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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324787/interactive-ebooks-in-educating-patients-and-their-families-about-head-injury-regardless-of-age
#1
Ronald Sahyouni, Amin Mahmoodi, Amir Mahmoodi, Melissa Huang, Diem Kieu Tran, Jefferson W Chen
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common and debilitating injury that is particularly prevalent in patients over 60. Given the influence of head injury on dementia (and vice versa), and the increased likelihood of ground-level falls, elderly patients are vulnerable to TBI. Educational interventions can increase knowledge and influence preventative activity to decrease the likelihood of further TBI. We sought to determine the efficacy of interactive tablet-based educational interventions in elderly patients on self-reported knowledge...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323747/supporting-a-youth-with-cerebellar-ataxia-into-adolescence
#2
Veronica Meneses, Zurisadai Gonzalez-Castillo, Veronica B Edgar, Marilyn Augustyn
Zoe, a 13-year-old white girl, presents as a new patient to your pediatric clinic with complaints of frequent emesis, anxiety, and learning problems, and previous diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia. Parents accompany Zoe and state, "it is really hard for her to go out, she gets sick and falls easily." She was born full term by vaginal delivery without complications. Given globally delayed milestones, she received early intervention services. Feeding problems began at infancy, including gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration pneumonia...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319548/tanshinone-iia-attenuates-sevoflurane-neurotoxicity-in-neonatal-mice
#3
Yimeng Xia, Heng Xu, Chenfei Jia, Xiaodong Hu, Yu Kang, Xiaoxuan Yang, Qingsheng Xue, Guorong Tao, Buwei Yu
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is the most widely used inhalational anesthetic in pediatric medicine. Despite this, sevoflurane has been reported to exert potentially neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Clinical interventions and treatments for these effects are limited. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), has been documented to alleviate cognitive decline in traditional applications. Therefore, we hypothesized that preadministration of Tan IIA may attenuate sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting that Tan IIA is a new and promising drug capable of counteracting the effects of cognitive dysfunction produced by general anesthetics...
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318994/more-flavor-for-flavonoid-based-interventions
#4
Nadeem O Kaakoush, Margaret J Morris
Poor diets are associated with obesity and a decline in cognitive function. Flavonoids are plant compounds that have been associated with improved metabolic parameters in obesity and reversal of cognitive decline. Given that microbial flavonoid conversion is important for bioactivity, flavonoid-derived neuroactive compounds may be functionally crucial in the gut microbiome-brain axis.
March 17, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314453/proximal-influences-on-the-trajectory-of-suicidal-behaviors-and-suicide-during-the-transition-from-adolescence-to-young-adulthood
#5
REVIEW
Aradhana Bela Sood, Julie Linker
Youth transitioning to adulthood have unique developmental tasks that make them vulnerable to suicide. Brain development, life stressors, and psychological adjustments during the transition contribute to a high rate of suicidal gestures. To reduce the incidence of self-harm in this age group, a public health approach that identifies and reduces risk factors and enhances protective factors should be used. Institutions and employment arenas should consider structural supports to facilitate this transition of youth into adulthood, with a particular focus on youth with self-harm thoughts, and should provide education about suicide, evidence-based resources, and intervention programs to encourage help seeking...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302564/tackling-maladaptive-memories-through-reconsolidation-from-neural-to-clinical-science
#6
James W B Elsey, Merel Kindt
Behavioral neuroscience has greatly informed how we understand the formation, persistence, and plasticity of memory. Research has demonstrated that memory reactivation can induce a labile period, during which previously consolidated memories are sensitive to change, and in need of restabilization. This process is known as reconsolidation. Such findings have advanced not only our basic understanding of memory processes, but also hint at the prospect of harnessing these insights for the development of a new generation of treatments for disorders of emotional memory...
March 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301451/traumatic-brain-injury-related-emergency-department-visits-hospitalizations-and-deaths-united-states-2007-and-2013
#7
Christopher A Taylor, Jeneita M Bell, Matthew J Breiding, Likang Xu
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes, including death and disability. TBI can be caused by a number of principal mechanisms, including motor-vehicle crashes, falls, and assaults. This report describes the estimated incidence of TBI-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths during 2013 and makes comparisons to similar estimates from 2007. REPORTING PERIOD: 2007 and 2013. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: State-based administrative health care data were used to calculate estimates of TBI-related ED visits and hospitalizations by principal mechanism of injury, age group, sex, and injury intent...
