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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530089/use-of-low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-reduce-context-dependent-learning-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Ya-Yun Lee, Beth E Fisher
BACKGROUND: Compared with age-matched non-disabled adults, people with Parkinson's disease (PD) demonstrated greater context-dependent learning, a phenomenon in which an individual shows inferior motor performance when the testing environmental context is different from the original practice context. Additionally, enhanced context- dependency has been shown to be associated with an increased activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). AIM: This study aimed to determine whether context-dependent learning in people with PD could be reduced by decreasing DLPFC activation with low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514911/action-learning-across-the-decades
#2
Ken Eason
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how action learning concepts were used in two healthcare projects undertaken many decades apart. The specific purpose in both cases was to examine how action learning can contribute to shared learning across key stakeholders in a complex socio-technical system. In each case study, action learning supported joint design programmes and the sharing of perspectives about the complex system under investigation. Design/methodology/approach Two action learning projects are described: first, the Hospital Internal Communications (HIC) project led by Reg Revans in the 1960s...
May 2, 2017: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503911/community-football-teams-for-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-secure-settings-they-take-you-off-the-ward-it-was-like-a-nice-day-and-then-you-get-like-medals-at-the-end
#3
Nicholas Andrew Hudson, Jennifer Hella Mrozik, Rose White, Kristian Northend, Steve Moore, Katherine Lister, Kelly Rayner
BACKGROUND: People with learning disabilities (LD) are particularly vulnerable to mental health and behavioural difficulties, and it has been shown that regular exercise can improve psychosocial well-being as well as physical fitness. This research aims to explore the experiences of men with LD detained in secure settings who have engaged in community football training programmes and identify the benefits of such provision. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with eight patients in a forensic LD service, discussing their experiences of participating in community football...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497989/focus-on-fluid-reasoning-the-relationship-between-fluid-reasoning-and-the-pattern-of-strengths-and-weaknesses-model
#4
Lisa M Grant, Pauline Prince
The purpose of this paper is to examine the Fluid Reasoning Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-V), and determine how fluid-reasoning skills relate to academic skill acquisition in the classroom setting. We also examine the myriad of ways within which learning and learning disabilities can be defined. Also, we plan to examine a brief review of the definition of a Specific Learning Disability and review some of the leading theories related to the Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses model...
May 12, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494197/learning-disabilities-and-emotional-intelligence
#5
Leehu Zysberg, Jon Kasler
The literature is conflicted around the subject of the emotional abilities of individuals with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLDs): While many claim cognitive challenges are associated with emotional difficulties, some suggest emotional and interpersonal abilities are not compromised in such disorders and may help individuals compensate and cope effectively with the challenges they meet in learning environments. Two studies explored differences in emotional intelligence (EI) between young adults with and without SLD...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492417/cognitive-control-in-children-with-learning-disabilities-neuromarker-for-deficient-executive-functions
#6
Nsreen Alahmadi
The neural underpinnings of learning disabilities (LD) are still not known. Recent discussions focus over whether domain-specific and/or domain-unspecific reasons might be responsible for LD either alone or in combination with each other. This study applied standard nonverbal Go-NoGo tasks (visual continuous performance test) to LD and healthy control children to examine whether they show deficient executive functions. During this Go-NoGo task, electroencephalogram was measured in addition to reaction times, hits, omissions, and commissions to the Go and NoGo stimuli...
May 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492169/-learning-disorders-in-adhd-how-are-they-related
#7
P Fourneret, H Poissant
Learning difficulties in general and learning disabilities in particular are almost constant in attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD). Despite a major research effort, the extent and diversity of these comorbid events still raise many questions about the exact nature of their pathogenetic condition (simple consequences of ADHD or specific related disorders?) and consequently the best way to support them. This article aims to present a brief review of the current data.
December 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481594/colin-d-elliott-1937-2016
#8
John O Willis, Ron Dumont
This article memorializes Colin D. Elliott (1937-2016). For 7 years, in his work as a school psychologist, Elliott studied the ability profiles of children with learning disabilities and the measurement of children's developmental stages. Subsequently, he trained school psychologists for over 20 years at the University of Manchester. In 1983, he made a major, enduring contribution to the field of psychometric assessment in both his home country and the wider field with the publication of the innovative British Ability Scales (BAS)...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473731/a-disability-act-the-vaccine-damage-payments-act-1979-and-the-british-government-s-response-to-the-pertussis-vaccine-scare
#9
Gareth Millward
The Vaccine Damage Payments Act 1979 provided a lump-sum social security benefit to children who had become severely disabled as a result of vaccination. It came in the wake of a scare over the safety of the whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine. Yet very little has been written about it. Existing literature focuses more on the public health and medical aspects of both the Act and the scare. This article uses material from the archives of disability organisations and official documents to show that this Act should be seen as part of the history of post-war British disability policy...
