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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819244/light-scattering-by-optically-trapped-vesicles-affords-unprecedented-temporal-resolution-of-lipid-raft-dynamics
#1
Liam Collard, David Perez-Guaita, Bayan H A Faraj, Bayden R Wood, Russell Wallis, Peter W Andrew, Andrew J Hudson
A spectroscopic technique is presented that is able to identify rapid changes in the bending modulus and fluidity of vesicle lipid bilayers on the micrometer scale, and distinguish between the presence and absence of heterogeneities in lipid-packing order. Individual unilamellar vesicles have been isolated using laser tweezers and, by measuring the intensity modulation of elastic back-scattered light, changes in the biophysical properties of lipid bilayers were revealed. Our approach offers unprecedented temporal resolution and, uniquely, physical transformations of lipid bilayers can be monitored on a length scale of micrometers...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794990/photoacoustic-based-so2-estimation-through-excised-bovine-prostate-tissue-with-interstitial-light-delivery
#2
Trevor Mitcham, Houra Taghavi, James Long, Cayla Wood, David Fuentes, Wolfgang Stefan, John Ward, Richard Bouchard
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is capable of probing blood oxygen saturation (sO2), which has been shown to correlate with tissue hypoxia, a promising cancer biomarker. However, wavelength-dependent local fluence changes can compromise sO2 estimation accuracy in tissue. This work investigates using PA imaging with interstitial irradiation and local fluence correction to assess precision and accuracy of sO2 estimation of blood samples through ex vivo bovine prostate tissue ranging from 14% to 100% sO2. Study results for bovine blood samples at distances up to 20 mm from the irradiation source show that local fluence correction improved average sO2 estimation error from 16...
September 2017: Photoacoustics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792726/single-crystalline-3c-sic-anodically-bonded-onto-glass-an-excellent-platform-for-high-temperature-electronics-and-bio-applications
#3
Hoang-Phuong Phan, Han-Hao Cheng, Toan Khac Dinh, Barry Wood, Tuan-Khoa Nguyen, Fengwen Mu, Harshad Kamble, Raja Vadivelu, Glenn Walker, Leonie Hold, Alan Iacopi, Ben Haylock, Dzung Viet Dao, Mirko Lobino, Tadatomo Suga, Nam-Trung Nguyen
Single crystal cubic silicon carbide has attracted great attention for MEMS and electronic devices. However, current leakage at the SiC/Si junction at high temperatures and visible light absorption of the Si substrate are main obstacles hindering the use of the platform in a broad range of applications. To solve these bottlenecks, we present a new platform of single crystal SiC on an electrically-insulating and transparent substrate using an anodic bonding process. The SiC thin film was prepared on a 150 mm Si with a surface roughness of 7 nm using LPCVD...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773234/use-of-almond-shells-and-rice-husk-as-fillers-of-poly-methyl-methacrylate-pmma-composites
#4
Alessandra Sabbatini, Silvia Lanari, Carlo Santulli, Claudio Pettinari
In recent years, wood fibres have often been applied as the reinforcement of thermoplastic materials, such as polypropylene, whereas their use in combination with thermosetting resin has been less widespread. This study concerns the production of PMMA-based composites by partly replacing alumina trihydrate (ATH) with wood waste fillers, namely rice husks and almond shells, which would otherwise be disposed by incineration. The amount of filler introduced was limited to 10% as regards rice husks and 10 or 15% almond shells, since indications provided by reactivity tests and viscosity measurements did not suggest the feasibility of total replacement of ATH...
July 28, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772994/structure-and-photocatalytic-properties-of-mn-doped-tio%C3%A2-loaded-on-wood-based-activated-carbon-fiber-composites
#5
Xiaojun Ma, Wanru Zhou, Yin Chen
Mn-doped TiO₂ loaded on wood-based activated carbon fiber (Mn/TiO₂-WACF) was prepared by sol-gel and impregnation method using MnSO₄·H₂O as manganese source. The structure of Mn/TiO₂-WACF was characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, N₂ adsorption and UV-Vis, and its photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation was investigated. Results show that Mn-doped TiO₂ were loaded on the surface of wood-based activated carbon fiber with high-development pore structures. The crystallite sizes of Mn-doped TiO₂ in composites were smaller than that of the undoped samples...
