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Perivascular fat

Ferruh Artunc, Erwin Schleicher, Cora Weigert, Andreas Fritsche, Norbert Stefan, Hans-Ulrich Häring
Insulin resistance is a systemic disorder that affects many organs and insulin-regulated pathways. The disorder is characterized by a reduced action of insulin despite increased insulin concentrations (hyperinsulinaemia). The effects of insulin on the kidney and vasculature differ in part from the effects on classical insulin target organs. Insulin causes vasodilation by enhancing endothelial nitric oxide production through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. In insulin-resistant states, this pathway is impaired and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway stimulates vasoconstriction...
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
K E Zaborska, M Wareing, C Austin
The endothelium is an established modulator of vascular tone; however the recent discovery of the anti-contractile nature of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) suggests that the fat which surrounds many blood vessels can also modulate vascular tone. Both the endothelium and PVAT secrete vasoactive substances, which regulate vascular function. Many of these factors are common to both the endothelium and PVAT; therefore, this review will highlight the potential shared mechanisms in modulation of vascular tone...
October 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Pierre Paradis, Suellen C Coelho, Sofiane Ouerd, Júlio C Fraulob-Aquino, Stefan Offermanns, Ernesto L Schiffrin
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms of blood pressure (BP) regulation by endothelin (ET)-1 produced by endothelial cells are complex and remain unclear. Recently, we developed a transgenic mouse with tamoxifen-inducible endothelium-restricted human ET-1 overexpression (ieET-1) using Cre/loxP technology. ieET-1 mice exhibited a BP increase after three weeks of induction in an ET type A receptor-dependent manner, in absence of evident vascular injury. It is unknown whether long-term exposure to ET-1 overexpression results in persistent BP elevation and vascular injury...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pierre Paradis, Tlili Barhoumi, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman Mian, Julio C Fraulob-Aquino, Asia Rehman, Nourredine Idris-Khodja, Ernesto L Schiffrin
OBJECTIVE: Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is involved in cardiovascular disease. Whether MMP2 plays a role in hypertension and vascular damage is unknown. We hypothesized that Mmp2 knockout will prevent angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension and vascular injury. DESIGN AND METHOD: Mmp2 knockout (Mmp2) and wild-type (WT) mice were infused with Ang II (1000 ng/kg/min, SC) for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by telemetry, and mesenteric artery (MA) endothelial function and vascular remodeling by pressurized myography...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anthony Heagerty
There is now a considerable body of evidence to suggest that the fat cells that surround blood vessels (perivascular adipose tissue, PVAT) can influence profoundly arterial tone by releasing vasodilator adipokines which can act locally in a paracrine fashion. In healthy lean individuals the primary vasodilator released appears to be adiponectin and there is a complex interation between autonomic nerve firing in PVAT and the release of nitric oxide from adipocytes and an increased bioavailability of adiponectin...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ningning Hou, Yihui Liu, Fang Han, Di Wang, Xiaoshuang Hou, Shuting Hou, Xiaodong Sun
AIMS: To determine whether irisin could improve perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) dysfunction via regulation of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/adiponectin axis in obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were given chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without treatment with irisin. The concentration-dependent responses of the thoracic aorta with or without PVAT (PVAT+ or PVAT-) to phenylephrine were studied in an organ bath. Protein levels of HO-1 and adiponectin were determined by western blot...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Mikael Rydén
In the last decade, results in both animal models and humans have demonstrated that white adipocytes are generated over the entire life-span. This adds to the plasticity of adipose tissue and alterations in adipocyte turnover are linked to metabolic dysfunction. Adipocytes are derived from precursors present primarily in the perivascular areas of adipose tissue but their precise origin remains unclear. The multipotent differentiation capacity of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) has prompted the suggestion that BMDC may contribute to different cell tissue pools, including adipocytes...
July 2016: Adipocyte
Carmela Nacci, Valentina Leo, Leonarda De Benedictis, Maria A Potenza, Luca Sgarra, Maria A De Salvia, Michael J Quon, Monica Montagnani
Increased TNFα-mediated JNK signaling in the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular complications in T1DM by reducing adiponectin (Ad) synthesis and therefore impairing Ad-mediated activity in the contiguous blood vessel system. We evaluated whether in vivo treatment with the TNFα blocking antibody infliximab normalized expression of Ad and Ad receptors in various fat depots, and whether this effect correlated with improved endothelial activity and vasodilator function in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
August 23, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
Claudia Agabiti-Rosei, Gaia Favero, Carolina De Ciuceis, Claudia Rossini, Enzo Porteri, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Lorenzo Franceschetti, Anna Maria Sarkar, Enrico Agabiti-Rosei, Damiano Rizzoni, Rita Rezzani
Some reports have suggested that inflammation in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) may be implicated in vascular dysfunction by causing the disappearance of an anticontractile effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic melatonin treatment on the functional responses of the small mesenteric arteries and on the expression of markers of inflammation/oxidative stress in the aortas of senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8), a model of age-related vascular dysfunction. We investigated seven SAMP8 and seven control senescence-accelerated resistant mice (SAMR1) treated for 10 months with melatonin, as well as equal numbers of age-matched untreated SAMP8 and SAMR1...
