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Hussein M Sulieman
Sudan is a hot spot for forest degradation. Efforts to maintain what remains of its forests should be of the highest priority. However, precise information on its forests' current state is very limited. Therefore, in order to effectively intervene in support of existing resources, it is important to have a better understanding of processes taking place in the country and impacting those resources. The objectives of this study are to quantify the consequences of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on forest degradation and fragmentation and to analyze the anthropogenic factors causing it, taking Erawashda Forest, eastern Sudan, as an example...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jack Ao, John Pm Wood, Glyn Chidlow, Mark C Gillies, Robert J Casson
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) comprises a monolayer of cells located between the neuroretina and the choriocapillaries. The RPE serves several important functions in the eye: formation of the blood retinal barrier, protection of the retina from oxidative stress, nutrient delivery and waste disposal, ionic homeostasis, phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments, synthesis and release of growth factors, reisomerization of all-trans-retinal during the visual cycle, and establishment of ocular immune privilege...
December 5, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Siamak Daneshmand, Sanjay Patel, Yair Lotan, Kamal Pohar, Edouard Trabulsi, Michael Woods, Tracy Downs, William Huang, Jeffrey Jones, Michael O'Donnell, Trinity Bivalacqua, Joel DeCastro, Gary Steinberg, Ashish Kamat, Matthew Resnick, Badrinath Konety, Mark Schoenberg, J Stephen Jones, Soroush Bazargani, Michael Cookson, Brian Cross, Costas Dan Lallas, Hoorman Djaladat, Leonard Gomella, Michael Johnson, James McKiernan, Mark Mann, Megan Merrill, Matthew Nielsen, Phillip Pierorazio, Raj Pruthi, Alexander Sankin, Anne Schuckman, Ahmad Shabsigh, Jay B Shah, Angela Smith, Kelley Stratton, Jennifer Taylor, Christopher Weight, Sven Wenske
PURPOSE: To compare blue light flexible cystoscopy (BLFC) with white light flexible cystoscopy (WLFC) in the detection of bladder cancer during surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients at high risk of recurrence received intravesical HAL before WLFC and randomization to BLFC. All suspicious lesions were documented. Patients with suspicious lesions were referred to the operating room (OR) for repeat WLC (white light) and BLC (blue light) cystoscopy. All suspected lesions underwent biopsy or resection and specimens were examined by an independent pathology consensus panel...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Urology
Andrew B Davies, Angela Gaylard, Gregory P Asner
Megafauna strongly affect vegetation structure and composition, often leading to management concern. However, the extent of their influence across large scales and varying ecosystems remains largely unknown. Using high resolution airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), we investigated landscape-scale changes in vegetation height and three-dimensional (3D) structure across landscapes of varying elephant densities and presence over time, and in response to surface water distribution and terrain variability in the heavily-managed thicket biome of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa...
November 25, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Heather Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
C J M Poole, S Basu
Background: The waste and recycling sector is a growing part of industry. Whether health surveillance is indicated and how it should be undertaken is unclear. Aims: To undertake a review of the literature to identify hazards to health, biological effects and occupational illnesses for workers in the sector. Methods: A systematic review of the published literature and two UK databases. Results: Rates of fatal, non-fatal injuries and self-reported work-related illness were found to be higher in the waste and recycling sector than in UK industry as a whole...
