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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688614/paclitaxel-loaded-polylactide-polyethylene-glycol-fibers-with-long-term-antitumor-activity-as-a-potential-drug-carrier-for-local-chemotherapy
#1
Johana Plch, Kristyna Venclikova, Olga Janouskova, Jan Hrabeta, Tomas Eckschlager, Katerina Kopeckova, Zuzana Hampejsova, Zuzana Bosakova, Jakub Sirc, Radka Hobzova
Local application of anticancer agents prolongs the presence time and increases the concentration of drug in the target place and therefore may reduce serious side effects compared to drug systemic administration. The preparation of fibrous materials of polylactide (PLA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) loaded with paclitaxel (PTX, 1 or 10 wt%) is presented. Scanning electron microscopy proves that PTX is homogeneously incorporated into the fibers. The addition of PEG of various molecular weights (6, 20, or 35 kDa) ensures the release of significantly higher amounts of hydrophobic PTX in a prolonged release time compared to the fibers containing PTX only...
April 24, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517479/differential-requirements-for-processing-and-transport-of-short-chain-versus-long-chain-o-acylcarnitines-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Jamie A Meadows, Graham G Willsey, Matthew J Wargo
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can metabolize carnitine and O-acylcarnitines, which are abundant in host muscle and other tissues. Acylcarnitines are metabolized to carnitine and a fatty acid. The liberated carnitine and its catabolic product, glycine betaine, can be used as osmoprotectants, to induce the secreted phospholipase C PlcH, and as sole carbon, nitrogen and energy sources. P. aeruginosa is incapable of de novo synthesis of carnitine and acylcarnitines, therefore they must be imported from an exogenous source...
April 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312770/development-of-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-in-a-patient-with-established-adenocarcinoma-of-the-lung
#3
Or Kalchiem-Dekel, Adina Paulk, Seth J Kligerman, Allen P Burke, Nirav G Shah, Renee K Dixon
Newly-appearing lung nodules on surveillance imaging in patients with pre-existing lung cancer can present a diagnostic dilemma when attempting to differentiate between metastatic disease, infection, and other inflammatory conditions. Here we report a case of an EGFR- / ALK- / BRAF+ metastatic adenocarcinoma patient who underwent lung biopsy for evaluation of upper-lobe predominant lung nodules revealed to represent pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH). The patient was a heavy smoker and admitted to increase her smoking habit after initially learning about her diagnosis with lung cancer...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273509/diversity-of-virulence-genes-in-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-burn-wound-infections
#4
Fakhri Haghi, Habib Zeighami, Arefeh Monazami, Farnaz Toutouchi, Shima Nazaralian, Ghazal Naderi
Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has frequently been reported as the cause of nosocomial outbreaks of burn wound infections. The pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa is partly due to the production of several cell-associated and extracellular virulence factors. A total of 93 P. aeruginosa isolated from burn wound infections were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of virulence genes. All (100%) isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. The most frequent resistance found against ampicillin (91...
February 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222007/current-concepts-in-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-smoking-related-interstitial-lung-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Anupam Kumar, Sujith V Cherian, Robert Vassallo, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. Although emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial cells and other lung cells, resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells, including eosinophils. As our understanding of the role of cigarette smoke constituents in triggering lung injury continues to evolve, so does our recognition of the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung changes...
December 5, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083024/pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-in-adults
#6
Elżbieta Radzikowska
Pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterised by the infiltration of the lungs and other organs by the bone marrow derived Langerhans' cells, which carry mutations of BRAF gene and/or NRAS, KRAS and MAP2K1 genes. It occurs predominantly in young smokers, without gender predominance. The disease is characterised by formation of eosinophilic granulomas with the presence of Langerhans' cells infiltrating and destroying distal airways. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest (HRCT) plays an outstanding role in PLCH diagnosis...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078729/virulence-genes-flic-toxa-and-phzs-are-common-among-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-diabetic-foot-infections
#7
Bulent M Ertugrul, Erman Oryasin, Benjamin A Lipsky, Ayşe Willke, Bulent Bozdogan
BACKGROUND: Outcomes of antibiotic treatment of diabetic foot infections (DFIs) may depend not only on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the aetiologic agents, but also their ability to produce virulence factors. This study aimed to use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers to investigate the presence of virulence genes among isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates cultured from specimens from diabetic foot and other infections. METHODS: We examined 63 P...
