keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Synthetic genetics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643139/cysteamine-revisited-repair-of-arginine-to-cysteine-mutations
#1
REVIEW
L Gallego-Villar, L Hannibal, J Häberle, B Thöny, T Ben-Omran, G K Nasrallah, Al-N Dewik, W D Kruger, H J Blom
Cysteamine is a small aminothiol endogenously derived from coenzyme A degradation. For some decades, synthetic cysteamine has been employed for the treatment of cystinosis, and new uses of the drug continue to emerge. In this review, we discuss the role of cysteamine in cellular and extracellular homeostasis and focus on the potential use of aminothiols to reconstitute the function of proteins harboring arginine (Arg) to cysteine (Cys) mutations, via repair of the Cys residue into a moiety that introduces an amino group, as seen in basic amino acid residues Lys and Arg...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642195/how-lipid-droplets-tag-along-glycerolipid-synthetic-enzymes-and-lipid-storage
#2
REVIEW
Huan Wang, Michael V Airola, Karen Reue
Triacylglycerols (TAG) serve as the predominant form of energy storage in mammalian cells, and TAG synthesis influences conditions such as obesity, fatty liver, and insulin resistance. In most tissues, the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway enzymes are responsible for TAG synthesis, and the regulation and function of these enzymes is therefore important for metabolic homeostasis. Here we review the sites and regulation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), lipin/phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme action...
June 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640807/lack-of-a-peroxiredoxin-suppresses-the-lethality-of-cells-devoid-of-electron-donors-by-channelling-electrons-to-oxidized-ribonucleotide-reductase
#3
Susanna Boronat, Alba Domènech, Mercè Carmona, Sarela García-Santamarina, M Carmen Bañó, José Ayté, Elena Hidalgo
The thioredoxin and glutaredoxin pathways are responsible of recycling several enzymes which undergo intramolecular disulfide bond formation as part of their catalytic cycles such as the peroxide scavengers peroxiredoxins or the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). RNR, the rate-limiting enzyme of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, is an essential enzyme relying on these electron flow cascades for recycling. RNR is tightly regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner at different levels, but little is known about the participation of electron donors in such regulation...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637316/incorporating-comparative-genomics-into-the-design-test-learn-cycle-of-microbial-strain-engineering
#4
Maria Sardi, Audrey P Gasch
Engineering microbes with new properties is an important goal in industrial engineering, to establish biological factories for production of biofuels, commodity chemicals, and pharmaceutics. But engineering microbes to produce new compounds with high yield remains a major challenge toward economically viable production. Incorporating several modern approaches, including synthetic and systems biology, metabolic modeling, and regulatory rewiring have proven to significantly advance industrial strain engineering...
June 16, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636169/a-novel-double-nucleotide-variant-in-the-ferritin-l-iron-responsive-element-in-a-finnish-patient-with-hereditary-hyperferritinaemia-cataract-syndrome
#5
Roosa-Maria Mattila, Annele Sainio, Marketta Järveläinen, Juha Pursiheimo, Hannu Järveläinen
PURPOSE: To present a novel Finnish double nucleotide variant in the iron-responsive element (IRE) of the ferritin L-chain gene (FTL) leading to hyperferritinaemia-cataract syndrome (HHCS). METHODS: Genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes and synthetized with three different primers flanking the IRE in the FTL 5'-untranslated region of the FTL was used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thereafter, Sanger sequencing was performed on the 487-bp and 602-bp PCR amplification products with specific primers to reveal FTL IRE mutations...
June 21, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635591/camoptimus-a-tool-for-exploiting-complex-adaptive-evolution-to-optimize-experiments-and-processes-in-biotechnology
#6
Ayca Cankorur-Cetinkaya, Joao M L Dias, Jana Kludas, Nigel K H Slater, Juho Rousu, Stephen G Oliver, Duygu Dikicioglu
Multiple interacting factors affect the performance of engineered biological systems in synthetic biology projects. The complexity of these biological systems means that experimental design should often be treated as a multiparametric optimization problem. However, the available methodologies are either impractical, due to a combinatorial explosion in the number of experiments to be performed, or are inaccessible to most experimentalists due to the lack of publicly available, user-friendly software. Although evolutionary algorithms may be employed as alternative approaches to optimize experimental design, the lack of simple-to-use software again restricts their use to specialist practitioners...