March 17, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299538/decompressive-surgery-in-malignant-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-what-predicts-its-outcome
#8
Rohan Mahale, Anish Mehta, Ravi Gopal Varma, Alangar S Hegde, Purushottam T Acharya, Rangasetty Srinivasa
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is common in Asians, accounting for 15% of all strokes in the young. CVST causing malignant cerebral oedema with brain herniation and death are referred as malignant CVST. This study was aimed at evaluating the outcome of patients and factors predicting the outcome with malignant CVST after decompressive surgery. It was a retrospective, observational, single centre, hospital-based and cross-sectional study. Records of patients with malignant CVST who had decompressive surgery were analysed...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293926/prenatal-maternal-distress-and-allergic-diseases-in-offspring-review-of-evidence-and-possible-pathways
#9
REVIEW
Dong In Suh, Hyoung Yoon Chang, Eun Lee, Song I Yang, Soo Jong Hong
Recent studies have suggested a close association between prenatal maternal distress and allergic diseases in the offspring. We selected relevant birth-cohort or national registry studies using a keyword search of the PubMed database and summarized current evidence on the impact of prenatal maternal distress on the development of offspring's allergic diseases. Moreover, we postulated possible pathways linking prenatal distress and allergic diseases based on relevant human and animal studies. Both dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased oxidative stress may cause structural (altered brain/lung development) and functional (skewed immune development) changes, which may predispose the fetus to developing allergic diseases during childhood...
May 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291210/-long-association-tracts-of-the-human-white-matter-an-analysis-of-18-hemisphere-dissections-and-in-vivo-hardi-csd-tractography
#10
S A Goryainov, A V Kondrashov, M F Gol'dberg, A I Batalov, R A Sufianov, N E Zakharova, I N Pronin, D A Gol'bin, V Yu Zhukov, G F Dobrovol'sky, S Yu Shelyakin, V N Vorob'ev, S S Dadykin, A A Potapov
BACKGROUND: Anatomy of the conduction tracts of the cerebral cortex has been studied for a long time. Invention of diffusion tensor tractography renewed interest in this subject. The objectives of this work were to develop and improve protocols for dissection of the long association tracts of the human brain with studying the features of their segmentation, topography, and variability, compare the obtained data with the MR tractography data, and prepare for further clinical and anatomical studies...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy NeÄ­rokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290743/brain-anatomy-of-symptom-stratification-in-schizophrenia-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#11
Giuseppe Delvecchio, Alessandra Lorandi, Cinzia Perlini, Marco Barillari, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Marcella Bellani, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Although some Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have investigated the relationship between clinical severity and neuroanatomical alterations in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), the biological signature associated with illness severity in schizophrenia is still uncertain. Therefore, this study aims to investigate structural brain abnormalities in SCZ, with particular regards to the identification of potential deficits associated with the severity of illness. METHODS: In total, 1...
March 14, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286848/brain-ultrasonography-findings-in-neonatal-seizure-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Seyed Saeed Nabavi, Parinaz Partovi
INTRODUCTION: Screening of newborns with seizure, who have curable pathologic brain findings, might be able to improve their final outcome by accelerating treatment intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the brain ultrasonography findings of newborns hospitalized with complaint of seizure. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study designed to evaluate brain ultrasonography findings of hospitalized newborns complaining seizure. Neonatal seizure was defined as presence of tonic, clonic, myoclonic, and subtle attacks in 1 - 28 day old newborns...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286479/detection-of-conversion-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease-using-longitudinal-brain-mri
#13
Zhuo Sun, Martijn van de Giessen, Boudewijn P F Lelieveldt, Marius Staring
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between healthy and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To enable early intervention it is important to identify the MCI subjects that will convert to AD in an early stage. In this paper, we provide a new method to distinguish between MCI patients that either convert to Alzheimer's Disease (MCIc) or remain stable (MCIs), using only longitudinal T1-weighted MRI. Currently, most longitudinal studies focus on volumetric comparison of a few anatomical structures, thereby ignoring more detailed development inside and outside those structures...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286202/using-a-real-time-location-system-for-assessment-of-patient-ambulation-in-a-hospital-setting
#14
In Cheol Jeong, David Bychkov, Stephanie Hiser, Julie Kreif, Lisa Klein, Erik Hoyer, Peter Searson
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of using an infrared-based Real Time Location System (RTLS) for measuring patient ambulation in a two minute walk test (2MWT) by comparing distance walked and Johns Hopkins Highest Level of Mobility (JH-HLM) score to clinician observation as a criterion standard. DESIGN: Criterion standard validation study. SETTING: Inpatient, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: 25 Adult Neuroscience/Brain Rescue Unit patients INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: RTLS and clinician reported ambulation distance in feet and JH-HLM score on an 8-point ordinal scale...