April 2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954765/new-insights-in-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-and-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#8
REVIEW
Olga Torre, Davide Elia, Antonella Caminati, Sergio Harari
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) are rare diseases that lead to progressive cystic destruction of the lungs. Despite their distinctive characteristics, these diseases share several features. Patients affected by LAM or PLCH have similar radiological cystic patterns, a similar age of onset, and the possibility of extrapulmonary involvement. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, as well as the current and most promising biomarkers and therapeutic approaches, are described...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893647/coexistence-of-multidrug-resistance-mechanisms-and-virulence-genes-in-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-south-india
#9
Kalaiarasan Ellappan, Harish Belgode Narasimha, Saravana Kumar
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the multiple drug resistance mechanisms and various virulence genes in high-level carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CARPA) isolates collected from patients hospitalised in a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: A total of 156 CARPA isolates were included in the study. Multiplex PCR was optimised to detect carbapenemase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was optimised to evaluate oprD deficiency...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877978/how-i-manage-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#10
Gwenaël Lorillon, Abdellatif Tazi
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare sporadic cystic lung disease of unknown aetiology that is characterised by the infiltration and destruction of the wall of distal bronchioles by CD1a+ Langerhans-like cells. In adults, PLCH is frequently isolated and affects young smokers of both sexes. Recent multicentre studies have led to the more standardised management of patients in clinical practice. Smoking cessation is essential and is occasionally the only suitable intervention. Serial lung function testing is important because a significant proportion of patients may experience an early decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and develop airflow obstruction...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711990/assessment-of-braf-v600e-mutation-in-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-in-tissue-biopsies-and-bronchoalveolar-lavages-by-droplet-digital-polymerase-chain-reaction
#11
Clémence Pierry, Charline Caumont, Elodie Blanchard, Camille Brochet, Gael Dournes, Audrey Gros, Thomas Bandres, Séverine Verdon, Marion Marty, Hugues Bégueret, Jean-Philippe Merlio
The neoplastic nature of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is still debated. As the detection of BRAF V600E and MAP2K1 mutations in patients with PCLH is now considered for such assessment, the aim of our study was to evaluate digital droplet polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) in PCLH diagnosis. We retrospectively analyzed BRAFV600E detection in a cohort of 42 PCLH tissues and 18 bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) by ddPCR, immunohistochemistry, high-resolution melting PCR (HRM), and next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
February 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689173/current-understanding-and-management-of-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#12
REVIEW
Robert Vassallo, Sergio Harari, Abdellatif Tazi
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a diffuse lung disease that usually affects young adult smokers. PLCH affects different lung compartments; bronchiolar, interstitial and pulmonary vascular dysfunction may coexist to varying extents, resulting in diverse phenotypes. Analyses of PLCH tissues have identified activating mutations of specific mitogen-activated protein kinases (BRAFV600E and others). The current consensus is that PLCH represents a myeloid neoplasm with inflammatory properties: the myeloid tumour cells exhibit surface CD1a expression and up to 50% of the cells harbour activating BRAF or other MAPK mutations...
October 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671573/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-as-anticancer-drugs
#13
REVIEW
Tomas Eckschlager, Johana Plch, Marie Stiborova, Jan Hrabeta
Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT). HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649310/lung-ultrasound-has-limited-diagnostic-value-in-rare-cystic-lung-diseases-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Jesper Rømhild Davidsen, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Daniel P Henriksen, Ole Graumann, Christian B Laursen
Background: Lung ultrasound (LUS) used to identify interstitial syndrome (IS) and pleural thickening related to diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) has shown significant correlations with ground glass opacity (GGO) on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, the applicability of LUS in patients with DPLD subtypes as rare cystic lung diseases has not previously been investigated. This study aimed to observe if distinctive LUS findings could be found in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH), and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS)...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616240/metastatic-pancreatic-carcinoma-masquerading-as-cystic-lung-disease-a-rare-presentation
#15
Emily Stern, Taha Huseini, YiJin Kuok, Fiona Lake
This 52-year-old male ex-smoker presented with a six-month history of progressive breathlessness and weight loss. He deteriorated acutely, and was admitted with severe type 1 respiratory failure. Apart from diffuse coarse crackles on chest auscultation, physical examination was unremarkable. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed diffuse cystic changes throughout the lungs. A diagnosis of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) was considered. Further workup identified a coincidental pancreatic lesion of uncertain significance, which remained indeterminate on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and on positron emission tomography (PET)...
