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Specific Learning Disability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338029/implicit-learning-deficit-in-children-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-evidence-for-a-cerebellar-cognitive-impairment
#1
Stefano Vicari, Giorgia Piccini, Eugenio Mercuri, Roberta Battini, Daniela Chieffo, Sara Bulgheroni, Chiara Pecini, Simona Lucibello, Sara Lenzi, Federica Moriconi, Marika Pane, Adele D'Amico, Guja Astrea, Giovanni Baranello, Daria Riva, Giovanni Cioni, Paolo Alfieri
This study aimed at comparing implicit sequence learning in individuals affected by Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy without intellectual disability and age-matched typically developing children. A modified version of the Serial Reaction Time task was administered to 32 Duchenne children and 37 controls of comparable chronological age. The Duchenne group showed a reduced rate of implicit learning even if in the absence of global intellectual disability. This finding provides further evidence of the involvement of specific aspects of cognitive function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and on its possible neurobiological substrate...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321709/the-probable-prevalence-and-sociodemographic-characteristics-of-specific-learning-disorder-in-primary-school-children-in-edirne
#2
Işık Görker, Leyla Bozatli, Ümran Korkmazlar, Meltem Yücel Karadağ, Cansın Ceylan, Ceren Söğüt, Hasan Cem Aykutlu, Büşra Subay, Nesrin Turan
Introduction: The aim of this study was to research the probable prevalence of Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) in primary school children in Edirne City and the relationships with their sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: The sample of our study was composed of 2,174 children who were educated in primary schools in second, third, and fourth grades in the academic year 2013-2014 in Edirne City. The teachers and parents of these children were given Specific Learning Difficulties Symptom Scale, Learning Disabilities Symptoms Checklist (teacher and parent forms), and sociodemographic data forms to fill in...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317619/phf8-histone-demethylase-deficiency-causes-cognitive-impairments-through-the-mtor-pathway
#3
Xuemei Chen, Shuai Wang, Ying Zhou, Yanfei Han, Shengtian Li, Qing Xu, Longyong Xu, Ziqi Zhu, Youming Deng, Lu Yu, Lulu Song, Adele Pin Chen, Juan Song, Eiki Takahashi, Guang He, Lin He, Weidong Li, Charlie Degui Chen
Epigenomic abnormalities caused by genetic mutation in epigenetic regulators can result in neurodevelopmental disorders, deficiency in neural plasticity and mental retardation. As a histone demethylase, plant homeodomain finger protein 8 (Phf8) is a candidate gene for syndromal and non-specific forms of X-chromosome-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Here we report that Phf8 knockout mice displayed impaired learning and memory, and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) without gross morphological defects...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317601/common-basis-for-orofacial-clefting-and-cortical-interneuronopathy
#4
Lydia J Ansen-Wilson, Joshua L Everson, Dustin M Fink, Henry W Kietzman, Ruth Sullivan, Robert J Lipinski
Orofacial clefts (OFCs) of the lip and/or palate are among the most common human birth defects. Current treatment strategies focus on functional and cosmetic repair but even when this care is available, individuals born with OFCs are at high risk for persistent neurobehavioral problems. In addition to learning disabilities and reduced academic achievement, recent evidence associates OFCs with elevated risk for a constellation of psychiatric outcomes including anxiety disorders, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305597/grammar-clinical-marker-yields-substantial-heritability-for-language-impairments-in-16-year-old-twins
#5
Philip S Dale, Mabel L Rice, Kaili Rimfeld, Marianna E Hayiou-Thomas
Purpose: There is a need for well-defined language phenotypes suitable for adolescents in twin studies and other large-scale research projects. Rice, Hoffman, and Wexler (2009) have developed a grammatical judgment measure as a clinical marker of language impairment, which has an extended developmental range to adolescence. Method: We conducted the first twin analysis, along with associated phenotypic analyses of validity, of an abridged, 20-item version of this grammatical judgment measure (GJ-20), based on telephone administration using prerecorded stimuli to 405 pairs of 16-year-olds (148 monozygotic and 257 dizygotic) drawn from the Twins Early Development Study (Haworth, Davis, & Plomin, 2012)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301650/exploring-the-disclosure-decisions-made-by-physiotherapists-with-a-specific-learning-difficulty
#6
G Yeowell, J Rooney, P C Goodwin
OBJECTIVES: To explore the disclosure decisions made in the workplace by physiotherapy staff with a specific learning difficulty (SpLD). DESIGN & SETTING: An exploratory qualitative design was used, which was informed by the social model of disability. The research was undertaken in North West England. It is presented according to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of eight physiotherapists recognised as having a SpLD were recruited...