May 2017: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471273/gaze-controlled-communication-technology-for-children-with-severe-multiple-disabilities-parents-and-professionals-perception-of-gains-obstacles-and-prerequisites
#10
Eva Holmqvist, Gunilla Thunberg, Marie Peny Dahlstrand
The aim of this study was to explore parents' and professionals' thoughts of how a gaze-controlled computer can be beneficial to children with severe multiple disabilities. All systems were provided primarily for symbol-based communication, but were also used for other purposes such as play, leisure and school activities. A further aim was to investigate factors affecting usability, specifically for communication. The study used a qualitative approach, involving content analysis of semistructured interviews with the children's key persons (N = 11)...
May 4, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470105/learning-disabilities-and-low-social-status-the-role-of-peer-academic-reputation-and-peer-reputation-of-teacher-liking
#11
Lisa van der Sande, Marloes M H G Hendrickx, Henrike J Boor-Klip, Tim Mainhard
Although many studies have found that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less liked by peers than children without LD, the results are not unequivocal. In the present study, we investigated the social status (in terms of likeability and popularity) of children with LD by considering peer academic reputation and peer reputation of teacher liking. These variables are potentially important alternative factors for differences in social status between children with and without LD. Fifth-grade students ( n = 1,453; Mage = 10...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463240/incorrect-dosage-of-iqsec2-a-known-intellectual-disability-and-epilepsy-gene-disrupts-dendritic-spine-morphogenesis
#12
S J Hinze, M R Jackson, S Lie, L Jolly, M Field, S C Barry, R J Harvey, C Shoubridge
There is considerable genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity associated with intellectual disability (ID), specific learning disabilities, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and epilepsy. The intelligence quotient (IQ) motif and SEC7 domain containing protein 2 gene (IQSEC2) is located on the X-chromosome and harbors mutations that contribute to non-syndromic ID with and without early-onset seizure phenotypes in both sexes. Although IQ and Sec7 domain mutations lead to partial loss of IQSEC2 enzymatic activity, the in vivo pathogenesis resulting from these mutations is not known...
May 2, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455524/mechanisms-underlying-cognitive-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-for-costello-syndrome-are-distinct-from-other-rasopathy-mouse-models
#13
Jadwiga Schreiber, Laura-Anne Grimbergen, Iris Overwater, Thijs van der Vaart, Jeffrey Stedehouder, Alberto J Schuhmacher, Carmen Guerra, Steven A Kushner, Dick Jaarsma, Ype Elgersma
RASopathies, characterized by germline mutations in genes encoding proteins of the RAS-ERK signaling pathway, show overlapping phenotypes, which manifest themselves with a varying severity of intellectual disability. However, it is unclear to what extent they share the same downstream pathophysiology that underlies the cognitive deficits. Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare RASopathy caused by activating mutations in the HRAS gene. Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying the cognitive deficits of HRas (G12V/G12V) mice...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440815/15q11-2-cnv-affects-cognitive-structural-and-functional-correlates-of-dyslexia-and-dyscalculia
#14
M O Ulfarsson, G B Walters, O Gustafsson, S Steinberg, A Silva, O M Doyle, M Brammer, D F Gudbjartsson, S Arnarsdottir, G A Jonsdottir, R S Gisladottir, G Bjornsdottir, H Helgason, L M Ellingsen, J G Halldorsson, E Saemundsen, B Stefansdottir, L Jonsson, V K Eiriksdottir, G R Eiriksdottir, G H Johannesdottir, U Unnsteinsdottir, B Jonsdottir, B B Magnusdottir, P Sulem, U Thorsteinsdottir, E Sigurdsson, D Brandeis, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Stefansson, K Stefansson
Several copy number variants have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and these variants have been shown to also influence cognitive abilities in carriers unaffected by psychiatric disorders. Previously, we associated the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion with specific learning disabilities and a larger corpus callosum. Here we investigate, in a much larger sample, the effect of the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion on cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We report that the deletion confers greatest risk of the combined phenotype of dyslexia and dyscalculia...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436202/a-common-genetic-variant-in-foxp2-is-associated-with-language-based-learning-dis-abilities-evidence-from-two-italian-independent-samples
#15
Alessandra Mozzi, Valentina Riva, Diego Forni, Manuela Sironi, Cecilia Marino, Massimo Molteni, Stefania Riva, Franca R Guerini, Mario Clerici, Rachele Cagliani, Sara Mascheretti
