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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441969/molecular-identification-of-plasmodium-spp-and-blood-meal-sources-of-anophelines-in-environmental-reserves-on-s%C3%A3-o-lu%C3%A3-s-island-state-of-maranh%C3%A3-o-brazil
#1
Mayra Araguaia Pereira Figueiredo, Silvia Maria Di Santi, Wilson Gómez Manrique, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Marcos Rogério André, Rosangela Zacarias Machado
BACKGROUND: Considering the diversity of feeding habits that females of some species of anophelines present, it is important to understand which vertebrates are part of blood food sources and how important is the role of each in the ecoepidemiology of malaria. There are many vector species for Plasmodium spp. in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. In São Luís Island, Anopheles aquasalis is the main vector for human malaria; this species is abundant in areas with primates that are positive for Plasmodium...
April 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439179/big-data-science-opportunities-and-challenges-to-address-minority-health-and-health-disparities-in-the-21st-century
#2
Xinzhi Zhang, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable, Philip E Bourne, Emmanuel Peprah, O Kenrik Duru, Nancy Breen, David Berrigan, Fred Wood, James S Jackson, David W S Wong, Joshua Denny
Addressing minority health and health disparities has been a missing piece of the puzzle in Big Data science. This article focuses on three priority opportunities that Big Data science may offer to the reduction of health and health care disparities. One opportunity is to incorporate standardized information on demographic and social determinants in electronic health records in order to target ways to improve quality of care for the most disadvantaged populations over time. A second opportunity is to enhance public health surveillance by linking geographical variables and social determinants of health for geographically defined populations to clinical data and health outcomes...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439084/preparation-of-heterostructured-wo3-tio2-catalysts-from-wood-fibers-and-its-versatile-photodegradation-abilities
#3
Likun Gao, Wentao Gan, Zhe Qiu, Xianxu Zhan, Tiangang Qiang, Jian Li
A facile route was adopted to synthesize heterostructured WO3/TiO2 photocatalysts from wood fibers through a two-steps hydrothermal method and a calcination process. The prepared WO3/TiO2-wood fibers were used as photocatalysts under UV irradiation for photodegradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue and methyl orange. In calcination process, the wood fibers acted as carbon substrates to prepare the WO3/TiO2 photocatalysts with high surface area and unique morphology. Thus, the significant enhanced photodegradation efficiency of the organic pollutants with the WO3/TiO2-wood fibers under UV irradiation was obtained...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433182/vitamin-d-fortified-chitosan-films-from-mushroom-waste
#4
Cristina Bilbao-Sainz, Bor-Sen Chiou, Tina Williams, Delilah Wood, Wen-Xian Du, Ivana Sedej, Zhaojun Ban, Victor Rodov, Elena Poverenov, Yakov Vinokur, Tara McHugh
Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan from animal sources. Chitosan films were prepared using high molecular weight (HW), low molecular weight (LW) and fungal chitosan. UV-B treated mushroom particles were also incorporated into fungal chitosan films. The fungal chitosan films showed similar density, porosity and water vapor barrier properties to the LW and HW chitosan films...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406622/nickel-catalyzed-enantioselective-reductive-cross-coupling-of-styrenyl-aziridines
#5
Brian P Woods, Manuel Orlandi, Chung-Yang Huang, Matthew S Sigman, Abigail G Doyle
A Ni-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling of styrenyl aziridines with aryl iodides is reported. This reaction proceeds by a stereoconvergent mechanism and is thus amenable to asymmetric catalysis using a chiral bioxazoline ligand for Ni. The process allows facile access to highly enantioenriched 2-arylphenethylamines from racemic aziridines. Multivariate analysis revealed that ligand polarizability, among other features, influences the observed enantioselectivity, shedding light on the success of this emerging ligand class for enantioselective Ni catalysis...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387789/evolution-of-wood-anatomical-characters-in-nepenthes-and-close-relatives-of-caryophyllales
#6
Rachel Schwallier, Barbara Gravendeel, Hugo de Boer, Stephan Nylinder, Bertie Joan van Heuven, Anton Sieder, Sukaibin Sumail, Rogier van Vugt, Frederic Lens
Background and Aims: Nepenthes attracts wide attention with its spectacularly shaped carnivorous pitchers, cultural value and horticultural curiosity. Despite the plant's iconic fascination, surprisingly little anatomical detail is known about the genus beyond its modified leaf tip traps. Here, the wood anatomical diversity of Nepenthes is explored. This diversity is further assessed with a phylogenetic framework to investigate whether the wood characters within the genus are relevant from an evolutionary or ecological perspective, or rather depend on differences in developmental stages, growth habits, substrates or precipitation...