October 27, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280247/learning-by-observation-and-learning-by-doing-in-down%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-williams%C3%A2-syndromes
#7
Francesca Foti, Deny Menghini, Paolo Alfieri, Floriana Costanzo, Laura Mandolesi, Laura Petrosini, Stefano Vicari
New skills may be learned by active experience (experiential learning or learning by doing) or by observation of others' experience (learning by observation). In general, learning by observation reduces the time and the attempts needed to learn complex actions and behaviors. The present research aimed to compare learning by observation and learning by doing in two clinical populations with different etiology of intellectual disability (ID), as individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), with the hypothesis that specific profiles of learning may be found in each syndrome...
December 26, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276325/family-peer-linkages-for-children-with-intellectual-disability-and-children-with-learning-disabilities
#8
Frank J Floyd, Darren L Olsen
Family interactions are potential contexts for children with intellectual and learning disabilities to develop skillful social behaviors needed to relate effectively with peers. This study examined problem solving interactions within families of elementary school-age children (7-11 years) with intellectual disability (n = 37), specific learning disabilities (n =48), and without disabilities (n = 22). After accounting for group differences in children's behaviors and peer acceptance, across all groups, mothers' behaviors that encouraged egalitarian problem solving predicted more engaged and skillful problem solving by the children...
September 2017: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249656/brain-computer-interface-with-inhibitory-neurons-reveals-subtype-specific-strategies
#9
Akinori Mitani, Mingyuan Dong, Takaki Komiyama
Brain-computer interfaces have seen an increase in popularity due to their potential for direct neuroprosthetic applications for amputees and disabled individuals. Supporting this promise, animals-including humans-can learn even arbitrary mapping between the activity of cortical neurons and movement of prosthetic devices [1-4]. However, the performance of neuroprosthetic device control has been nowhere near that of limb control in healthy individuals, presenting a dire need to improve the performance. One potential limitation is the fact that previous work has not distinguished diverse cell types in the neocortex, even though different cell types possess distinct functions in cortical computations [5-7] and likely distinct capacities to control brain-computer interfaces...
December 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249504/cognitive-disabilities-and-long-term-outcomes-in-children-with-epilepsy-a-tangled-tail
#10
Carol Camfield, Peter Camfield
Cognitive problems ranging from mild specific learning problems to profound intellectual disability (ID) are very common in children with epilepsy. For most affected patients there is good evidence that the cognitive problems are present at the onset of seizures and do not deteriorate over time. There is no evidence that a few seizures lead to cognitive deterioration. An exception may occur in children with epileptic encephalopathies, although this contention is not always easy to prove. ID is a strong predictor of intractable epilepsy, and the greater the degree of the ID the greater the risk of medication resistant epilepsy...
November 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224701/physical-activity-in-older-people-case-studies-of-how-to-make-change-happen
#11
REVIEW
Monica Rodrigues Perracini, Marcia Rodrigues Costa Franco, Natalia Aquaroni Ricci, Catherine Blake
Enhancing physical activity (PA) is recognized as a powerful intervention for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases and disability in older people. Furthermore, there is an agreement that increased PA in daily life is a key determinant of active and healthy ageing and should be recommended for frail and sedentary older people. Unfortunately, relatively few older people engage in regular PA or stay active in the long term. This article summarizes and discusses PA recommendations for older adults without focussing on specific diseases, presents the main barriers and facilitators for increasing PA levels, and considers the implementation of these recommendations on the basis of the existing evidence...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206685/intelligence-and-specific-cognitive-functions-in-intellectual-disability-implications-for-assessment-and-classification
#12
Marco O Bertelli, Sally-Ann Cooper, Luis Salvador-Carulla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability categorize ability as measured by IQ tests. However, this does not suit the new conceptualization of intellectual disability, which refers to a range of neuropsychiatric syndromes that have in common early onset, cognitive impairments, and consequent deficits in learning and adaptive functioning. A literature review was undertaken on the concept of intelligence and whether it encompasses a range of specific cognitive functions to solve problems, which might be better reported as a profile, instead of an IQ, with implications for diagnosis and classification of intellectual disability...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174856/the-child-neurology-trainee-as-teacher-a-clinical-teaching-curriculum-tailored-to-learners-needs-and-developmental-roles
#13
Miya E Bernson-Leung, David K Urion
BACKGROUND: Clinical teaching skills programs for resident physicians are increasingly offered. Less attention has been devoted to the unique educational roles of specialty residents and subspecialty fellows, many of whom will become academic faculty physicians. These teaching roles, and therefore a trainee's learning needs and motivation, also change over the course of training. METHODS: We designed and implemented a two-year longitudinal teaching curriculum for child neurology and neurodevelopmental disabilities residents using adult learning theory principles: experiential learning and immediate applicability to specific roles...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172325/periodontal-treatment-in-patients-with-learning-disabilities-part-2-professional-mechanical-intervention
#14
Shazia Kaka, Chris Dickinson
The first part of this two part series discussed the potential barriers and risk factors that may lead to an increased incidence and severity of periodontal disease amongst patients with learning disabilities. Additionally, preventive strategies and tools that can be used by general dental practitioners, oral health promotion teams as well as specialists within the field to control and prevent disease progression were explored. To prevent periodontal disease progression and attain optimal periodontal health, a combination of prevention and professional mechanical instrumentation is usually required...
