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Brain-based interventions

Sang-Min Seo
[Purpose] This study investigates the effects of group occupational therapy using a cueing system on the executive function of preschool-aged children with brain lesions. [Subjects and Methods] Six preschool-aged children with brain lesions participated in this study. A 24-session occupational therapy program (1 session/week, 50 minutes/session) designed based on a cueing system was administered to examine the changes in the participants' executive function. The behavior rating inventory of executive function-preschool (BRIEF-P) was used to check the magnitude of improvement of executive functions after therapy...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Eli Gibson, Wenqi Li, Carole Sudre, Lucas Fidon, Dzhoshkun I Shakir, Guotai Wang, Zach Eaton-Rosen, Robert Gray, Tom Doel, Yipeng Hu, Tom Whyntie, Parashkev Nachev, Marc Modat, Dean C Barratt, Sébastien Ourselin, M Jorge Cardoso, Tom Vercauteren
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Medical image analysis and computer-assisted intervention problems are increasingly being addressed with deep-learning-based solutions. Established deep-learning platforms are flexible but do not provide specific functionality for medical image analysis and adapting them for this domain of application requires substantial implementation effort. Consequently, there has been substantial duplication of effort and incompatible infrastructure developed across many research groups...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Bruce Cv Campbell, Mark W Parsons
This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the use of imaging to guide stroke treatment. Brain imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of stroke and identification of the mechanism of stroke, which is relevant to acute treatment, prognosis, and secondary prevention. The chief potential modalities are computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Currently, most imaging occurs in hospital but mobile stroke units have expanded CT brain imaging into the prehospital field...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Gladstone C McDowell, Joseph Winchell
OBJECTIVES: The majority of patients seeking medical care for chronic pain consult a primary care physician (PCP). Because systemic opioids are commonly prescribed to patients with chronic pain, PCPs are attempting to balance the competing priorities of providing adequate pain relief while reducing risks for opioid misuse and overdose. It is important for PCPs to be aware of pain management strategies other than systemic opioid dose escalation when patients with chronic pain fail to respond to conservative therapies and to initiate a multimodal treatment plan...
March 15, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Hanna Ferløv Schwensen, Carol Kan, Janet Treasure, Niels Høiby, Magnus Sjögren
PURPOSE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a poorly understood and often chronic condition. Deviations in the gut microbiota have been reported to influence the gut-brain axis in other disorders. Therefore, if present in AN, it may impact on symptoms and illness progression. A review of the gut microbiota studies in AN is presented. METHOD: A literature search on PubMed yielded 27 articles; 14 were selected and based on relevance, 9 articles were included. The findings were interpreted in the larger context of preclinical research and clinical observations...
March 14, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Alireza Shahbabaie, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Ali Hariri, Michael A Nitsche, Javad Hatami, Emad Fatemizadeh, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamed Ekhtiari
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jie Zhou, Wei Xiang, Shenjie Li, Qi Hu, Tao Peng, Ligang Chen, Yang Ming
The incidence rate of gliomas is the highest among primary brain tumors. Although the understanding of the molecular pathology of glioma has improved during the previous two decades, effective therapies are not yet available to treat these tumors. Previous studies have indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have a close association with glioma, suggesting that lncRNAs may be potential targets for the development of novel treatments for glioma. The present review summarized the latest studies on the dysregulation of lncRNAs in glioma, and discussed their potential use in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapies of glioma...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Hyun Jun Kim, Sang Yeoup Lee, Hwa Gyeong Lee, Yang Hee Cho, Eun Mi Ko
Few studies have been undertaken to develop cognitive functional improvement-focused exercise programs and determine their effect. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of a cognitive enhancement fitness program (CEFP) on short-term memory and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels according to the cognitive state in middle-aged women. A total of 30 healthy volunteers aged 40-59 years were divided into two groups, that is, a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group and a non-MCI group based on results from the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Jianwei Cao, Hanli Liu, George Alexandrakis
Cortical circuit reorganization induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the Broca's area of the dominant language hemisphere in 13 healthy adults was quantified by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Transient cortical reorganization patterns in steady-state functional connectivity (seed-based and graph theory analysis) and temporal functional connectivity (sliding window correlation analysis) were recorded before, during, and after applying high current tDCS (1 mA, 8 min)...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
David Yuen Chung Chan, Danny Tat Ming Chan, Cannon Xian Lun Zhu, Patricia Kwok Yee Kan, Amelia Yikjin Ng, Yi-Pin Sonia Hsieh, Jill Abrigo, Wai Sang Poon, George Kwok Chu Wong
Treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) located at the eloquent area has been a challenge. Awake brain mapping allows identification of a non-eloquent gyrus for intervention and can potentially facilitate resection with preservation of functions. An alternative treatment option is stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The objective of this study was to perform a qualitative comparison of the treatment outcome of awake AVM excision versus SRS. We conducted a 13-year retrospective review of AVM excision under awake craniotomy performed at Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, from 2003 to 2016...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Jonas Kneer, Viola Borchardt, Christian Kärgel, Christopher Sinke, Claudia Massau, Gilian Tenbergen, Jorge Ponseti, Henrik Walter, Klaus M Beier, Boris Schiffer, Kolja Schiltz, Martin Walter, Tillmann H C Kruger
BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse and neglect have been related to an increased risk for the development of a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and sexual problems and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Contrary to the large amount of research focusing on the negative mental health consequences of child sexual abuse, very little is known about the characteristics of child sexual offenders and the neuronal underpinnings contributing to child sexual offending. METHODS AND SAMPLE: This study investigates differences in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between non-pedophilic child sexual offenders (N = 20; CSO-P) and matched healthy controls (N = 20; HC) using a seed-based approach...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Dong Zhang, Pengcheng Xu, Hongyu Qiao, Xin Liu, Liangping Luo, Wenhua Huang, Heye Zhang, Changzheng Shi
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular events are frequently associated with hemodynamic disturbance caused by internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. It is challenging to determine the ischemia-related carotid stenosis during the intervention only using digital subtracted angiography (DSA). Inspired by the performance of well-established FFRct technique in hemodynamic assessment of significant coronary stenosis, we introduced a pressure-based carotid arterial functional assessment (CAFA) index generated from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation in DSA data, and investigated its feasibility in the assessment of hemodynamic disturbance preliminarily using pressure-wired measurement and arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI as references...