June 9, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769110/bark-and-wood-tissues-of-american-elm-exhibit-distinct-responses-to-dutch-elm-disease
#6
S M Sherif, L A Erland, M R Shukla, P K Saxena
Tolerance to Dutch elm disease (DED) has been linked to the rapid and/or high induction of disease-responsive genes after infection with the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Although the fungal infection by O. novo-ulmi primarily takes places in xylem vessels, it is still unclear how xylem contributes to the defense against DED. Taking advantage of the easy separation of wood and bark tissues in young American elm saplings, here we show that most disease-responsive genes exhibited higher expression in wood compared to bark tissues after fungal infection...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750532/tracking-lithium-ions-via-widefield-fluorescence-microscopy-for-battery-diagnostics
#7
Nicolas A Padilla, Morgan T Rea, Michael Foy, Sunil P Upadhyay, Kyle A Desrochers, Tyler Derus, Kassandra A Knapper, Nathanael H Hunter, Sharla Wood, Daniel A Hinton, Andrew C Cavell, Alvaro G Masias, Randall H Goldsmith
Direct tracking of lithium ions with time and spatial resolution can provide an important diagnostic tool for understanding mechanisms in lithium ion batteries. A fluorescent indicator of lithium ions, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)naphthoxazole, was synthesized and used for real-time tracking of lithium ions via widefield fluorescence microscopy. The fluorophore can be excited with visible light and was shown to enable quantitative determination of the lithium ion diffusion constant in a microfluidic model system for a plasticized polymer electrolyte lithium battery...
July 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748518/species-richness-and-abundance-of-cerambycidae-coleoptera-in-huatulco-oaxaca-mexico-relationships-with-phenological-changes-in-the-tropical-dry-forest
#8
F A Noguera, M A Ortega-Huerta, S Zaragoza-Caballero, E González-Soriano, E Ramírez-García
Cerambycidae have an important ecological role in initiating the degradation process of dead wood, but few studies have evaluated Cerambycidae community attributes in relation to ecosystem phenology. We surveyed the cerambicid fauna of the tropical dry forest in Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico, and explored the relationship of Cerambycidae species richness and abundance with phenological changes in vegetation. We applied three collecting methods of light traps, direct collection, and Malaise traps to survey Cerambycidae throughout 2005...
July 26, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745861/mass-spectrometric-imaging-of-ceramides-tracks-therapeutic-response-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Damon Christopher Barbacci, Aurélie Roux, Ludovic Muller, Shelley N Jackson, Jeremy Post, Kathrine Baldwin, Barry Hoffer, Carey Balaban, Shawn Gouty, Brian M Cox, Amina S Woods
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem and the leading cause of death in children and young adults. It also contributes to a substantial number of cases of permanent disability. As lipids make up over 50% of the brain mass and play a key role in both membrane structure and cell signaling, their profile is of particular interest. In this study, we show that advanced mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has sufficient technical accuracy and reproducibility to demonstrate the anatomical distribution of 50 micron diameter microdomains that show changes in brain ceramide levels in a rat model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) 3 days post injury with and without treatment...
July 26, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740990/anthocyanins-inhibit-tumor-necrosis-alpha-induced-loss-of-caco-2-cell-barrier-integrity
#10
Eleonora Cremonini, Angela Mastaloudis, Shelly N Hester, Sandra V Verstraeten, Maureen Anderson, Steven M Wood, Andrew L Waterhouse, Cesar G Fraga, Patricia I Oteiza
An increased permeability of the intestinal barrier is proposed as a major event in the pathophysiology of conditions characterized by chronic gut inflammation. This study investigated the capacity of pure anthocyanins (AC), and berry and rice extracts containing different types and amounts of AC, to inhibit tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα)-induced permeabilization of Caco-2 cell monolayers. Caco-2 cells differentiated into intestinal epithelial cell monolayers were incubated in the absence/presence of TNFα, with or without the addition of AC or AC-rich plant extracts (ACRE)...
