratification in tropical forests modulates biodiversity effects. Moreover, there is less investigation and argument on the role of species and functional traits in forest layers. Here, we analysed from a perspective of forest layer (sub-canopy, canopy and emergent species layers), the relationship between diversity and aboveground biomass (AGB), focusing on functional diversity and dominance, and underlying mechanisms such as niche complementarity and selection...
April 24, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690278/remarkable-fly-diptera-diversity-in-a-patch-of-costa-rican-cloud-forest-why-inventory-is-a-vital-science
#2
Art Borkent, Brian V Brown, Peter H Adler, Dalton de Souza Amorim, Kevin Barber, Daniel Bickel, Stephanie Boucher, Scott E Brooks, John Burger, Z L Burington, Renato S Capellari, Daniel N R Costa, Jeffrey M Cumming, Greg Curler, Carl W Dick, J H Epler, Eric Fisher, Stephen D Gaimari, Jon Gelhaus, David A Grimaldi, John Hash, Martin Hauser, Heikki Hippa, Sergio IbÁÑez-Bernal, Mathias Jaschhof, Elena P Kameneva, Peter H Kerr, Valery Korneyev, Cheslavo A Korytkowski, Giar-Ann Kung, Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte, Owen Lonsdale, Stephen A Marshall, Wayne N Mathis, Verner Michelsen, Stefan Naglis, Allen L Norrbom, Steven Paiero, Thomas Pape, Alessandre Pereira-Colavite, Marc Pollet, Sabrina Rochefort, Alessandra Rung, Justin B Runyon, Jade Savage, Vera C Silva, Bradley J Sinclair, Jeffrey H Skevington, John O Iii Stireman, John Swann, Pekka Vilkamaa, Terry Wheeler, Terry Whitworth, Maria Wong, D Monty Wood, Norman Woodley, Tiffany Yau, Thomas J Zavortink, Manuel A Zumbado
Study of all flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 x 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1,600 meters above sea level at Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurquí), revealed an astounding 4,332 species. This amounts to more than half the number of named species of flies for all of Central America. Specimens were collected with two Malaise traps running continuously and with a wide array of supplementary collecting methods for three days of each month...
March 27, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688104/two-novel-forms-of-erg-oscillation-in-drosophila-age-and-activity-dependence
#3
Atsushi Ueda, Scott Woods, Ian McElree, Tristan C D G O'Harrow, Casey Inman, Savantha Thenuwara, Muhammad Aftab, Atulya Iyengar
Over an animal's lifespan, neuronal circuits and systems often decline in an inherently heterogeneous fashion. To compare the age-dependent progression of changes in visual behavior with alterations in retinal physiology, we examined phototaxis and electroretinograms (ERGs) in a wild-type D. melanogaster strain (Canton-S) across their lifespan. In aged flies (beyond 50% median lifespan), we found a marked decline in phototaxis, while motor coordination was less disrupted, as indicated by relatively stronger negative geotaxis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684363/immunolabeling-of-cleared-human-pancreata-provides-insights-into-three-dimensional-pancreatic-anatomy-and-pathology
#4
Michaël Noë, Neda Rezaee, Kaushal Asrani, Michael Skaro, Vincent P Groot, Pei-Hsun Wu, Matthew T Olson, Seung-Mo Hong, Sung Joo Kim, Matthew J Weiss, Christopher L Wolfgang, Martin A Makary, Jin He, John L Cameron, Denis Wirtz, Nicholas J Roberts, G Johan A Offerhaus, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Laura D Wood, Ralph H Hruban
Visualizing pathologies in three dimensions (3D) can provide unique insights into the biology of human diseases. A rapid and easy-to-implement dibenzyl ether-based technique was used to clear thick sections of surgically resected human pancreatic parenchyma. Protocols were applicable to both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. The penetration of antibodies into dense pancreatic parenchyma was optimized using both gradually increasing antibody concentrations and centrifugal flow. Immunolabeling with antibodies against CK19 was visualized using both light sheet and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679688/uv-stabilization-of-wood-by-nano-metal-oxides-dispersed-in-propylene-glycol
#5
Sreeja Nair, Giridhar B Nagarajappa, Krishna K Pandey
Nanoparticles of some of the metal oxides are known to have high UV protective efficiency. The UV filtering efficiency of nanoparticles invariably depends on their size and stability in the dispersion. In the present work, a stable dispersion of nanoparticles of three metal oxides, zinc oxide (ZnO), cerium oxide (CeO2 ) and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ), was prepared in propylene glycol (PG) using ultrasonication. The method is easy and useful as no additional surfactant or dispersant is needed. The particle size and its distribution was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671073/a-case-study-what-is-leached-from-mallee-biochars-as-a-function-of-ph
#6
Caroline Lievens, Daniel Mourant, Xun Hu, Yi Wang, Liping Wu, Angelina Rossiter, Richard Gunawan, Min He, Chun-Zhu Li
Biochar is widely considered as a soil amendment. This study aims to investigate the leaching of macronutrients (K, Mg and Ca) and organics from biochars produced from mallee biomass (wood, leaf, bark) in a fluidised-bed pyrolyser at 500 °C. Biochars were soaked in solutions of varying pH values and shaken for a pre-set period of time ranging from 1 h to 4 weeks. The initial pH values of the leaching solutions used (3.4, 5.5, 7 and 8.5) covered the pH range of the soils in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia (WA)...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648805/land-use-intensity-specific-global-characterization-factors-to-assess-product-biodiversity-footprints
#7
Abhishek Chaudhary, Thomas M Brooks
