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Perivascular fat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643979/cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy-as-a-result-of-mild-hypercaloric-challenge-in-absence-of-signs-of-diabetes-modulation-by-antidiabetic-drugs
#1
Ola Al-Assi, Rana Ghali, Ali Mroueh, Abdullah Kaplan, Nahed Mougharbil, Ali H Eid, Fouad A Zouein, Ahmed F El-Yazbi
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is an early cardiovascular complication of diabetes occurring before metabolic derangement is evident. The cause of CAN remains elusive and cannot be directly linked to hyperglycemia. Recent clinical data report cardioprotective effects of some antidiabetic drugs independent of their hypoglycemic action. Here, we used a rat model receiving limited daily increase in calories from fat (HC diet) to assess whether mild metabolic challenge led to CAN in absence of interfering effects of hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, or obesity...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618983/perivascular-adipose-tissue-as-a-relevant-fat-depot-for-cardiovascular-risk-in-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Rafael M Costa, Karla B Neves, Rita C Tostes, Núbia S Lobato
Obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death, morbidity, and mortality from several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. However, this is not a straightforward relationship. Although several studies have substantiated that obesity confers an independent and additive risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, there is significant variability in these associations, with some lean individuals developing diseases and others remaining healthy despite severe obesity, the so-called metabolically healthy obese...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615924/protective-role-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-in-endothelial-dysfunction-and-insulin-induced-vasodilatation-of-hypercholesterolemic-ldl-receptor-deficient-mice
#3
Natali Baltieri, Daniele M Guizoni, Jamaira A Victorio, Ana P Davel
Background: Endothelial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Vascular insulin resistance might contribute to a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, leading to impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in cardiometabolic diseases. Because perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) controls endothelial function and NO bioavailability, we hypothesized a role for this fat deposit in the vascular complications associated with the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated the potential involvement of PVAT in the early endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr-KO)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610677/potential-association-of-lmna-associated-generalized-lipodystrophy-with-juvenile-dermatomyositis
#4
Melis Sahinoz, Shafaq Khairi, Ashley Cuttitta, Graham F Brady, Amit Rupani, Rasimcan Meral, Marwan K Tayeh, Peedikayil Thomas, Meredith Riebschleger, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Jeffrey W Innis, M Bishr Omary, Daniel E Michele, Elif A Oral
Background: Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is an auto-immune muscle disease which presents with skin manifestations and muscle weakness. At least 10% of the patients with JDM present with acquired lipodystrophy. Laminopathies are caused by mutations in the lamin genes and cover a wide spectrum of diseases including muscular dystrophies and lipodystrophy. The p.T10I LMNA variant is associated with a phenotype of generalized lipodystrophy that has also been called atypical progeroid syndrome...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595858/calycosin-directly-improves-perivascular-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-by-upregulating-the-adiponectin-ampk-enos-pathway-in-obese-mice
#5
Fang Han, Kai Li, Ruiyan Pan, Wenjie Xu, Xue Han, Ningning Hou, Xiaodong Sun
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) loses its anti-contractile activity in obesity. Calycosin, the major bioactive isoflavonoid, was shown to protect endothelial function. However, effects of calycosin on PVAT function in obesity remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of calycosin on the anti-contractile activity of PVAT in obese mice and its potential mechanisms. Obesity in mice was induced with a high-fat diet, with or without calycosin treatment. Thoracic aorta responses to phenylephrine were determined...
March 29, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479319/high-fat-diet-attenuates-the-anticontractile-activity-of-aortic-pvat-via-a-mechanism-involving-ampk-and-reduced-adiponectin-secretion
#6
Tarek A M Almabrouk, Anna D White, Azizah B Ugusman, Dominik S Skiba, Omar J Katwan, Husam Alganga, Tomasz J Guzik, Rhian M Touyz, Ian P Salt, Simon Kennedy
Background and aim: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) positively regulates vascular function through production of factors such as adiponectin but this effect is attenuated in obesity. The enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is present in PVAT and is implicated in mediating the vascular effects of adiponectin. In this study, we investigated the effect of an obesogenic high fat diet (HFD) on aortic PVAT and whether any changes involved AMPK. Methods: Wild type Sv129 (WT) and AMPKα1 knockout (KO) mice aged 8 weeks were fed normal diet (ND) or HFD (42% kcal fat) for 12 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467310/whole-body-but-not-hepatic-knockdown-of-chemerin-by-antisense-oligonucleotide-decreases-blood-pressure-in-rats
#7
David J Ferland, Bridget Seitz, Emma S Darios, Janice M Thompson, Steve T Yeh, Adam E Mullick, Stephanie W Watts
Chemerin is an inflammatory adipokine positively associated with hypertension and obesity. The majority of chemerin derives from the liver and adipose tissue, however, their individual contributions to blood pressure are unknown. We began studying chemerin in the normal rat using antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) with whole-body activity (Gen 2.5 chemerin ASO) or liver-restricted activity (GalNAc chemerin ASO). We hypothesized that in normotensive male SD rats, circulating chemerin is predominately liver-derived and regulates blood pressure...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454047/renal-perivascular-adipose-tissue-form-and-function
#8
Carolina Baraldi A Restini, Alex Ismail, Ramya K Kumar, Robert Burnett, Hannah Garver, Gregory D Fink, Stephanie W Watts
Renal sympathetic activity affects blood pressure in part by increasing renovascular resistance via release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves onto renal arteries. Here we test the idea that adipose tissue adjacent to renal blood vessels, i.e. renal perivascular adipose tissue (RPVAT), contains a pool of NE which can be released to alter renal vascular function. RPVAT was obtained from around the main renal artery/vein of the male Sprague Dawley rats. Thoracic aortic PVAT and mesenteric PVAT also were studied as brown-like and white fat comparators respectively...