August 1, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733354/selective-silencing-of-hippocampal-parvalbumin-interneurons-induces-development-of-recurrent-spontaneous-limbic-seizures-in-mice
#11
Meinrad Drexel, Roman A Romanov, James Wood, Stefan Weger, Regine Heilbronn, Peer Wulff, Ramon O Tasan, Tibor Harkany, Günther Sperk
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent form of focal epilepsies and generally associated with malfunctioning of the hippocampal formation. Recently, a preferential loss of parvalbumin (PV) neurons has been observed in the subiculum of TLE patients and in animal models of TLE. To demonstrate a possible causative role of defunct PV neurons in the generation of TLE, we permanently inhibited GABA release selectively from PV neurons of the ventral subiculum by injecting a viral vector expressing tetanus toxin light chain in male mice...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725419/tree-species-diversity-promotes-aboveground-carbon-storage-through-functional-diversity-and-functional-dominance
#12
Sylvanus Mensah, Ruan Veldtman, Achille E Assogbadjo, Romain Glèlè Kakaï, Thomas Seifert
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function has increasingly been debated as the cornerstone of the processes behind ecosystem services delivery. Experimental and natural field-based studies have come up with nonconsistent patterns of biodiversity-ecosystem function, supporting either niche complementarity or selection effects hypothesis. Here, we used aboveground carbon (AGC) storage as proxy for ecosystem function in a South African mistbelt forest, and analyzed its relationship with species diversity, through functional diversity and functional dominance...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719095/a-new-perspective-on-transparent-wood-lignin-retaining-transparent-wood
#13
Yuanyuan Li, Qiliang Fu, Ramiro Rojas, Min Yan, Martin Lawoko, Lars Berglund
Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt% of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Meanwhile, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structure...
July 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717880/environmental-exposure-does-not-explain-putative-maladaptation-in-road-adjacent-populations
#14
Steven P Brady
While the ecological consequences of roads are well described, little is known of their role as agents of natural selection, which can shape adaptive and maladaptive responses in populations influenced by roads. This knowledge gap persists despite a growing appreciation for the influence of evolution in human-altered environments. There, insights indicate that natural selection typically results in local adaptation. Thus, populations influenced by road-induced selection should evolve fitness advantages in their local environment...
July 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707896/smart-floor-with-integrated-triboelectric-nanogenerator-as-energy-harvester-and-motion-sensor
#15
Chuan He, Weijun Zhu, Baodong Chen, Liang Xu, Tao Jiang, Chang Bao Han, Guang Qin Gu, Dichen Li, Zhong Lin Wang
A smart floor is demonstrated by integrating a square-frame triboelectric nanogenerator (SF-TENG) into a standard wood floor. The smart floor has two working modes based on two pairs of triboelectric materials: one is purposely chosen polytetrafluoroethylene films and aluminum (Al) balls, and the other is the floor itself and the objects that can be triboelectrically charged, such as basketball, shoe soles, and Scotch tape, etc. Utilizing the Al balls enclosed inside shallow boxes, the smart floor is capable of harvesting vibrational energy and, hence, provides a nonintrusive way to detect sudden falls in elderly people...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705932/use-of-a-neutralizing-antibody-helps-identify-structural-features-critical-for-binding-of-clostridium-difficile-toxin-tcda-to-the-host-cell-surface
#16
Heather K Kroh, Ramyavardhanee Chandrasekaran, Kim Rosenthal, Rob Woods, Xiaofang Jin, Melanie D Ohi, Andrew C Nyborg, G Jonah Rainey, Paul Warrener, Benjamin W Spiller, D Borden Lacy