Language-based Learning Disabilities (LLDs) encompass a group of complex, comorbid, and developmentally associated deficits in communication. Language impairment and developmental dyslexia (DD) represent the most recognized forms of LLDs. Substantial genetic correlations exist between language and reading (dis)abilities. Common variants in the FOXP2 gene were consistently associated with language- and reading-related neuropsychological and neuroanatomical phenotypes. We tested the effect of a FOXP2 common variant, that is, rs6980093 (A/G), on quantitative measures of language and reading in two independent Italian samples: a population-based cohort of 699 subjects (3-11 years old) and a sample of 572 children with DD (6-18 years old)...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432141/the-spacing-effect-for-structural-synaptic-plasticity-provides-specificity-and-precision-in-plastic-changes
#16
Alvaro San Martin, Lorena Rela, Bruce Gelb, Mario Rafael Pagani
In contrast to trials of training without intervals (massed training), training trials spaced over time (spaced training) induce a more persistent memory identified as long-term memory (LTM). This phenomenon, known as the spacing effect for memory, is poorly understood. LTM is supported by structural synaptic plasticity; however, how synapses integrate spaced stimuli remains elusive. Here, we analyzed events of structural synaptic plasticity at the single-synapse level after distinct patterns of stimulation in motoneurons of Drosophila We found that the spacing effect is a phenomenon detected at synaptic level, which determines the specificity and the precision in structural synaptic plasticity...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431841/cognitive-profile-and-disorders-affecting-higher-brain-functions-in-paediatric-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#17
E Vaucheret Paz, A López Ballent, C Puga, M J García Basalo, F Baliarda, C Ekonen, R Ilari, G Agosta
INTRODUCTION: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous syndrome often associated with specific cognitive deficits that are rarely monitored during follow-up of these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study is two-fold. First, we aimed to describe the cognitive profile of patients with NF1 and detect disorders in higher brain functions associated with the disease. Second, we identified the reasons for consultation associated with school performance in these patients...
April 18, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397306/a-review-of-cognitive-impairments-in-children-with-intellectual-disabilities-implications-for-cognitive-behaviour-therapy
#18
Anastasia Hronis, Lynette Roberts, Ian I Kneebone
OBJECTIVE: Nearly half of children with intellectual disability (ID) have comorbid affective disorders. These problems are chronic if left untreated and can significantly impact upon future vocational, educational, and social opportunities. Despite this, there is a paucity of research into effective treatments for this population. Notably, one of the most supported of psychological therapies, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), remains largely uninvestigated in children with ID. The current review considers the neuropsychological profile of children and adolescents with mild to moderate ID, with a view to informing how CBT might best be adapted for children and adolescents with ID...
June 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393676/deficit-in-phonological-processes-a-characteristic-of-the-neuropsychological-profile-of-children-with-nf1
#19
Yves Chaix, Valérie Lauwers-Cancès, Nathalie Faure-Marie, Catherine Gentil, Sandrine Lelong, Elisabeth Schweitzer, Diana Rodriguez, Stéphanie Iannuzzi, Isabelle Kemlin, Nathalie Dorison, François Rivier, Maryline Carniero, Elodie Preclaire, Sébastien Barbarot, Laurence Lion-François, Pierre Castelnau
Learning disabilities are one of the most frequent complications of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in children. Studies of the effects of the neurocognitive deficit on academic performance are relatively rare, owing to the small size of the populations concerned. However, research is needed to develop effective rehabilitation programs. In the present study, we explored the impact of a possible phonological deficit on the reading abilities of children with NF1. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in France on two groups of 75 children with or without NF1 aged 8-12 years, matched for age, sex, handedness, and reading level...
April 10, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374730/-the-improvement-of-the-abilities-to-maintain-motor-coordination-and-equilibrium-in-the-students-presenting-with-the-functional-disorders-of-the-musculoskeletal-system-by-introducing-the-elements-of-therapeutic-physical-training-into-the-structure-of-academic
#20
L V Kapilevich, K V Davlet'yarova, N A Ovchinnikova
The problem of deterioration of the health status in the university students at present remains as topical as it was before being a major cause of impaired working capacity, disability and/or poor social adaptation of the large number of graduates. It has been proposed to introduce a class of therapeutic physical training (TPT) into the schedule of physical education for the students. AIM: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the formation of the skills needed to maintain motor coordination and equilibrium in the students presenting with the functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system (MSS) including scoliosis by the introduction of the elements of therapeutic physical training into their academic schedules...
2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
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