August 18, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Eduardo Nava, Silvia Llorens
During the last quarter of the past century, the leading role the endocrine and nervous systems had on the regulation of vasomotion, shifted towards a more paracrine-based regulation. This begun with the recognition of endothelial cells as active players of vascular control, when the vessel's intimal layer was identified as the main source of prostacyclin and was followed by the discovery of an endothelium-derived smooth muscle cell relaxing factor (EDRF). The new position acquired by endothelial cells prompted the discovery of other endothelium-derived regulatory products: vasoconstrictors, generally known as EDCFs, endothelin, and other vasodilators with hyperpolarizing properties (EDHFs)...
August 12, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Paul Hindle, Nusrat Khan, Leela Biant, Bruno Péault
: : Perivascular stem cells (PSCs) are the natural ancestors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and are the stem cells responsible for homeostasis and repair in vivo. Prospectively identified and isolated PSCs have demonstrated increased plasticity and osteogenic potential. Cells from the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have demonstrated increased chondrogenic potential compared with those from subcutaneous fat. This research assessed the chondrogenic potential of IFP PSCs compared with MSCs from the IFP and bone marrow...
August 5, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Niki Katsiki, Vasilios G Athyros, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
Adipose tissue, a major endocrine organ, consists of brown and white adipocytes. Brown fatmay play a beneficialrole in cardiometabolic disordersBrown adipose tissue can also improve glucose and lipid metabolism. In contrast, the expansion of white adipose tissue has been related to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both the quantity and the quality of the white adipose tissue as well as its distribution may affect CVD risk. In this context, the link between adiposity and CVD risk is greater for visceral than subcutaneous fat...
July 22, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Anne-Lise Hachulla, Maxime Ronot, Stéphane Noble, Christoph D Becker, Xavier Montet, Jean-Paul Vallée
OBJECTIVES: To study the image quality of ECG-gated-computed tomography (CT) acquisition with a high-pitch CT imaging for the exploration of both the aorta and coronary arteries. METHODS: Eighty-four patients underwent high-pitch ECG-gated aortic CT without β-blockers with iterative reconstruction algorithms. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between vessels and adjacent perivascular fat tissue were calculated on the aorta and the coronary arteries. Dose-length-products (DLP) were recorded...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Nuria Beneit, Óscar Escribano, Sabela Díaz-Castroverde, Gema García-Gómez, Silvia Fernández, Manuel Benito
Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity...
September 2016: Endocrinology
C Grässer, C Scheuer, J Parakenings, T Tschernig, D Eglin, M D Menger, M W Laschke
The seeding of scaffolds with adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments represents a promising strategy to establish a sufficient blood supply in tissue constructs. Herein, we analysed whether a single application of macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2) at the implantation site further improves the early vascularisation of such microvessel-seeded constructs. Microvascular fragments were isolated from epididymal fat pads of C57BL/6 mice. The fragments were seeded on polyurethane scaffolds, which were implanted into mouse dorsal skinfold chambers exposed to MALP-2 or vehicle (control)...
2016: European Cells & Materials
Hans-Ulrich Häring
This article describes phenotypes observed in a prediabetic population (i.e. a population with increased risk for type 2 diabetes) from data collected at the University hospital of Tübingen. We discuss the impact of genetic variation on insulin secretion, in particular the effect on compensatory hypersecretion, and the incretin-resistant phenotype of carriers of the gene variant TCF7L2 is described. Imaging studies used to characterise subphenotypes of fat distribution, metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically unhealthy obesity are described...
September 2016: Diabetologia
Sin-Jin Li, Chia-Hsin Liu, Hsien-Pin Chu, Harry J Mersmann, Shih-Torng Ding, Chun-Han Chu, Chia-Yu Wang, Ching-Yi Chen
BACKGROUND: The cellular mechanisms of obesity-induced cardiomyopathy are multiple and not completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to differentiate two obesity-associated cardiomyopathy miniature pig models: one with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and one with a metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). The cellular responses during the development of obesity-induced cardiomyopathy were investigated. METHODS: Five-month-old Lee-Sung (MetS) and Lanyu (MHO) minipigs were made obese by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 months...
June 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Nevena Jeremic, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Suresh C Tyagi
What is more interesting about brown adipose tissue (BAT) is its ability to provide thermogenesis, protection against obesity by clearing triglycerides, releasing batokines, and mitigating insulin resistance. White adipose tissue (WAT) on the other hand stores excess energy and secretes some endocrine factors like leptin for regulating satiety. For the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the browning of fat keeping in view its beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and protection in the form of perivascular fat...
January 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yoko Murakami, Yukihiro Nagatani, Masashi Takahashi, Mitsuru Ikeda, Itsuko Miyazawa, Katsutaro Morino, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Hiroshi Maegawa, Norihisa Nitta, Hiroshi Sakai, Hiromitsu Nota, Noritoshi Ushio, Kiyoshi Murata
Renal sinus fat is partially characteristic of peri-vascular adipose tissue, however, RSF volume (RSFV) is associated with visceral adipose tissue (VATV). Therefore, the ratio of RSFV to VATV (RSFV/VATV ratio) can distinguish the importance of RSF as an extension of VAT versus its perivascular effects. We assessed the association of RSFV/VATV ratio with coronary artery calcification score (CACS) in 189 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. RSFV of the right kidney and VATV were quantified by using image data of unenhanced abdominal CT...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Maria S Fernandez-Alfonso, Domingos S R Souza, Mats Dreifaldt, Michael R Dashwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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