The UNEP-SETAC life cycle initiative recently recommended use of the countryside species-area relationship (SAR) model to calculate the characterization factors (CFs; potential species loss per m2 ) for projecting the biodiversity impact of land use associated with a products' life cycle. However, CFs based on this approach are to date available for only six broad land use types without differentiating between their management intensities and have large uncertainties that limit their practical applicability...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620863/soft-and-flexible-bi-layer-tpu-foam-for-development-of-bio-inspired-artificial-skin
#8
Huan Li, Tridib Kumar Sinha, Jeong Seok Oh, Jin Kuk Kim
Inspired by epidermis-dermis composition of human skin, here we have simply developed a light-weight, robust, flexible and biocompatible single electrode triboelectric nanogenerator (S-TENG) based prototype of bi-layer artificial skin, by attaching one induction electrode with unfoamed skin layer of microcellular thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) foam, which shows high performance object manipulation (by responding differently towards different objects, viz., Al-foil, balloon, cotton-glove, human-finger, glass, rubber-glove, artificial leather, polyimide, PTFE, paper and wood), due to electrification and electrostatic induction during contact with the objects having different chemical functionalities...
April 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615777/a-comparative-analysis-of-rod-bipolar-cell-transcriptomes-identifies-novel-genes-implicated-in-night-vision
#9
Sasha M Woods, Edward Mountjoy, Duncan Muir, Sarah E Ross, Denize Atan
In the mammalian retina, rods and a specialised rod-driven signalling pathway mediate visual responses under scotopic (dim light) conditions. As rods primarily signal to rod bipolar cells (RBCs) under scoptic conditions, disorders that affect rod or RBC function are often associated with impaired night vision. To identify novel genes expressed by RBCs and, therefore, likely to be involved in night vision, we took advantage of the adult Bhlhe23-/- mouse retina (that lacks RBCs) to derive the RBC transcriptome...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615240/rapid-improvements-to-rural-ugandan-housing-and-their-association-with-malaria-from-intense-to-reduced-transmission-a-cohort-study
#10
John C Rek, Victor Alegana, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Ewan Cameron, Moses R Kamya, Agaba Katureebe, Steve W Lindsay, Maxwell Kilama, Sarah G Staedke, Jim Todd, Grant Dorsey, Lucy S Tusting
BACKGROUND: Rapid population growth in Africa requires an urgent expansion and improvement of housing options. Improving housing presents a promising opportunity for malaria control by reducing indoor exposure to mosquitoes. We measured recent changes in house design in rural Uganda and evaluated their association with malaria in relation to a mass scale-up of control efforts. METHODS: This analysis was part of a cohort study designed to compare temporal changes in malaria incidence from a cohort of children and adults with temporal changes in malaria test positivity rate from health facility surveillance...
February 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603761/an-experimental-investigation-of-a-novel-iron-chelating-protoporphyrin-ix-prodrug-for-the-enhancement-of-photodynamic-therapy
#11
Lizette Anayo, Anette Magnussen, Alexis Perry, Mark Wood, Alison Curnow
OBJECTIVES: Non-melanoma skin cancers are the most frequently occurring type of cancer worldwide. They can be effectively treated using topical dermatological photodynamic therapy (PDT) employing protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) as the active photosensitising agent as long as the disease remains superficial. Novel iron chelating agents are being investigated to enhance the effectiveness and extend the applications of this treatment modality, as limiting free iron increases the accumulation of PpIX available for light activation and thus cell kill...
March 31, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593750/the-domestication-of-the-amazon-tree-grape-pourouma-cecropiifolia-under-an-ecological-lens
#12
Hermísia C Pedrosa, Charles R Clement, Juliana Schietti
Domestication studies traditionally focus on the differences in morphological characteristics between wild and domesticated populations that are under direct selection, the components of the domestication syndrome. Here, we consider that other aspects can be modified, because of the interdependence between plant characteristics and the forces of natural selection. We investigated the ongoing domestication of Pourouma cecropiifolia populations cultivated by the Ticuna people in Western Amazonia, using traditional and ecological approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593716/-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-innate-responses-in-a-new-model-of-lung-alveolar-macrophages
#13
Minjeong Woo, Connor Wood, Doyoon Kwon, Kyu-Ho Paul Park, György Fejer, Vincent Delorme
Lung alveolar macrophages (AMs) are in the first line of immune defense against respiratory pathogens and play key roles in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) in humans. Nevertheless, AMs are available only in limited amounts for in vitro studies, which hamper the detailed molecular understanding of host- Mtb interactions in these macrophages. The recent establishment of the self-renewing and primary Max Planck Institute (MPI) cells, functionally very close to lung AMs, opens unique opportunities for in vitro studies of host-pathogen interactions in respiratory diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560470/durability-of-wood-plastic-composites-manufactured-from-recycled-plastic
#14
Irina Turku, Timo Kärki, Ari Puurtinen
The influence of accelerated weathering, xenon-arc light and freeze-thaw cycling on wood plastic composites extruded from a recycled plastic was studied. The results showed that, in general, weathering had a stronger impact on samples made from plastic waste compared to a sample made from virgin material. After weathering, the mechanical properties, tensile and flexural, were reduced by 2-30%, depending on the plastic source. Wettability of the samples was shown to play a significant role in their stability...
