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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016715/matrix-metalloproteinase-2-knockout-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-vascular-injury
#1
Tlili Barhoumi, Julio C Fraulob-Aquino, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman Mian, Sofiane Ouerd, Noureddine Idris-Khodja, Ku-Geng Huo, Asia Rehman, Antoine Caillon, Bianca Dancose-Giambattisto, Talin Ebrahimian, Stéphanie Lehoux, Pierre Paradis, Ernesto L Schiffrin
Aims: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the development of hypertension in animal models and humans. Mmp2 deletion did not change Ang II-induced blood pressure (BP) rise. However, whether Mmp2 knockout affects angiotensin (Ang) II-induced vascular injury has not been tested. We sought to determine whether Mmp2 knockout will prevent Ang II-induced vascular injury. Methods and results: A fourteen-day Ang II infusion (1000 ng/kg/min, SC) increased systolic BP, decreased vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine, induced mesenteric artery (MA) hypertrophic remodelling, and enhanced MA stiffness in wild-type (WT) mice...
July 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970806/perivascular-adipose-tissue-harbors-atheroprotective-igm-producing-b-cells
#2
Prasad Srikakulapu, Aditi Upadhye, Sam M Rosenfeld, Melissa A Marshall, Chantel McSkimming, Alexandra W Hickman, Ileana S Mauldin, Gorav Ailawadi, M Beatriz S Lopes, Angela M Taylor, Coleen A McNamara
Adipose tissue surrounding major arteries (Perivascular adipose tissue or PVAT) has long been thought to exist to provide vessel support and insulation. Emerging evidence suggests that PVAT regulates artery physiology and pathology, such as, promoting atherosclerosis development through local production of inflammatory cytokines. Yet the immune subtypes in PVAT that regulate inflammation are poorly characterized. B cells have emerged as important immune cells in the regulation of visceral adipose tissue inflammation and atherosclerosis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934021/browning-of-abdominal-aorta-perivascular-adipose-tissue-inhibits-adipose-tissue-inflammation
#3
Run-Mei Li, Sui-Qing Chen, Ning-Xi Zeng, Shu-Hui Zheng, Li Guan, Hai-Mei Liu, Le-Quan Zhou, Jin-Wen Xu
BACKGROUND: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) can regulate vascular homeostasis by secreting various adipokines. This study investigated the effects of PVAT browning on its endocrine function. METHODS: In the first section of our study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into cold exposure (8°C) and 24°C acclimation groups. After cold exposure for 7 days, interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), subcutaneous white adipose tissue, thoracic aortic PVAT, and abdominal aortic PVAT (aPVAT) were harvested for histological and brown marker gene expression analysis...
September 21, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902432/c1q-tnf-related-protein-9-improves-the-anti-contractile-effects-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-via-the-ampk-enos-pathway-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#4
Fang Han, Yang Zhang, Mingxia Shao, Qingjie Mu, Xiaotong Jiao, Ningning Hou, Xiaodong Sun
The anti-contractile property of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is abolished through an endothelium-dependent pathway in obesity. C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein (CTRP)9 improved endothelial function by promoting endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. The aims of this study were to investigate whether CTRP9 improves the anti-contractile effect of PVAT and protects against PVAT dysfunction in obese mice. The mice were treated with a high-fat diet with or without CTRP9 treatment. Thoracic aortas with or without PVAT (PVAT+ or PVAT-) were prepared, and concentration-dependent responses to phenylephrine were measured...
September 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868898/the-tumour-suppressor-cdkn2a-p16-ink4a-regulates-adipogenesis-and-bone-marrow-dependent-development-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue
#5
Kristiaan Wouters, Yann Deleye, Sarah A Hannou, Jonathan Vanhoutte, Xavier Maréchal, Augustin Coisne, Madjid Tagzirt, Bruno Derudas, Emmanuel Bouchaert, Christian Duhem, Emmanuelle Vallez, Casper G Schalkwijk, François Pattou, David Montaigne, Bart Staels, Réjane Paumelle
The genomic CDKN2A/B locus, encoding p16(INK4a) among others, is linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a risk factor for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. p16(INK4a) is a cell cycle regulator and tumour suppressor. Whether it plays a role in adipose tissue formation is unknown. p16(INK4a) knock-down in 3T3/L1 preadipocytes or p16(INK4a) deficiency in mouse embryonic fibroblasts enhanced adipogenesis, suggesting a role for p16(INK4a) in adipose tissue formation...
