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Perivascular fat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536464/the-protective-effect-of-human-renal-sinus-fat-on-glomerular-cells-is-reversed-by-the-hepatokine-fetuin-a
#1
R Wagner, J Machann, M Guthoff, P P Nawroth, S Nadalin, M A Saleem, N Heyne, A Königsrainer, F Fend, F Schick, A Fritsche, N Stefan, H-U Häring, E Schleicher, D I Siegel-Axel
Renal sinus fat (RSF) is a perivascular fat compartment located around renal arteries. In this in vitro and in vivo study we hypothesized that the hepatokine fetuin-A may impair renal function in non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by altering inflammatory signalling in RSF. To study effects of the crosstalk between fetuin-A, RSF and kidney, human renal sinus fat cells (RSFC) were isolated and cocultured with human endothelial cells (EC) or podocytes (PO). RSFC caused downregulation of proinflammatory and upregulation of regenerative factors in cocultured EC and PO, indicating a protective influence of RFSC...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529328/perivascular-adipose-tissue-epiphenomenon-or-local-risk-factor
#2
REVIEW
K Schäfer, I Drosos, S Konstantinides
Obesity is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying the link between increased body weight and vascular disease are incompletely understood. Over the past 15 years, perivascular adipose tissue has emerged as active component of the vessel wall involved in vascular homeostasis. However, perivascular adipose tissue can adopt detrimental properties under the influence of obesity and other factors and contribute actively to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Conversely, changes of the vessel wall may negatively affect perivascular adipose tissue qualities...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482351/communication-is-key-mechanisms-of-intercellular-signaling-in-vasodilation
#3
Julie K Freed, David D Gutterman
Thirty years ago, Robert F. Furchgott concluded that nitric oxide, a compound traditionally known to be a toxic component of fuel exhaust, is in fact released from the endothelium, and in a paracrine fashion, induces relaxation of underlying vascular smooth muscle resulting in vasodilation. This discovery has helped pave the way for a more thorough understanding of vascular intercellular and intracellular communication that supports the process of regulating regional perfusion to match the local tissue oxygen demand...
May 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473440/deficiency-of-lrp1-in-mature-adipocytes-promotes-diet-induced-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-brief-report
#4
Eddy S Konaniah, David G Kuhel, Joshua E Basford, Neal L Weintraub, David Y Hui
OBJECTIVE: Mice with adipocyte-specific inactivation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) are resistant to diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia because of compensatory thermogenic response by muscle. However, the physiological function of LRP1 in mature adipocytes and its role in cardiovascular disease modulation are unknown. This study compared perivascular adipose tissues (PVAT) from wild-type (adLrp1(+/+)) and adipocyte-specific LRP1 knockout (adLrp1(-/-)) mice in modulation of atherosclerosis progression...
June 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429277/primary-ewing-sarcoma-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-of-the-kidney-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-23-cases
#5
Paari Murugan, Priya Rao, Pheroze Tamboli, Bogdan Czerniak, Charles C Guo
Primary Ewing sarcoma / primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES) of the kidney is a rare neoplasm with limited clinicopathologic data. We report 23 such cases with no history of ES elsewhere in the body. The patients included 13 male and 10 female, aged 8-70 years (mean, 31 years). The average tumor size was 11.7 cm (range, 5-20 cm). Microscopic analysis showed predominantly lobular growth (n = 14), with focal papillary (n = 3), alveolar (n = 1), and hemangiopericytoma-like (n = 1) patterns. Several tumors (n = 11) exhibited robust mitotic activity (>10 mitoses/10 high-power fields)...
April 20, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425848/the-contribution-of-bone-marrow-derived-cells-to-the-human-adipocyte-pool
#6
Peter Arner, Mikael Rydén
White adipose tissue is a remarkably expandable organ with results in the last decade showing that human white adipocytes are continuously turned over during the entire life-span. Data primarily in murine models have demonstrated that adipocytes are derived from precursors present mainly in the perivascular areas of adipose tissue but their precise origin remains unclear. Subsets of cells present in bone marrow display a multipotent differentiation capacity which has prompted the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) may also contribute to the adipocyte pool present in peripheral fat depots...