November 20, 2017: Occupational Medicine
Lisa G Wood
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries as Western dietary patterns have been widely adopted. These diets are characterized by excess energy intake as well as regular consumption of processed or "fast" foods and limited consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. The result is a high intake of saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, and sodium; and a low intake of fiber, vitamins, and other phytochemicals. This type of poor-quality diet has been associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Kyle Woods, Ahmet S Ayan, Jeffrey Woollard, Nilendu Gupta
PURPOSE: To establish a streamlined end-to-end test of a 6 degrees-of-freedom (6DoF) robotic table using a 3D printed phantom for periodic quality assurance. METHODS: A 3D printed phantom was fabricated with translational and rotational offsets and an imbedded central ball-bearing (BB). The phantom underwent each step of the radiation therapy process: CT simulation in a straight orientation, plan generation using the treatment planning software, setup to offset marks at the linac, registration and corrected 6DoF table adjustments via hidden target test, delivery of a Winston-Lutz test to the BB, and verification of table positioning via field and laser lights...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Rodger Ll Wood, Andrew Worthington
Objective: This article will address how anomalies of executive function after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can translate into altered social behavior that has an impact on a person's capacity to live safely and independently in the community. Method: Review of literature on executive and neurobehavioral function linked to cognitive ageing in neurologically healthy populations and late neurocognitive effects of serious TBI. Information was collated from internet searches involving MEDLINE, PubMed, PyscINFO and Google Scholar as well as the authors' own catalogs...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
R Vecchi, V Bernardoni, S Valentini, A Piazzalunga, P Fermo, G Valli
In this paper, results from receptor modelling performed on a well-characterised PM1 dataset were combined to chemical light extinction data (bext) with the aim of assessing the impact of different PM1 components and sources on light extinction and visibility at a European polluted urban area. It is noteworthy that, at the state of the art, there are still very few papers estimating the impact of different emission sources on light extinction as we present here, although being among the major environmental challenges at many polluted areas...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Baokang Dang, Yipeng Chen, Xiaoping Shen, Bo Chen, Qingfeng Sun, Chunde Jin
A polyethylene/wood-fiber composite loaded with nano-ZnO was prepared by a facile hot-press method and was used for the photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds as well as for microwave absorption. ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 29 nm and polyethylene (PE) powders were dispersed on the wood fibers' surface through a viscous cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) solution. The reflection loss (RL) value of the resulting composite was -21 dB, with a thickness of 3.5 mm in the frequency of 17.17 GHz...
November 3, 2017: Materials
Olivier Gasser, Katrina J Sharples, Catherine Barrow, Geoffrey M Williams, Evelyn Bauer, Catherine E Wood, Brigitta Mester, Marina Dzhelali, Graham Caygill, Jeremy Jones, Colin M Hayman, Victoria A Hinder, Jerome Macapagal, Monica McCusker, Robert Weinkove, Gavin F Painter, Margaret A Brimble, Michael P Findlay, P Rod Dunbar, Ian F Hermans
Vaccines that elicit targeted tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses have the potential to be used as adjuvant therapy in patients with high risk of relapse. However, the responses induced by vaccines in cancer patients have generally been disappointing. To improve vaccine function, we investigated the possibility of exploiting the immunostimulatory capacity of type 1 Natural killer T (NKT) cells, a cell type enriched in lymphoid tissues that can trigger improved antigen-presenting function in dendritic cells (DCs)...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Alex M Zimmer, Patricia A Wright, Chris M Wood
Nitrogen metabolism in fishes has been a focus of comparative physiologists for nearly a century. In this Review, we focus specifically on early life stages of fishes, which have received considerable attention in more recent work. Nitrogen metabolism and excretion in early life differs fundamentally from that of juvenile and adult fishes because of (1) the presence of a chorion capsule in embryos that imposes a limitation on effective ammonia excretion, (2) an amino acid-based metabolism that generates a substantial ammonia load, and (3) the lack of a functional gill, which is the primary site of nitrogen excretion in juvenile and adult fishes...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Maria Balcerek, Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska, Urszula Dziekońska-Kubczak, Piotr Patelski, Ewelina Strąk
This study investigates the effect of ageing on the qualitative and quantitative composition of plum distillate in contact with oak wood chips. Maturation was performed with lightly toasted French oak (Quercus sessiflora and Quercus robur) chips or oak chips made from fragments of empty barrels that had been used for ageing cognac. The effects of oak chip dose, process temperature, ageing system (static or circulatory) and ultrasound treatment were assessed. Maturation of plum distillate samples with oak chips resulted in higher levels of extractable organics (including tannins) and colour changes, which were correlated with the type and dose of oak chips, and the conditions of maturation...