September 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867378/autologous-fat-transplants-to-deliver-glitazone-and-adiponectin-for-vasculoprotection
#6
William G Sanders, Huan Li, Ilya Zhuplatov, Yuxia He, Seong-Eun Kim, Alfred K Cheung, Jayant Agarwal, Christi M Terry
The insulin sensitizing glitazone drugs, rosiglitazone (ROS) and pioglitazone (PGZ) both have anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects and induce adipose tissue (fat) to produce the vaso-protective protein adiponectin. Stenosis due to intimal hyperplasia development often occurs after placement of arteriovenous synthetic grafts used for hemodialysis. This work was performed to characterize the in vitro and in vivo effects of ROS or PGZ incorporation in fat and to determine if fat/PGZ depots could decrease vascular hyperplasia development in a porcine model of hemodialysis arteriovenous graft stenosis...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836621/imaging-perivascular-fat-an-unheralded-informant-of-coronary-inflammation
#7
Marc R Dweck, Zahi A Fayad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774869/overactivation-of-intestinal-sterol-response-element-binding-protein-2-promotes-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#8
Pooja Malhotra, Costica Aloman, Aparna Ankireddy, Hani Khadra, Kohtaro Ooka, Ravinder K Gill, Seema Saksena, Pradeep K Dudeja, Waddah A Alrefai
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by lipid accumulation in the liver that may progress to hepatic fibrosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Mechanisms underlying NAFLD and NASH are not yet fully understood. Dietary cholesterol was recently shown to be a risk factor for the development of NASH suggesting a role for intestinal handling of cholesterol. One important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis is the Sterol Response Element Binding Protein SREBP2 transcription factor. We tested the hypothesis that the overactivation of intestinal SREBP2 increases the susceptibility to diet-induced NASH...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763398/cardiovascular-fat-in-women-at-midlife-effects-of-race-overall-adiposity-and-central-adiposity-the-swan-cardiovascular-fat-study
#9
Carrie Hanley, Karen A Matthews, Maria M Brooks, Imke Janssen, Matthew J Budoff, Akira Sekikawa, Suresh Mulukutla, Samar R El Khoudary
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular fat (CF) is associated with greater coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Postmenopausal women have greater CF volumes than premenopausal women, and the association between specific CF depot volumes and CHD risk is more pronounced after menopause. Race, central adiposity, and visceral adiposity are important factors that could impact CF volumes. Whether racial differences in CF volumes and in their associations with central (visceral fat [VAT]) and general adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) exist in midlife women have not been addressed before...
July 31, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762019/epicardial-adipose-tissue-as-a-metabolic-transducer-role-in-heart-failure-and-coronary-artery-disease
#10
REVIEW
Vaibhav B Patel, Saumya Shah, Subodh Verma, Gavin Y Oudit
Obesity and diabetes are strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders including dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Adipose tissue is identified as a complex endocrine organ, which by exerting a wide array of regulatory functions at the cellular, tissue and systemic levels can have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. Different terms including "epicardial," "pericardial," and "paracardial" have been used to describe adipose tissue deposits surrounding the heart...
July 31, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701474/detecting-human-coronary-inflammation-by-imaging-perivascular-fat
#11
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Fabio Sanna, Nikant Sabharwal, Sheena Thomas, Evangelos K Oikonomou, Laura Herdman, Marios Margaritis, Cheerag Shirodaria, Anna-Maria Kampoli, Ioannis Akoumianakis, Mario Petrou, Rana Sayeed, George Krasopoulos, Constantinos Psarros, Patricia Ciccone, Carl M Brophy, Janet Digby, Andrew Kelion, Raman Uberoi, Suzan Anthony, Nikolaos Alexopoulos, Dimitris Tousoulis, Stephan Achenbach, Stefan Neubauer, Keith M Channon, Charalambos Antoniades
Early detection of vascular inflammation would allow deployment of targeted strategies for the prevention or treatment of multiple disease states. Because vascular inflammation is not detectable with commonly used imaging modalities, we hypothesized that phenotypic changes in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) induced by vascular inflammation could be quantified using a new computerized tomography (CT) angiography methodology. We show that inflamed human vessels release cytokines that prevent lipid accumulation in PVAT-derived preadipocytes in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo...
July 12, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699484/immune-response-to-native-lipoproteins-induces-visceral-obesity-and-aortic-wall-injury-in-rats-the-role-of-testosterone
#12
Kseniya Fomina, Liubov Beduleva, Igor Menshikov, Marina Marina Anikaeva, Daria Suntsova, Alexandr Sidorov, Elena Stolyarova
OBJECTIVES: The underlying mechanism of atherosclerosis and visceral obesity remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that atherosclerosis and visceral obesity are caused by an immune response to native plasma lipoproteins, and the atherogenic and adipogenic effects of the antibodies to native lipoproteins stem from the androgen deficiency that is created. METHODS: Wistar rats were immunized with native human (nh) low-density (LDL) or high-density lipoproteins (HDL)...
July 11, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697195/fluorine-18-fdg-pet-ct-in-a-patient-with-angiomyolipoma-response-to-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-inhibitor-therapy
#13
Hoda Anwar, Christos Sachpekidis, Matthias Schwarzbach, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss
We report on a 27 years old female patient who was referred to our department for whole-body as well as dynamic positron emission tomography/computed tomography (dPET/CT) scan of the upper and middle abdomen with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxy glucose ((18)F-FDG), for further evaluation of a mass in the left adrenal gland region. Positron emission tomography showed a suspicious, enlarged, hypermetabolic mass with an average standardized uptake value (SUV) of 4.5 and a maximum SUV of 5.9. The patient was referred for biopsy, which revealed an angiomyolipoma, a perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the adrenal gland...