June 21, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635365/nucleosomal-organization-and-dna-base-composition-patterns
#7
Alicia García, Sara González, Francisco Antequera
Nucleosomes are the basic units of chromatin. They compact the genome inside the nucleus and regulate the access of proteins to DNA. In the yeast genome, most nucleosomes occupy well-defined positions, which are maintained under many different physiological situations and genetic backgrounds. Although several short sequence elements have been described that favour or reduce the affinity between histones and DNA, the extent to which the DNA sequence affects nucleosome positioning in the genomic context remains unclear...
June 21, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634109/cannabis-associated-psychosis-neural-substrate-and-clinical-impact
#8
REVIEW
R M Murray, A Englund, A Abi-Dargham, D Lewis, M Di Forti, C Davies, M Sherif, P McGuire, C D'Souza
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with an increased subsequent risk of both psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Early onset of use, daily use of high-potency cannabis, and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. The risk-increasing effects are not explained by shared genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Experimental studies in healthy humans show that cannabis and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can produce transient, dose-dependent, psychotic symptoms, as well as an array of psychosis-relevant behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects; the psychotogenic effects can be ameliorated by cannabidiol (CBD)...
June 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634103/undetectable-mannose-binding-lectin-and-corticosteroids-increase-serious-infection-risk-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Graeme J Carroll, Krista Makin, Maxine Garnsey, Max Bulsara, Bronwyn V Carroll, Shona M Curtin, Erin M Allan, Andrew McLean-Tooke, Christine Bundell, Monica L Kemp, Pooja Deshpande, Dana Ihdayhid, Sophie Coleman, Tracie Easter, James Triplett, Timothy Disteldorf, C Helen Marsden, Michaela Lucas
BACKGROUND: Infection is the leading cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Corticosteroid (CS) use is a known and important risk factor for serious infections (SIs). Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a genetically determined component of the innate immune system implicated in neonatal infections. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether MBL deficiency is a risk factor for SIs in RA and to compare it with CS use and also synthetic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633563/mammalian-synthetic-biology-engineering-biological-systems
#10
Joshua B Black, Pablo Perez-Pinera, Charles A Gersbach
The programming of new functions into mammalian cells has tremendous application in research and medicine. Continued improvements in the capacity to sequence and synthesize DNA have rapidly increased our understanding of mechanisms of gene function and regulation on a genome-wide scale and have expanded the set of genetic components available for programming cell biology. The invention of new research tools, including targetable DNA-binding systems such as CRISPR/Cas9 and sensor-actuator devices that can recognize and respond to diverse chemical, mechanical, and optical inputs, has enabled precise control of complex cellular behaviors at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631219/agrobacterium-tumefaciens-mediated-transformation-of-oleaginous-yeast-lipomyces-species
#11
Ziyu Dai, Shuang Deng, David E Culley, Kenneth S Bruno, Jon K Magnuson
Interest in using renewable sources of carbon, especially lignocellulosic biomass, for the production of hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals has fueled interest in exploring various organisms capable of producing hydrocarbon biofuels and chemicals or their precursors. The oleaginous (oil-producing) yeast Lipomyces starkeyi is the subject of active research regarding the production of triacylglycerides as hydrocarbon fuel precursors using a variety of carbohydrate and nutrient sources. The genome of L. starkeyi has been published, which opens the door to production strain improvements through the development and use of the tools of synthetic biology for this oleaginous species...
June 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630007/rna-localization-making-its-way-to-the-center-stage
#12
REVIEW
Ashley Chin, Eric Lécuyer
Cells are highly organized entities that rely on intricate addressing mechanisms to sort their constituent molecules to precise subcellular locations. These processes are crucial for cells to maintain their proper organization and carry out specialized functions in the body, while genetic perturbations that clog up these addressing systems can contribute to disease aetiology. The trafficking of RNA molecules represents an important layer in the control of cellular organization, a process that is both highly prevalent and for which features of the regulatory machineries have been deeply conserved evolutionarily...