Clostridium difficile is a clinically significant pathogen that causes mild-to-severe (and often recurrent) colon infections. Disease symptoms stem from the activities of two large, multi-domain toxins known as TcdA and TcdB. The toxins can bind, enter, and perturb host cell function through a multi-step mechanism of receptor binding, endocytosis, pore formation, autoproteolysis, and glucosyltransferase-mediated modification of host substrates. Monoclonal antibodies that neutralize toxin activity provide a survival benefit in preclinical animal models and prevent recurrent infections in human clinical trials...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676069/limited-cutaneous-systemic-sclerosis-skin-demonstrates-distinct-molecular-subsets-separated-by-a-cardiovascular-development-gene-expression-signature
#17
Emma C Derrett-Smith, Viktor Martyanov, Cecilia B Chighizola, Pia Moinzadeh, Corrado Campochiaro, Korsa Khan, Tammara A Wood, Pier Luigi Meroni, David J Abraham, Voon H Ong, Robert Lafyatis, Michael L Whitfield, Christopher P Denton
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) is an uncommon autoimmune rheumatic disease characterised by autoimmunity, vasculopathy and fibrosis. Gene expression profiling distinguishes scleroderma from normal skin, and can detect different subsets of disease, with potential to identify prognostic biomarkers of organ involvement or response to therapy. We have performed gene expression profiling in skin samples from patients with limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc). METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from clinically uninvolved skin biopsies of 15 patients with lcSSc and 8 healthy controls (HC)...
July 4, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667823/bordered-pits-in-xylem-of-vesselless-angiosperms-and-their-possible-misinterpretation-as-perforation-plates
#18
Ya Zhang, Matthias Klepsch, Steven Jansen
Vesselless wood represents a rare phenomenon within the angiosperms, characterizing Amborellaceae, Trochodendraceae, and Winteraceae. Anatomical observations of bordered pits and their pit membranes based on light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) are required to understand functional questions surrounding vesselless angiosperms and the potential occurrence of cryptic vessels. Interconduit pit membranes in 11 vesselless species showed a similar ultrastructure as mesophytic vessel-bearing angiosperms, with a mean thickness of 245 nm (± 53, SD; n = 6 species)...
July 1, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662292/benign-and-malignant-tumors-in-the-uk-myotonic-dystrophy-patient-registry
#19
Rotana Alsaggaf, Youjin Wang, Chiara Marini-Bettolo, Libby Wood, Nikoletta Nikolenko, Hanns Lochmüller, Mark H Greene, Shahinaz M Gadalla
INTRODUCTION: In light of recent evidence that cancer is part of the myotonic dystrophy (DM) phenotype, we assessed the prevalence of benign and malignant tumors among 220 patients enrolled in the UK Myotonic Dystrophy Patient Registry, and evaluated factors associated with their development. METHODS: A survey was distributed to collect tumor history and lifestyle information. We used multinomial logistic regression for the analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-nine benign (30 patients), and 16 malignant (15 patients) tumors were reported...
June 29, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654160/pontamine-fast-scarlet-4b-bifluorescence-and-measurements-of-cellulose-microfibril-angles
#20
J Thomas, N A Idris, D A Collings
Pontamine fast scarlet 4B is a red paper and textiles dye that has recently been introduced as a fluorescent probe for plant cell walls. Pontamine exhibits bifluorescence, or fluorescence dependent on the polarization of the excitation light: Because cellulose is aligned within the cell wall, pontamine-labelled cell walls exhibit variable fluorescence as the excitation polarization is modulated. Thus, bifluorescence measurements require polarized excitation that can be directly or indirectly modulated. In our confocal microscopy observations of various cellulose samples labelled with pontamine, we modulated excitation polarization either through sample rotation or by the confocal's scanfield rotation function...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
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