September 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Caroline M Hodges, Susanna A Wood, Jonathan Puddick, Christopher G McBride, David P Hamilton
Sensors to measure phycocyanin fluorescence in situ are becoming widely used as they may provide useful proxies for cyanobacterial biomass. In this study, we assessed five phycocyanin sensors from three different manufacturers. A combination of culture-based experiments and a 30-sample field study was used to examine the effect of temperature and cyanobacteria morphology on phycocyanin fluorescence. Phycocyanin fluorescence increased with decrease in temperature, although this varied with manufacturer and cyanobacterial density...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dong-Dong Yang, Gustavo M de Billerbeck, Jin-Jing Zhang, Frank Rosenzweig, Jean-Marie Francois
Homology searches indicate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4741 contains seven redundant genes that encode putative aryl-alcohol dehydrogenases (AAD). Yeast AADs are located in subtelomeric regions of different chromosomes, and their functional role(s) remain enigmatic. Here, we show that two of these genes, AAD4 and AAD14, encode functional enzymes that reduce aliphatic and aryl-aldehydes concomitant with oxidation of cofactor NADPH, and that Aad4p and Aad14p exhibit different substrate preference patterns...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Wen Yu, Kelsey Hallinen, Kevin B Wood
Subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics have been shown to enhance biofilm formation in multiple bacterial species. While antibiotic exposure has been associated with modulated expression in many biofilm-related genes, the mechanisms of drug-induced biofilm formation remain a focus of ongoing research efforts and may vary significantly across species. In this work, we investigate antibiotic-induced biofilm formation in E. faecalis, a leading cause of nosocomial infections. We show that biofilm formation is enhanced by subinhibitory concentrations of cell wall synthesis inhibitors, but not by inhibitors of protein, DNA, folic acid, or RNA synthesis...
October 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Suzy J Campbell, Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum, Geordie Woods, Yael Velleman, Fiona Fleming, J Russell Stothard
The World Health Organization's (WHO) 2015-2020 Global Strategy on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) encourages integration, whilst maintaining existing structured NTD investments, and acceleration towards Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets. Accordingly, SDG-associated and WASH-NTD indicators have been developed, commencing important intersectoral dialogue, alongside opportunities for future disease-specific refinements. The rationale for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH)- and schistosomiasis-specific WASH considerations, and a traffic-light figure, are presented here to indicate where current international definitions may, or may not, suffice...
October 18, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
Che-Hsin Lin, Szu-Chin Lei, Wen-Hsuan Hsieh, Ying-Chien Tsai, Chun-Nien Liu, Wood-Hi Cheng
A novel technique is presented for producing micro-hyperboloid lensed fibers for efficient coupling to semiconductor laser chips. A three-step process including a precision mechanical grinding, a spin-on-glass (SOG) coating and an electrostatic pulling process is used to form the hyperboloid lens structure on a flat-end single mold fiber (SMF) with the core diameter of 6.6 μm. Micro-hyperboloid lensed fibers with tunable radii of curvature around 4.18 - 4.83 μm can be formed on the SMF end face. A high average coupling efficiency around 80% and low coupling variation of 0...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
Quanlong Yang, Jianqiang Gu, Yuehong Xu, Yanfeng Li, Xueqian Zhang, Zhen Tian, Chunmei Ouyang, Jiaguang Han, Weili Zhang
The control of light-matter interaction in metasurfaces offers an unexplored potential for the excitation and manipulation of light. Here, we combine experimental terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and near-field scanning terahertz microscopy to demonstrate the role of reciprocal vectors in the transmission and plasmonic resonances of quasicrystal metasurfaces. An investigation of two-dimensional metasurface structures with different rotationally symmetric quasicrystal arrangements demonstrates that the transmission minima resulting from Wood's anomaly are directly related to the surface plasmon resonances...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
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