March 2017: Dental Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166674/unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-differentially-impairs-social-and-contextual-discrimination-learning-in-two-inbred-mouse-strains
#15
Michiel van Boxelaere, Jason Clements, Patrick Callaerts, Rudi D'Hooge, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh
Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164756/survey-of-disability-related-content-in-australian-dietetics-programs
#16
Shannon Butler, Jane Kellett, Rachel Bacon, Annette Byron
AIM: Nutrition and dietetic services are an important component of healthcare for people living with a disability. The introduction of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) in Australia is providing more opportunities for individuals to access these services from an Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD). The aim of this research was to identify how students in Australian tertiary dietetics programs are being prepared to provide these services to people with a disability. METHODS: A purpose-built questionnaire with eight open-ended questions was developed by the researchers to describe the disability-related content of university and professional placement learning opportunities and was distributed to all course conveners (or their nominated representative) of dietetics programs accredited by the Dietitians Association of Australia...
November 21, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152714/scaffolding-as-a-key-role-for-teaching-assistants-perceptions-of-their-pedagogical-strategies
#17
David Bowles, Julie Radford, Ioanna Bakopoulou
BACKGROUND: Inclusive education policies have led to a worldwide increase in the number of teaching assistants (TAs) working in mainstream schools. TAs have a large amount of responsibility for supporting children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), a role which by default has become instructional in practice, and for which training and preparation are rarely adequate. While there is some research into the nature of TAs' interactions with pupils and the strategies they use which are helpful for children's learning, TAs' perspectives on their own classroom practice have yet to be explored...
November 19, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135773/tree-based-claims-algorithm-for-measuring-pretreatment-quality-of-care-in-medicare-disabled-hepatitis-c-patients
#18
Viktor V Chirikov, Fadia T Shaya, Ebere Onukwugha, C Daniel Mullins, Susan dosReis, Charles D Howell
BACKGROUND: To help broaden the use of machine-learning approaches in health services research, we provide an easy-to-follow framework on the implementation of random forests and apply it to identify quality of care (QC) patterns correlated with treatment receipt among Medicare disabled patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Using Medicare claims 2006-2009, we identified 1936 patients with 6 months continuous enrollment before HCV diagnosis. We ran a random forest on 14 pretreatment QC indicators, extracted the forest's representative tree, and aggregated its terminal nodes into 4 QC groups predictive of treatment...
December 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134483/evaluating-the-impact-of-dyslexia-laws-on-the-identification-of-specific-learning-disability-and-dyslexia
#19
B Anne Barber Phillips, Timothy N Odegard
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that impacts word reading accuracy and/or reading fluency. Over half of the states in the USA have passed legislation intended to promote better identification of individuals with dyslexia. To date, no study has been conducted to investigate the potential impact of state laws on the identification of specific learning disability (SLD), and limited data has been presented on the rate at which students in public school settings are identified with dyslexia. The first aim of the current study was to determine if any detectable changes in the identification rates of SLD have occurred in states implementing dyslexia laws because most states do not report number of students identified as dyslexic but rather those students identified with an SLD...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133437/abnormal-microglia-and-enhanced-inflammation-related-gene-transcription-in-mice-with-conditional-deletion-of-ctcf-in-camk2a-cre-expressing-neurons
#20
Bryan E McGill, Ruteja A Barve, Susan E Maloney, Amy Strickland, Nicholas Rensing, Peter Wang, Michael Wong, Richard Head, David F Wozniak, Jeffrey Milbrandt
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an 11 zinc finger DNA-binding domain protein that regulates gene expression by modifying three dimensional chromatin structure. Human mutations in CTCF cause intellectual disability and autistic features. Knocking out Ctcf in mouse embryonic neurons is lethal by neonatal age, but the effects of CTCF deficiency in postnatal neurons are less well studied. We knocked out Ctcf postnatally in glutamatergic forebrain neurons under the control of Camk2a-CreCtcfloxP/loxP ;Camk2a-Cre+ (Ctcf CKO) mice of both sexes were viable and exhibited profound deficits in spatial learning/memory, impaired motor co-ordination, and decreased sociability by 4 months of age...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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