March 15, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376507/the-role-of-o-glcnacylation-in-perivascular-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-of-offspring-of-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#7
Karolina E Zaborska, Gillian Edwards, Clare Austin, Mark Wareing
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which reduces vascular contractility, is dysfunctional in the male offspring of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), partially due to a reduced NO bioavailability. O-GlcNAcylation of eNOS decreases its activity, thus we investigated the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the prenatal programming of PVAT dysfunction. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control (10% fat) or an obesogenic HFD (45% fat) diet for 12 weeks prior to mating, and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto the control diet and were killed at 12 and 24 weeks of age...
2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359733/right-ethmoid-eosinophilic-angiocentric-fibrosis-with-orbital-extension
#8
S Gorostis, M Bacha, S Gravier, T Raguin
INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a slowly progressive, benign disease involving the mucosa of the upper airways or, more rarely, the orbit. It belongs to the spectrum of IgG4-related disease. CASE REPORT: The authors report the case of a 61-year-old man who presented with orbital involvement (visual loss, pain, proptosis, and eyelid oedema), headache and nasal obstruction. Imaging revealed a right ethmoido-orbital mass infiltrating the periorbital fat and enveloping the optic nerve...
March 27, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349253/mangiferin-suppresses-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-prevents-insulin-resistance-in-the-endothelium
#9
Xiaoshan Xu, Yupeng Chen, Junna Song, Fangjie Hou, Xuelian Ma, Baolin Liu, Fang Huang
PURPOSE: Mangiferin is a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone with beneficial effects on glucose and lipid homeostasis. This study investigates the potential therapeutic effect of Mangiferin in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and whether it contributes to regulating insulin action in the endothelium. METHODS: Palmitate challenge evoked ROS-associated endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in PVAT. The conditioned medium from PA-stimulated PVAT was prepared to induce endothelial insulin resistance, and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to insulin was detected in vitro and in vivo...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257140/pro-contractile-effects-of-perivascular-fat-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
J G Ramirez, E J O'Malley, W S V Ho
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognized as an active player in vascular homeostasis. The expansion of PVAT in obesity and its possible role in vascular dysfunction have attracted much interest. In terms of the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure, PVAT has been shown to release vasoactive mediators, for instance, angiotensin peptides, reactive oxygen species, chemokines and cytokines. The secretory profile of PVAT is altered by obesity, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, leading to an imbalance between its pro-contractile and anti-contractile effects...
March 3, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246920/primary-perivascular-epithelioid-cell-tumors-of-the-liver-ct-mri-findings-and-clinical-outcomes
#11
Martin E O'Malley, Tanya P Chawla, Lisa P Lavelle, Sean Cleary, Sandra Fischer
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to describe the CT and MRI features of primary PEComas of the liver and to document the associated clinical outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective study included 20 patients with primary hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComa) with pathology and clinical outcomes for correlation. RESULTS: Study group included 20 patients: 16 women, 4 men; mean age 53 (range 35-77) years. Initial pathology diagnoses were classic angiomyolipoma (AML) (n = 11), epithelioid AML (n = 7), and PEComa not otherwise specified (n = 2)...
February 28, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236429/adiponectin-improves-endothelial-function-in-mesenteric-arteries-of-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet-role-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue
#12
Cristina M Sena, Ana Pereira, Rosa Fernandes, Liliana Letra, Raquel M Seiça
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adiponectin, the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes, is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and vascular physiology. Here, we have investigated the effects of exogenous administration of adiponectin on metabolism, vascular reactivity and perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) of mesenteric arteries in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of adiponectin on NO-dependent and independent vasorelaxation were investigated in isolated mesenteric arteries from 12-month-old male Wistar rats (W12m) fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 months and compared with those from age-matched rats given a control diet...
February 25, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170170/the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-as-a-source-of-perivascular-stem-cells-with-increased-chondrogenic-potential-for-regenerative-medicine
#13
Paul Hindle, Nusrat Khan, Leela Biant, Bruno Péault
Perivascular stem cells (PSCs) are the natural ancestors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and are the stem cells responsible for homeostasis and repair in vivo. Prospectively identified and isolated PSCs have demonstrated increased plasticity and osteogenic potential. Cells from the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have demonstrated increased chondrogenic potential compared with those from subcutaneous fat. This research assessed the chondrogenic potential of IFP PSCs compared with MSCs from the IFP and bone marrow...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144721/focal-fat-deposition-in-the-liver-diagnostic-challenges-on-imaging
#14
REVIEW
Jong Keon Jang, Hyun-Jung Jang, Jin Sil Kim, Tae Kyoung Kim
While focal fat deposition in the liver mostly occurs in typical locations related to non-portal venous supply, unusual patterns of focal fat deposition, including multi-nodular, mass-like, and perivascular patterns, mimic malignancies and cause diagnostic challenges. Patients with unusual focal fat deposition often have potential underlying etiologies such as diabetes, alcohol abuse, metabolic disease, or various medications/chemotherapy. Some cases can be explained by non-portal venous supply or ischemia...