February 14, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450852/major-pancreatic-resections-normal-postoperative-findings-and-complications
#9
Marco Chincarini, Giulia A Zamboni, Roberto Pozzi Mucelli
OBJECTIVES: (1) To illustrate and describe the main types of pancreatic surgery; (2) to discuss the normal findings after pancreatic surgery; (3) to review the main complications and their radiological findings. BACKGROUND: Despite the decreased postoperative mortality, morbidity still remains high resulting in longer hospitalisations and greater costs. Imaging findings following major pancreatic resections can be broadly divided into "normal postoperative alterations" and real complications...
February 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444588/periaortic-adipose-tissue-compared-with-peribrachial-adipose-tissue-mass-as-markers-and-possible-modulators-of-cardiometabolic-risk
#10
Elko Randrianarisoa, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Anja Hieronimus, Bernd Balletshofer, Jürgen Machann, Dorothea Siegel-Axel, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Kilian Rittig
Increased perivascular fat mass contributes to cardiometabolic risk (CMR). High peribrachial adipose tissue (PBAT) associates with insulin resistance independently of established CMR parameters. It is unknown to what extent periaortic adipose tissue (PAAT) may have a similar impact. In 95 participants, precise quantification of total adipose tissue, PBAT, PAAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and liver fat (LF) content was performed by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity was determined by oral glucose tolerance test and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) by high-resolution ultrasound...
January 1, 2018: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443547/modeling-heart-failure-risk-in-diabetes-and-kidney-disease-limitations-and-potential-applications-of-transverse-aortic-constriction-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#11
Wei Sheng Tan, Thomas P Mullins, Melanie Flint, Sarah L Walton, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, David A Carter, Meera R Gandhi, Hayley R McDonald, Joan Li, Karen M Moritz, Melissa E Reichelt, Linda A Gallo
There is an increased incidence of heart failure in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). The co-existence of kidney disease in DM exacerbates the cardiovascular prognosis. Researchers have attempted to combine the critical features of heart failure, using transverse aortic constriction, with DM in mice but variable findings have been reported. Furthermore, kidney outcomes have not been assessed in this setting thus its utility as a model of heart failure in DM and kidney disease is unknown. We generated a mouse model of obesity, hyperglycemia and mild kidney pathology by feeding male C57BL/6J mice a high fat diet (HFD)...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425108/neck-adipose-tissue-tying-ties-in-metabolic-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Vlatka Pandzic Jaksic, Danijela Grizelj, Ana Livun, Drago Boscic, Marko Ajduk, Rajko Kusec, Ozren Jaksic
Upper body adipose tissue accumulation has been associated with clustering of metabolic disorders and increased cardiovascular risk. Neck circumference (NC) indicated that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in that region is an independent pathogenic depot that might account for the additional risk missed by visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Neck adipose tissue (NAT) is not only one more ectopic depot but has several particular features that might modulate its metabolic role. Besides a controversial impact on obstructive apnea syndrome, neck fat encompasses carotid arteries as an important perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) depot...
February 9, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417051/inflammation-in-vein-graft-disease
#13
REVIEW
Margreet R de Vries, Paul H A Quax
Bypass surgery is one of the most frequently used strategies to revascularize tissues downstream occlusive atherosclerotic lesions. For venous bypass surgery the great saphenous vein is the most commonly used vessel. Unfortunately, graft efficacy is low due to the development of vascular inflammation, intimal hyperplasia and accelerated atherosclerosis. Moreover, failure of grafts leads to significant adverse outcomes and even mortality. The last couple of decades not much has changed in the treatment of vein graft disease (VGD)...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401041/perivascular-epicardial-fat-stranding-at-coronary-ct-angiography-a-marker-of-acute-plaque-rupture-and-spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection
#14
Sandeep Hedgire, Vinit Baliyan, Evan J Zucker, Daniel O Bittner, Pedro Staziaki, Richard A P Takx, Jan-Erik Scholtz, Nandini Meyersohn, Udo Hoffmann, Brian Ghoshhajra
Purpose To evaluate the frequency and implications of perivascular fat stranding on coronary computed tomography (CT) angiograms obtained for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Materials and Methods This retrospective registry study was approved by the institutional review board. The authors reviewed the medical records and images of 1403 consecutive patients (796 men, 607 women; mean age, 52.8 years) who underwent coronary CT angiography at the emergency department from February 2012 to March 2016. Fat attenuation, length and number of circumferential quadrants of the affected segment, and attenuation values in the unaffected epicardial and subcutaneous fat were measured...