March 9, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283812/behavioral-treatments-for-post-traumatic-headache
#15
REVIEW
Felicia Fraser, Yuka Matsuzawa, Yuen Shan Christine Lee, Mia Minen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-traumatic headache (PTH) is a common headache type after traumatic brain injury (TBI). There are no FDA approved medications for PTH, and it is unknown how medications can affect the brain's ability to recover from TBI. Thus, we sought to examine the biopsychosocial factors that influence PTH and the non-pharmacologic treatments studied for headache treatment. We also sought to determine if there is literature examining whether the non-pharmacologic treatments influence the biopsychosocial factors...
May 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283208/paroxysmal-sympathetic-hyperactivity-in-children-an-exploratory-evaluation-of-nursing-interventions
#16
Lisa Letzkus, Jessica Keim-Malpass, Joel Anderson, Christine Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) produces symptoms of autonomic instability and muscle over-activity; however, the majority of nursing interventions used in clinical practice are anecdotal and not evidenced based. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to report nursing documentation of PSH events, and to describe the clinical nursing interventions and care provided to children who have suffered a severe brain injury and are exhibiting PSH. The secondary objective was to demonstrate how the Symptom Management Theory (SMT) can serve as a framework for research related to brain injury and PSH...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281497/management-of-brain-tumor-related-epilepsy
#17
REVIEW
Neil V Klinger, Aashit K Shah, Sandeep Mittal
Seizures are common in both primary and metastatic brain tumors, although the rate of seizures differ significantly between the different types of neoplasms. Patients with brain tumor-associated seizures need treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to prevent recurrence, whereas strong clinical data exists to discourage routine prophylaxis in patients who have not had seizures. The newer AEDs, such as levetiracetam, lamotrigine, lacosamide, topiramate, or pregabalin, are preferable for various reasons, primarily related to the side-effect profile and limited interactions with other drugs...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279785/epigenetic-interventions-for-epileptogenesis-a-new-frontier-for-curing-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
Iyan Younus, Doodipala Samba Reddy
This article highlights the emerging therapeutic potential of specific epigenetic modulators as promising antiepileptogenic or disease-modifying agents for curing epilepsy. Currently, there is an unmet need for antiepileptogenic agents that truly prevent the development of epilepsy in people at risk. There is strong evidence that epigenetic signaling, which exerts high fidelity regulation of gene expression, plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of epileptogenesis and chronic epilepsy. These modifications are not hard-wired into the genome and are constantly reprogrammed by environmental influences...
March 6, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277966/movement-based-priming-clinical-applications-and-neural-mechanisms
#19
Mary Ellen Stoykov, Daniel Montie Corcos, Sangeetha Madhavan
Priming can be described as behavior change generated by preceding stimuli. Although various types of priming have been long studied in the field of psychology, priming that targets motor cortex is a relatively new topic of research in the fields of motor control and rehabilitation. In reference to a rehabilitation intervention, priming is categorized as a restorative approach. There are a myriad of possible priming approaches including noninvasive brain stimulation, motor imagery, and sensory-based priming, to name a few...
January 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277342/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity
#20
Laura Patriarca, Greta Magerowski, Miguel Alonso-Alonso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines recent advances in the use of functional neuroimaging to study human obesity, a field that is rapidly expanding and continues to be of paramount importance for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition. With rising levels of obesity worldwide and limited therapeutic options, there is a great need for the development of new solutions that can benefit patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies that utilize functional neuroimaging are beginning to shed light on the nature of behavioral and neurocognitive dysfunctions previously identified in individuals with obesity...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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