April 6, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381040/physical-interpretation-of-mueller-matrix-spectra-a-versatile-method-applied-to-gold-gratings
#7
Meng Wang, Anja Löhle, Bruno Gompf, Martin Dressel, Audrey Berrier
The interaction of nanostructures, periodic or random, with polarized light creates very rich physics where scattering, diffraction and absorbance are linked to a variety of dispersive modes and coupling effects. Each of these excitations depends strongly on polarization, angle of incidence, azimuthal orientation of the sample and wavelength. The entire optical response can be obtained, independently from any model, by measuring the Mueller matrices at various k-vectors over a broad frequency range. This results in complex data hiding the underlying physics...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376883/asymptomatic-and-sub-microscopic-malaria-infection-in-kayah-state-eastern-myanmar
#8
Myo Thiha Zaw, Myo Thant, Tin Maung Hlaing, Naing Zin Aung, Min Thu, Kanit Phumchuea, Kanokwan Phusri, Teerawat Saeseu, Ritthideach Yorsaeng, Wang Nguitragool, Ingrid Felger, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Liwang Cui, Jetsumon Sattabongkot
BACKGROUND: Myanmar has the heaviest burden of malaria in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. Asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infections are common in this region and may represent an important reservoir of transmission that must be targeted for malaria elimination. METHODS: A mass blood survey was conducted among 485 individuals from six villages in Kayah State, an area of endemic but low transmission malaria in eastern Myanmar. Malaria infection was screened by rapid diagnostic test (RDT), light microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and its association with demographic factors was explored...
April 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370468/anisotropic-transparent-films-with-aligned-cellulose-nanofibers
#9
Mingwei Zhu, Yilin Wang, Shuze Zhu, Lisha Xu, Chao Jia, Jiaqi Dai, Jianwei Song, Yonggang Yao, Yanbin Wang, Yongfeng Li, Doug Henderson, Wei Luo, Heng Li, Marilyn L Minus, Teng Li, Liangbing Hu
Transparent films or substrates are ubiquitously used in photonics and optoelectronics, with glass and plastics as traditional choice of materials. Transparent films made of cellulose nanofibers are reported recently. However, all these films are isotropic in nature. This work, for the first time, reports a remarkably facile and effective approach to fabricating anisotropic transparent films directly from wood. The resulting films exhibit an array of exceptional optical and mechanical properties. The well-aligned cellulose nanofibers in natural wood are maintained during delignification, leading to an anisotropic film with high transparency (≈90% transmittance) and huge intensity ratio of transmitted light up to 350%...
March 29, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369994/a-biomimetic-fly-photoreceptor-model-elucidates-how-stochastic-adaptive-quantal-sampling-provides-a-large-dynamic-range
#10
Zhuoyi Song, Mikko Juusola
Light intensities (photons/s/um(2) ) in a natural scene vary over several orders of magnitude from shady woods to direct sunlight. A major challenge facing the visual system is how to map such a large dynamic input range to its limited output range, so that signal is neither buried into noise in darkness and nor saturated in brightness. A fly photoreceptor has achieved such a large dynamic range; it can encode intensity changes from single photons to billions more, outperforming man-made light sensors. This performance requires powerful light-adaptation, the neural implementation of which has only become clearer recently...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363550/energy-efficient-facile-extraction-process-of-cellulose-nanofibres-and-their-dimensional-characterization-using-light-scattering-techniques
#11
Chandravati Yadav, Arun Saini, Pradip K Maji
A chemi-mechanical approach was used to extract cellulose nanofibres (CNFs) from waste mango wood scraps using a mild chemical treatment ensuring no acid hydrolysis. The dimensional analysis for CNFs has been done by taking into account both the microscopic and light scattering techniques. The FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) analysis revealed the diameter of obtained CNFs in the range of 5-40nm with an average diameter of approximately 12nm. The AFM (atomic force microscopy) analysis gave a more precise average diameter value of 5nm for the obtained CNFs...
June 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348716/understanding-protein-structure-deformation-on-the-surface-of-gold-nanoparticles-of-varying-size
#12
Karen E Woods, Y Randika Perera, Mackenzie B Davidson, Chloe A Wilks, Dinesh K Yadav, Nicholas C Fitzkee
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been of recent interest due to their unique optical properties and their biocompatibility. Biomolecules spontaneously adsorb to their surface, a trait that could potentially be exploited for drug targeting. Currently, it is unclear whether protein-AuNP interactions at the nanoparticle surface are dependent on nanoparticle size. In this work, we investigate whether varying surface curvature can induce protein unfolding and multilayer binding in citrate-coated AuNPs of various sizes...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334493/glucose-metabolism-in-mammalian-photoreceptor-inner-and-outer-segments
#13
REVIEW
Daniel S Narayan, Glyn Chidlow, John Pm Wood, Robert J Casson
Photoreceptors are the first order neurons of the visual pathway, converting light into electrical signals. Rods and cones are the two main types of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina. Rods are specialized for sensitivity at the expense of resolution and are responsible for vision in dimly lit conditions. Cones are responsible for high acuity central vision and colour vision. Many human retinal diseases are characterized by a progressive loss of photoreceptors. Photoreceptors consist of four primary regions: outer segments, inner segments, cell bodies, and synaptic terminals...