February 5, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396370/distinct-adipocyte-progenitor-cells-are-associated-with-regional-phenotypes-of-perivascular-aortic-fat-in-mice
#15
Khanh-Van Tran, Timothy Fitzgibbons, So Yun Min, Tiffany DeSouza, Silvia Corvera
OBJECTIVE: Perivascular adipose tissue depots around the aorta are regionally distinct and have specific functional properties. Thoracic aorta perivascular adipose tissue (tPVAT) expresses higher levels of thermogenic genes and lower levels of inflammatory genes than abdominal aorta perivascular adipose tissue (aPVAT). It is not known whether this distinction is due to the in-vivo functional environment or to cell-autonomous traits that persist outside the in-vivo setting. In this study, we asked whether the progenitor cells in tPVAT and aPVAT have cell-autonomous traits that lead to formation of regionally distinct PVAT...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357124/role-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-in-health-and-disease
#16
Maria S Fernández-Alfonso, Beatriz Somoza, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Artur Kuczmanski, Mick Dashwood, Marta Gil-Ortega
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is cushion of fat tissue surrounding blood vessels, which is phenotypically different from other adipose tissue depots. PVAT is composed of adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction, constituted by different populations of immune cells, endothelial cells, and adipose-derived stromal cells. It expresses and releases an important number of vasoactive factors with paracrine effects on vascular structure and function. In healthy individuals, these factors elicit a net anticontractile and anti-inflammatory paracrine effect aimed at meeting hemodynamic and metabolic demands of specific organs and regions of the body...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336260/adipocytes-and-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-putative-potential-role-of-adipocytes-in-the-process-of-aaa-development
#17
Hirona Kugo, Tatsuya Moriyama, Nobuhiro Zaima
Background Adipose tissue plays a role in the storage of excess energy as triglycerides (TGs). Excess fat accumulation causes various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. It has been reported that ectopic fat deposition and excess TG accumulation in non-adipose tissue might be important predictors of cardiometabolic and vascular risk. For example, ectopic fat in perivascular tissue promotes atherosclerotic plaque formation in the arterial wall. Objective Recently, it has been reported that ectopic fat (adipocyte) in the vascular wall of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is present in both human and experimental animal models...
January 15, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242199/organ-specific-lymphatic-vasculature-from-development-to-pathophysiology
#18
REVIEW
Tatiana V Petrova, Gou Young Koh
Recent discoveries of novel functions and diverse origins of lymphatic vessels have drastically changed our view of lymphatic vasculature. Traditionally regarded as passive conduits for fluid and immune cells, lymphatic vessels now emerge as active, tissue-specific players in major physiological and pathophysiological processes. Lymphatic vessels show remarkable plasticity and heterogeneity, reflecting their functional specialization to control the tissue microenvironment. Moreover, alternative developmental origins of lymphatic endothelial cells in some organs may contribute to the diversity of their functions in adult tissues...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204239/wilkie-s-syndrome
#19
Renato Farina, Pietro Valerio Foti, Giuseppe Cocuzza, Valeria Costanzo, Giuliana Costanzo, Alessandro Conti, Alfredo Torcitto, Monica Pennisi
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, also known as Wilkie's syndrome, is a rare vascular disease caused by the anomalous course of the superior mesenteric artery arising from the abdominal aorta with a smaller angle than the norm (<22°). The reduced angle compresses the structures situated between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, such as the duodenum and left renal vein; this can determine painful crises, intestinal subocclusions, and left varicocele. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired...
December 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167167/cellular-mechanisms-underlying-obesity-induced-arterial-stiffness
#20
Annayya R Aroor, Guanghong Jia, James R Sowers
Obesity is an emerging pandemic driven by consumption of a diet rich in fat and highly refined carbohydrates (a Western diet) and a sedentary lifestyle in both children and adults. There is mounting evidence that arterial stiffness in obesity is an independent and strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive functional decline, and chronic kidney disease. Cardiovascular stiffness is a precursor to atherosclerosis, systolic hypertension, cardiac diastolic dysfunction, and impairment of coronary and cerebral flow...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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