February 1, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141700/endothelial-and-perivascular-adipose-tissue-abnormalities-in-obesity-related-vascular-dysfunction-novel-targets-for-treatment
#15
Francesca Schinzari, Manfredi Tesauro, Carmine Cardillo
The heavy impact of obesity on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has sparked sustained efforts to uncover the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to vascular dysfunction. In addition to its well-established role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, the endothelium has been increasingly recognized as a key player in modulating healthy adipose tissue expansion in response to excess calories by providing adipocyte precursors and driving angiogenesis. When this increased storage need is unmet, excessive deposition of fat occurs at ectopic locations, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123735/lipomatous-angiomyofibroblastoma-of-the-vulva-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Susumu Matsukuma, Ayano Koga, Ryohei Suematsu, Hiroaki Takeo, Kimiya Sato
Lipomatous angiomyofibroblastoma is extremely rare, with only 16 cases reported to date. We herein describe an additional case arising in the left vulvar region of a 49-year-old woman. The resected 5.3-cm yellowish tumor predominantly consisted of fat cells (85% of the tumor), together with medium- and small-sized vessels, multifocal fibrotic areas and pseudoangiomatous spaces. Spindle, rounded, and/or epithelioid tumor cells proliferated in a nest and/or cord-like pattern, or singly within perivascular fibrous tissues and between fat cells...
January 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063251/perivascular-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-vascular-disease
#17
REVIEW
Ryszard Nosalski, Tomasz J Guzik
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In vascular pathologies perivascular adipose tissue increases in volume and becomes dysfunctional, with altered cellular composition and molecular characteristics. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by its inflammatory character, oxidative stress, diminished production of vaso-protective adipocyte derived relaxing factors (ADRFs) and increased production of paracrine factors such as resistin, leptin, cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1)...
January 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062507/brown-adipose-tissue-regulates-small-artery-function-through-nadph-oxidase-4-derived-hydrogen-peroxide-and-redox-sensitive-protein-kinase-g-1%C3%AE
#18
Malou Friederich-Persson, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Patrik Persson, Augusto C Montezano, Rhian M Touyz
OBJECTIVE: Biomedical interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) has increased since the discovery of functionally active BAT in adult humans. Although white adipose tissue (WAT) influences vascular function, vascular effects of BAT are elusive. Thus, we investigated the regulatory role and putative vasoprotective effects of BAT, focusing on hydrogen peroxide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (Nox4), and redox-sensitive signaling. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Vascular reactivity was assessed in wild-type and Nox4-knockout mice (Nox4(-/-)) by wire myography in the absence and presence of perivascular adipose tissue of different phenotypes from various adipose depots: (1) mixed WAT/BAT (inguinal adipose tissue) and (2) WAT (epididymal visceral fat) and BAT (intrascapular fat)...
December 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055105/restoration-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-function-in-diet-induced-obese-mice-without-changing-bodyweight
#19
Ning Xia, Sabrina Weisenburger, Egon Koch, Martin Burkart, Gisela Reifenberg, Ulrich Förstermann, Huige Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We have recently shown that a reduced function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) contributes crucially to obesity-induced vascular dysfunction in mice. The current study was conducted to test the hypothesis that vascular dysfunction in obesity can be reversed by in vivo improvement of PVAT eNOS activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 22 weeks to induce obesity...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999887/imaging-patterns-and-focal-lesions-in-fatty-liver-a-pictorial-review
#20
REVIEW
Sudhakar K Venkatesh, Tiffany Hennedige, Geoffrey B Johnson, David M Hough, Joel G Fletcher
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and affects nearly one-third of US population. With the increasing trend of obesity in the population, associated fatty change in the liver will be a common feature observed in imaging studies. Fatty liver causes changes in liver parenchyma appearance on imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and may affect the imaging characteristics of focal liver lesions (FLLs)...
May 2017: Abdominal Radiology
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