March 23, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334287/climate-trends-in-the-wood-anatomy-of-acacia-sensu-stricto-leguminosae-mimosoideae
#14
Nigel W M Warwick, Luke Hailey, Kerri L Clarke, Peter E Gasson
Background and Aims: This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Methods: Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis...
March 9, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330172/effects-of-penicillium-chrysogenum-var-halophenolicum-on-kraft-lignin-color-stabilization-and-cytotoxicity-evaluation
#15
Marlene Remédios, Filomena A Carvalho, Francisco J Enguita, Carlos Cardoso, Ivo C Martins, Nuno C Santos, Ana Lúcia Leitão
Wood industries and agricultural crops generate an inexhaustible supply of by-products like lignin, which constitutes an environmental problem. Increasing efforts have been done to find new applications for lignin. One of them is as a food additive, but its chemical nature makes it sensitive to browning which constitutes a major drawback for this type of lignin application. In the present study we are documenting how color stabilization of a commercial kraft lignin was achieved after the treatment with Penicillium chrysogenum var...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323829/potentially-modifiable-lifestyle-factors-cognitive-reserve-and-cognitive-function-in-later-life-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Linda Clare, Yu-Tzu Wu, Julia C Teale, Catherine MacLeod, Fiona Matthews, Carol Brayne, Bob Woods
BACKGROUND: Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267751/cost-effectiveness-of-adjunct-non-pharmacological-interventions-for-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee
#17
Beth Woods, Andrea Manca, Helen Weatherly, Pedro Saramago, Eleftherios Sideris, Christina Giannopoulou, Stephen Rice, Mark Corbett, Andrew Vickers, Matthew Bowes, Hugh MacPherson, Mark Sculpher
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the costs and benefits of alternative adjunct non-pharmacological treatments for knee osteoarthritis and little guidance on which should be prioritised for commissioning within the NHS. This study estimates the costs and benefits of acupuncture, braces, heat treatment, insoles, interferential therapy, laser/light therapy, manual therapy, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, pulsed electrical stimulation, pulsed electromagnetic fields, static magnets and transcutaneous electrical nerve Stimulation (TENS), based on all relevant data, to facilitate a more complete assessment of value...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267486/renewable-hybrid-nanocatalyst-from-magnetite-and-cellulose-for-treatment-of-textile-effluents
#18
Ana Carolina Cunha Arantes, Crislaine das Graças Almeida, Ligiane Carolina Leite Dauzacker, Maria Lucia Bianchi, Delilah F Wood, Tina G Williams, William J Orts, Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli
A hybrid catalyst was prepared using cellulose nanofibrils and magnetite to degrade organic compounds. Cellulose nanofibrils were isolated by mechanical defibrillation producing a suspension used as a matrix for magnetite particles. The solution of nanofibrils and magnetite was dried and milled resulting in a catalyst with a 1:1 ratio of cellulose and magnetite that was chemically and physically characterized using light, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies, specific surface area analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, catalytic potential and degradation kinetics...
May 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257944/a-quantitative-study-of-in-vivo-protoporphyrin-ix-fluorescence-build-up-during-occlusive-treatment-phases
#19
C Louise Campbell, C Tom A Brown, Kenneth Wood, Ana Gabriela Salvio, Natalia M Inada, Vanderlei S Bagnato, Harry Moseley
BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive light based therapy used to treat non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and dysplasia. During PDT, the light sensitive molecule protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is activated, resulting in the production of singlet oxygen, which subsequently leads to cell death. PpIX is metabolised from a topically applied pro-drug and the strong fluorescence signal associated with PpIX can be utilised as an indicator of the amount of PpIX present within the tumour tissue...
February 28, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245942/clinical-markers-of-vitiligo-activity
#20
Laila Benzekri, Yvon Gauthier
BACKGROUND: Current modalities of understanding disease state (active/stable) are limited when considering treatment of vitiligo. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a rapid, accurate, and noninvasive assessment of vitiligo state. METHODS: In daylight and Wood's light examinations, 2 common clinical types of vitiligo were identified as amelanotic with sharply demarcated borders and hypomelanotic with poorly defined borders. Photographs were taken at the time of examination and a skin biopsy at the edge of a vitiligo lesion was performed...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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