September 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386471/characterization-of-virulence-potential-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-bovine-meat-fresh-fish-and-smoked-fish
#16
Comoé Koffi Donatien Benie, Adjéhi Dadié, Nathalie Guessennd, Nadège Ahou N'gbesso-Kouadio, N'zebo Désiré Kouame, David Coulibaly N'golo, Solange Aka, Etienne Dako, Koffi Marcellin Dje, Mireille Dosso
Pseudomonas aeruginosa owns a variability of virulence factors. These factors can increase bacterial pathogenicity and infection severity. Despite the importance of knowledge about them, these factors are not more characterized at level of strains derived from local food products. This study aimed to characterize the virulence potential of P. aeruginosa isolated from various animal products. Several structural and virulence genes of P. aeruginosa including lasB, exoS, algD, plcH, pilB, exoU, and nan1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on 204 strains of P...
March 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315724/molecular-detection-of-six-virulence-genes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-detected-in-children-with-urinary-tract-infection
#17
Ali Badamchi, Hossein Masoumi, Shima Javadinia, Ramin Asgarian, Azardokht Tabatabaee
Although a vast majority of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by E. coli, epidemiological reports have indicated an increasing rate of such infections caused by some other opportunistic organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial susceptibility and pathogenesis mechanisms of P. aeruginosa are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect some virulence factor genes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates detected in patients with UTI, in children hospital of Tehran, Tehran, Iran...
June 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298909/fingerprint-analysis-and-identification-of-strains-st309-as-a-potential-high-risk-clone-in-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-population-isolated-from-children-with-bacteremia-in-mexico-city
#18
Rosario Morales-Espinosa, Gabriela Delgado, Luis F Espinosa, Dassaev Isselo, José L Méndez, Cristina Rodriguez, Guadalupe Miranda, Alejandro Cravioto
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and is associated with nosocomial infections. Its ability to thrive in a broad range of environments is due to a large and diverse genome of which its accessory genome is part. The objective of this study was to characterize P. aeruginosa strains isolated from children who developed bacteremia, using pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and in terms of its genomic islands, virulence genes, multilocus sequence type, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Our results showed that P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225287/-predatory-journals-how-their-publishers-operate-and-how-to-avoid-them
#19
Jiří Kratochvíl, Lukáš Plch
Authors who publish in scientific or scholarly journals today face the risk of publishing in so-called predatory journals. These journals exploit the noble idea of the Open Access movement, whose goal is to make the latest scientific findings available for free. Predatory journals, unlike the reputable ones working on an Open Access basis, neglect the review process and publish low-quality submissions. The basic attributes of predatory journals are a very quick review process or even none at all, failure to be transparent about author fees for publishing an article, misleading potential authors by imitating the names of well-established journals, and false information on indexing in renowned databases or assigned impact factor...
December 0: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220299/molecular-analysis-of-braf-v600e-mutation-in-multiple-nodules-of-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#20
Arno Dimmler, Helene Geddert, Martin Werner, Gerhard Faller
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare, smoking-related histiocytic disorder with variable clinical symptoms. Like in other non-pulmonary Langerhans cell proliferations, PLCH has recently been shown to harbour BRAF V600E mutations in a significant subset of cases, thus challenging the concept of PLCH being a reactive disorder. Here, we analysed 38 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded PLCH nodules of nine patients for BRAF mutation using two different molecular methods. Using pyrosequencing and allele-specific quantitative PCR (AS-PCR), BRAF V600E mutations were found in 16/38 (42%) and 31/37 (84%) nodules, respectively...
April 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
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