March 12, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Jorien van Hoorn, Ethan M McCormick, Eva H Telzer
Adolescence is a time of increased social-affective sensitivity, which is often related to heightened health-risk behaviors. However, moderate levels of social sensitivity, relative to either low (social vacuum) or high levels (exceptionally attuned), may confer benefits as it facilitates effective navigation of the social world. The present fMRI study tested a curvilinear relationship between social sensitivity and adaptive decision-making. Participants (ages 12-16; N = 35) played the Social Analogue Risk Task (SART), which measures participants' willingness to knock on doors in order to earn points...
February 24, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Martha A Combs, Edan A Critchfield, Jason R Soble
OBJECTIVE: This preliminary, pilot study assessed the effectiveness of a group-based, mindfulness intervention in a residential, rehabilitation setting with specific focus on assessing participants' self-report of perceived benefit of the intervention on overall health, pain, sleep, mood/anxiety, attention, and self-awareness, as well as implementing modifications needed for successful intervention application among a diverse, clinical military population. METHOD/DESIGN: Participants were 19 veterans and active duty service members with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI; 63% severe) who completed a mindfulness-based group intervention during inpatient admission at a Veterans Affairs Polytrauma Transitional Rehabilitation Program (PTRP)...
March 12, 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
James K C Liu
BACKGROUND: Intracranial hypotension from cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia resulting in cerebral herniation is a rare but known complication that can occur following neurosurgical procedures, usually encountered in correlation with perioperative placement of a lumbar subarachnoid drain. Decrease in CSF volume resulting in loss of buoyancy results in downward herniation of the brain without contributing mass effect, causing a phenomenon known as 'brain sag.' Unreported previously is brain sag occurring without concomitant occult CSF leak or lumbar drainage...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Maria Letizia Barreca, Nunzio Iraci, Silvia Biggi, Violetta Cecchetti, Emiliano Biasini
Prion diseases are associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC ), a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of a wide variety of cell types, into a misfolded conformer (the scrapie form of PrP, or PrPSc ) that accumulates in brain tissues of affected individuals. PrPSc is a self-catalytic protein assembly capable of recruiting native conformers of PrPC , and causing their rearrangement into new PrPSc molecules. Several previous attempts to identify therapeutic agents against prion diseases have targeted PrPSc , and a number of compounds have shown potent anti-prion effects in experimental models...
March 7, 2018: Pathogens
Y J Daniel Yang, Tandra Allen, Sebiha M Abdullahi, Kevin A Pelphrey, Fred R Volkmar, Sandra B Chapman
Measuring treatment efficacy in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relies primarily on behaviors, with limited evidence as to the neural mechanisms underlying these behavioral gains. This pilot study addresses this void by investigating neural and behavioral changes in a Phase I trial in young adults with high-functioning ASD who received an evidence-based behavioral intervention, Virtual Reality-Social Cognition Training over 5 weeks for a total of 10 hr. The participants were tested pre- and post-training with a validated biological/social versus scrambled/nonsocial motion neuroimaging task, previously shown to activate regions within the social brain networks...
March 8, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Masayoshi Kurachi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Takashi Uehara, Michio Suzuki
Background: A recent review reported that the median proportion of patients recovering from schizophrenia was 13.5% and that this did not change over time. Various factors including the duration of untreated psychosis, cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and morphological changes in the brain influence the functional outcome of schizophrenia. The authors herein reviewed morphological changes in the brain of schizophrenia patients, effects of early intervention, and a direction of developing novel therapeutics to achieve significant improvement of the functional outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jeanette R Little, Holly H Pavliscsak, Mabel R Cooper, Lois A Goldstein, Stephanie J Fonda
Introduction: Research has shown that mobile phones can help with management of numerous health problems. As an adjunct to care management provided to injured service members rehabilitating in their communities, particularly those with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), post-traumatic stress (PTS), and/or behavioral health problems, the Army developed a mobile phone application called "mCare." This study examined whether service members who received mCare had higher well-being, were more satisfied with their care, and viewed mCare as a valuable part of their care management as compared with their counterparts who received standard care management alone, and whether those with mTBI, PTS, and/or behavioral health problems benefited differently from mCare...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Frank J Wolters, M Arfan Ikram
Dementia is among the leading causes of death and disability. Due to the ageing population, its prevalence is expected to nearly triple worldwide by 2050, urging the development of preventive and curative interventions. Various modifiable risk factors have been identified in community-based cohort studies, but insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms is lacking. Clinical trials have thus far failed in the development of disease-modifying therapy in patients with dementia, thereby triggering a shift of focus toward the presymptomatic phase of disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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