June 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629185/leptadenia-reticulata-retz-wight-arn-jivanti-botanical-agronomical-phytochemical-pharmacological-and-biotechnological-aspects
#13
REVIEW
Sudipta Kumar Mohanty, Mallappa Kumara Swamy, Uma Rani Sinniah, Maniyam Anuradha
Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant species widely used to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentricontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin...
June 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628856/mammalian-synthetic-biology-in-the-age-of-genome-editing-and-personalized-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Patrick Ho, Yvonne Y Chen
The recent expansion of molecular tool kits has propelled synthetic biology toward the design of increasingly sophisticated mammalian systems. Specifically, advances in genome editing, protein engineering, and circuitry design have enabled the programming of cells for diverse applications, including regenerative medicine and cancer immunotherapy. The ease with which molecular and cellular interactions can be harnessed promises to yield novel approaches to elucidate genetic interactions, program cellular functions, and design therapeutic interventions...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628639/small-molecule-inhibitors-uncover-synthetic-genetic-interactions-of-human-flap-endonuclease-1-fen1-with-dna-damage-response-genes
#15
Thomas A Ward, Peter J McHugh, Stephen T Durant
Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is a structure selective endonuclease required for proficient DNA replication and the repair of DNA damage. Cellularly active inhibitors of this enzyme have previously been shown to induce a DNA damage response and, ultimately, cell death. High-throughput screens of human cancer cell-lines identify colorectal and gastric cell-lines with microsatellite instability (MSI) as enriched for cellular sensitivity to N-hydroxyurea series inhibitors of FEN1, but not the PARP inhibitor olaparib or other inhibitors of the DNA damage response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628207/engineered-polymerases-with-altered-substrate-specificity-expression-and-purification
#16
Ali Nikoomanzar, Matthew R Dunn, John C Chaput
Polymerase engineering is making it possible to synthesize xeno-nucleic acid polymers (XNAs) with diverse backbone structures and chemical functionality. The ability to copy genetic information back and forth between DNA and XNA has led to a new field of science known as synthetic genetics, which aims to study the genetic concepts of heredity and evolution in artificial genetic polymers. Since many of the polymerases needed to synthesize XNA polymers are not available commercially, researchers must express and purify these enzymes as recombinant proteins from E...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626224/reference-standards-for-next-generation-sequencing
#17
REVIEW
Simon A Hardwick, Ira W Deveson, Tim R Mercer
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a broad investigation of the genome, and it is being readily applied for the diagnosis of disease-associated genetic features. However, the interpretation of NGS data remains challenging owing to the size and complexity of the genome and the technical errors that are introduced during sample preparation, sequencing and analysis. These errors can be understood and mitigated through the use of reference standards - well-characterized genetic materials or synthetic spike-in controls that help to calibrate NGS measurements and to evaluate diagnostic performance...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625564/crispr-system-in-filamentous-fungi-current-achievements-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Huaxiang Deng, Ruijie Gao, Xiangru Liao, Yujie Cai
As eukaryotes, filamentous fungi share many features with humans, and they produce numerous active metabolites, some of which are toxic. Traditional genetic approaches are generally inefficient, but the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system that has been widely used for basic research on bacteria, mammals and plants offers a simple, fast, versatile technology for systemic research on filamentous fungi. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge on Cas9 and its variants, different ways used to detect off-target, and different approaches used to express and transform the CRISPR complex...
June 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625476/feedback-loops-interlocked-at-competitive-binding-sites-amplify-and-facilitate-genetic-oscillations
#19
Koichiro Uriu, Hajime Tei
Positive and negative feedback loops are often present in regulatory networks for genetic oscillations. Relative time scales and integration of these feedback loops are key to robust oscillations in expression levels. Using examples from the circadian clock and synthetic genetic oscillators, we study positive and negative feedback loops interlocked at competitive binding sites. In the mammalian circadian clock, a key clock gene Bmal1 is regulated by the activator ROR and the repressor REV-ERB. Conversely, Bmal1 activates both of them, forming interlocked feedback loops...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625154/expanding-the-genetic-alphabet
#20
Janelle Weaver
Synthetic biologists have engineered a semisynthetic organism that can store increased genetic information using an alphabet consisting of six letters that form three base pairs. Janelle Weaver learns how they did it.
June 1, 2017: BioTechniques
keyword
keyword
77443
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"