March 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559827/-elaphroporia-ailaoshanensis-gen-et-sp-nov-in-polyporales-basidiomycota
#15
Zi-Qiang Wu, Tai-Min Xu, Shan Shen, Xiang-Fu Liu, Kai-Yue Luo, Chang-Lin Zhao
A new poroid wood-inhabiting fungal genus, Elaphroporia , typified by E. ailaoshanensis sp. nov. , is proposed based on a combination of morphological features and molecular evidence. The genus is characterised by an annual growth habit, resupinate basidiocarps, becoming rigid and light-weight up on drying, a monomitic hyphal system with thick-walled generative hyphae bearing both clamp connections and simple septa, slightly amyloid, CB+ and ellipsoid, hyaline, thin-walled, smooth and IKI-, CB- basidiospores...
2018: MycoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552846/-study-on-ecological-stereoscopic-cultivation-mode-of-amomum-villosum-dimocarpus-longan
#16
Jie Xu, Ming-Xiao Li, Jing Su, Li-Yun Tang, Ye Jiang, Tie-Lin Wang, Guo-Zhen He, Lan-Ping Guo
In order to set up a technical standard for planting Amomum villosum in wood forest in the future, we analyzed the relationship between the ecological factors and the yield of A. villosum planted in five Dimocarpus imocarpus longan wood forests and five miscellaneous wood forests in Yangchun city, to find out the dominant factors that affect the yield of A. villosum. The results showed that agricultural measures of fertilization, artificial irrigation and removing the old plants were positively correlated with the yield of A...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528169/vestibular-brain-changes-within-70-days-of-head-down-bed-rest
#17
Peng Yuan, Vincent Koppelmans, Patricia Reuter-Lorenz, Yiri De Dios, Nichole Gadd, Scott Wood, Roy Riascos, Igor Kofman, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael Seidler
Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) is frequently utilized as a spaceflight analog research environment to study the effects of axial body unloading and fluid shifts that are associated with spaceflight in the absence of gravitational modifications. HDBR has been shown to result in balance changes, presumably due to sensory reweighting and adaptation processes. Here, we examined whether HDBR results in changes in the neural correlates of vestibular processing. Thirteen men participated in a 70-day HDBR intervention; we measured balance, functional mobility, and functional brain activity in response to vestibular stimulation at 7 time points before, during, and after HDBR...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522320/on-the-solubility-of-softwood-hemicelluloses
#18
Saina Kishani, Francisco Vilaplana, Wenyang Xu, Chunlin Xu, Lars Wågberg
It is demonstrated that the molecular solubility of softwood hemicelluloses is significantly influenced by pre-treatment of the fibers, extraction and downstream processing. To quantify these effects, four hemicellulose samples were extracted from different thermomechanical pulps of Norway spruce. The molecular solubility of the samples was characterized by size and molar mass distributions, and the morphology of the molecules was studied using high resolution microscopy techniques. All extracted samples were well dispersed in aqueous media creating transparent dispersions but dynamic light scattering measurements showed that molecular solubility can only be achieved using specific pretreatments and extractions...
March 9, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517225/volatile-organic-compounds-from-logwood-combustion-emissions-and-transformation-under-dark-and-photochemical-aging-conditions-in-a-smog-chamber
#19
Anni Hartikainen, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Petri Tiitta, Ari Leskinen, Miika Kortelainen, Jürgen Orasche, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Kari Lehtinen, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, Olli Sippula
Residential wood combustion (RWC) emits high amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into ambient air, leading to formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and various health and climate effects. In this study, the emission factors of VOCs from a logwood-fired modern masonry heater were measured using a Proton-Transfer-Reactor Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS). Next, the VOCs were aged in a 29 m3 Teflon chamber equipped with UV black lights, where dark and photochemical atmospheric conditions were simulated...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506540/pigmentary-mosaicism-a-review-of-original-literature-and-recommendations-for-future-handling
#20
REVIEW
Anna Boye Kromann, Lilian Bomme Ousager, Inas Kamal Mohammad Ali, Nurcan Aydemir, Anette Bygum
BACKGROUND: Pigmentary mosaicism is a term that describes varied patterns of pigmentation in the skin caused by genetic heterogeneity of the skin cells. In a substantial number of cases, pigmentary mosaicism is observed alongside extracutaneous abnormalities typically involving the central nervous system and the musculoskeletal system. We have compiled information on previous cases of pigmentary mosaicism aiming to optimize the handling of patients with this condition. Our study is based on a database search in PubMed containing papers written in English, published between January 1985 and April 2017...
March 5, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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