May 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670396/effects-of-chemerin-cmklr1-in-obesity-induced-hypertension-and-potential-mechanism
#14
Chunyan Weng, Zhijie Shen, Xiaobo Li, Weihong Jiang, Liping Peng, Hong Yuan, Kan Yang, Jiangang Wang
BACKGROUND: Obesity-induced hypertension (OIH) has a high morbidity and mortality, and its prevention and treatment has been a major challenge in clinical practice. Chemerin is a newly discovered adipokine closely related to OIH. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (8W) were divided into either a high-fat diet or a regular diet group. Body weight and blood pressure were measured every two weeks. After 20 weeks, serum, adipose tissue and aortic arteries were collected. Arterial tensions were detected; Immunohistochemistry, ELISA and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of chemerin, CMKLR1, Rock2 and P-MYPT1 in the aorta and perivascular adipose tissues...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621447/metformin-prevents-vascular-prostanoid-release-alterations-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-in-rats
#15
H J Lee, S M Cantú, A S Donoso, M R Choi, H A Peredo, A M Puyó
Perivascular adipose tissue dysfunction induced by high-fat feeding leads to alterations in the modulation of inflammation, contractile activity of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelial function, all risk factors in the development of hypertension. Metformin, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is currently the first-line drug treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome. Besides its glucose-lowering effect, there is an interest in actions of this drug with potential relevance in cardiovascular diseases...
June 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601937/nerve-perivascular-fat-communication-as-a-potential-influence-on-the-performance-of-blood-vessels-used-as-coronary-artery-bypass-grafts
#16
Andrzej Loesch, Michael R Dashwood
Perivascular fat, the cushion of adipose tissue surrounding blood vessels, possesses dilator, anti-contractile and constrictor actions. The majority of these effects have been demonstrated in vitro and may depend on the vessel and/or the experimental method or species used. In general, the relaxant effect of perivascular adipose tissue is local and may be either endothelium-dependent or endothelium-independent. However, nerve stimulation studies show that, in general, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has an anti-contractile vascular effect likely to involve an action of the autonomic vascular nerves...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595178/irisin-regulates-heme-oxygenase-1-adiponectin-axis-in-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-improves-endothelial-dysfunction-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#17
Ningning Hou, Gang Du, Fang Han, Jin Zhang, Xiaotong Jiao, Xiaodong Sun
AIMS: To determine whether irisin could improve endothelial dysfunction by regulating heme oxygenase-1(HO-1)/adiponectin axis in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in obesity. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without irisin treatment. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of the thoracic aorta with or without PVAT (PVAT+ or PVAT-) was determined. Western blot was employed to determine the levels of HO-1 and adiponectin in PVAT...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584685/renal-epithelioid-angiomyolipoma-associated-with-pulmonary-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-imaging-findings
#18
Athina C Tsili, Alexandra Ntorkou, Maria I Argyropoulou
Renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) are the most common tumors of the perivascular epithelioid cell (PEComa) family. Both may be associated with tuberous sclerosis (TS) complex. Epithelioid AML (EAML) is a rare variety of AMLs, with a potential aggressive behavior. There are few reports in the English literature addressing on the imaging findings of renal EAMLs, which are considered nonspecific. We present the sonographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a renal EAML in a pregnant woman with concomitant pulmonary lesions indicative of LAM, without stigmata of TS...
2017: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582523/the-interplay-between-adipose-tissue-and-the-cardiovascular-system-is-fat-always-bad
#19
Ioannis Akoumianakis, Charalambos Antoniades
Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, clinical research has revealed a paradoxically protective role for obesity in patients with chronic diseases including CVD, suggesting that the biological 'quality' of adipose tissue (AT) may be more important than overall AT mass or body weight. Importantly, AT is recognised as a dynamic organ secreting a wide range of biologically active adipokines, microRNAs, gaseous messengers, and other metabolites that affect the cardiovascular system in both endocrine and paracrine ways...
July 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567229/platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-positive-pericytic-cells-of-white-adipose-tissue-from-critical-limb-ischemia-patients-display-mesenchymal-stem-cell-like-properties
#20
Eo Jin Kim, Sang Gyo Seo, Hyuk Soo Shin, Doo Jae Lee, Ji Hye Kim, Dong Yeon Lee
BACKGROUND: The pericytes in the blood vessel wall have recently been identified to be important in regulating vascular formation, stabilization, remodeling, and function. We isolated and identified pericyte-like platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta-positive (PDGFRβ+) cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue from critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients and investigated their potential as a reliable source of stem cells for cell-based therapy. METHODS: De-identified subcutaneous fat tissues were harvested after amputation in CLI patients...
June 2017: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
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