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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243178/development-and-validation-of-a-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-the-detection-of-mycoplasma-bovis-in-mastitic-milk
#1
Aqeela Ashraf, Muhammad Imran, Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Tayyab, Wasim Shehzad, Claro N Mingala, Yung-Fu Chang
Mycoplasma mastitis is often difficult to control due to a lack of rapid and accurate diagnostic tools. The aim of the current study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) in mastitic milk. The assay was developed using primers designed for three different target genes: uvrC, 16S rRNA, and gyrB, and validated using mastitic milk samples previously found positive for the target pathogen. Specificity of the developed assay was determined by testing cross-reactivity of LAMP primers against closely related bovine mastitis bacterial pathogens...
December 14, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241025/antimicrobial-usage-and-risk-of-retreatment-for-mild-to-moderate-clinical-mastitis-cases-on-dairy-farms-following-on-farm-bacterial-culture-and-selective-therapy
#2
S McDougall, J Niethammer, L E Graham
AIMS: To assess antimicrobial usage for treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis, and risk of retreatment, following implementation of an on-farm bacterial culture system and selective therapy based on culture results, and to assess compliance with treatment decision tree protocols and the level of agreement between results from on-farm culture and laboratory-based microbiology methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herdowners from seven dairy herds were asked to collect milk samples from cases of mild to moderate clinical mastitis between July 2015 and May 2016...
December 14, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240970/rumen-bacteria-at-work-bioaugmentation-strategies-to-enhance-biogas-production-from-cow-manure
#3
E Gozde Ozbayram, Çağrı Akyol, Bahar Ince, Canan Karakoç, Orhan Ince
AIMS: To investigate the effects of different bioaugmentation strategies for enhancing the biogas production from cow manure and evaluate microbial community patterns. METHODS AND RESULTS: Co-inoculation with cow rumen fluid and cow rumen-derived enriched microbial consortia were evaluated in anaerobic batch tests at 36 °C and 41 °C. Singular addition of both rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture had a promising enhancement on methane yields; however, the highest methane yield (311 mL CH4 / g VS at 41 °C) was achieved when the anaerobic seed sludge was co-inoculated together with rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240275/metabolic-stress-induces-modifications-in-the-epigenetic-program-of-preimplantation-bovine-embryos
#4
R Tremblay, I Dufort, M A Sirard
The mammalian embryo is sensitive to and adapts to its metabolic environment. The mother's metabolic health and nutrient availability, for example, can modulate the oviductal fluid composition and thus embryo development. In this project, we induced energetic stress in bovine embryos during early culture to observe the epigenetic responses associated with metabolic stress, using a treatment paradigm known to decrease blastocyst rates. Embryos were generated using oocytes from slaughtered cows, and then exposed to an elevated glucose concentration (5 mM versus 0...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239713/leptospira-venezuelensis-sp-nov-a-new-member-of-the-intermediate-group-isolated-from-rodents-cattle-and-humans
#5
Rafael Puche, Ignacio Ferrés, Lizeth Caraballo, Yaritza Rangel, Mathieu Picardeau, Howard Takiff, Gregorio Iraola
Three strains, CLM-U50T, CLM-R50 and IVIC-Bov1, belonging to the genus Leptospira, were isolated in Venezuela from a patient with leptospirosis, a domestic rat (Rattus norvegicus) and a cow (Bos taurus), respectively. The initial characterisation of these strains based on the rrs gene (16S rRNA) suggested their designation as a novel species within the 'intermediates' group of the genus Leptospira. Further phylogenomic characterisation based on single copy core genes was consistent with their separation into a novel species...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239050/therapeutic-potential-of-amniotic-fluid-stem-cells-to-treat-bilateral-ovarian-dystrophy-in-dairy-cows-in-a-subtropical-region
#6
L-B Chang, S-Y Peng, C-J Chou, Y-J Chen, J-S Shiu, P-A Tu, S-X Gao, Y-C Chen, T-K Lin, S-C Wu
Amniotic fluid is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) have become a new source of stem cells; they have low immunogenicity and are easily harvested. For this reason, they may be useful in clinical tissue engineering. Moreover, AFSCs have anti-inflammatory properties and can repair tissues. This study evaluated the utility of AFSC injection to treat bilateral ovarian dystrophy in Holstein-Friesian cows. Bovine AFSCs (BAFSCs) were collected at slaughter from Holstein-Friesian cows during the third or fourth month of pregnancy and cultured in vitro...
December 14, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238885/peanut-cake-can-replace-soybean-meal-in-supplements-for-lactating-cows-without-affecting-production
#7
Carina Anunciação Santos Dias, Adriana Regina Bagaldo, Weiler Giacomaza Cerutti, Analívia Martins Barbosa, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho, Emellinne Ingrid Souza Costa, Leilson Rocha Bezerra, Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira
This study evaluated the total replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake in the concentrate supplement of lactating cows grazing. Eight crossbred 5/8 Holstein × 3/8 Zebu cows between the 45th and 60th day of lactation and 507 ± 35 kg BW were distributed in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design with four levels of peanut cake (0, 110, 220, and 330 g/kg of the dry matter-DM) as a replacement of soybean meal in the concentrate supplement. The intake of pasture, total (pasture + concentrate), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total digestible nutrients, and digestibility of the DM, CP, ether extract (EE), and NDF was not affected by the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake...
December 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237786/commentary-waltzing-around-sacred-cows-on-the-way-to-the-future
#8
Stephen M Brecher
Our mostly manual, agar based clinical microbiology laboratory is slowly but steadily being re-defined by automation and innovation. Ironically, the oldest test, the Gram stain, is still manually read and interpreted by trained personnel. In this proof of concept study Smith et al. (https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01521-17) have used computer imaging with a deep convolutional neural network to examine and interpret Gram-stained slides from positive blood culture bottles. In light of the shortage of medical technologists/microbiologists and the need for results of positive blood culture bottles 24/7, this paper paves the way for the next innovations for the clinical microbiology laboratory of the future...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237329/not-all-amlets-are-made-equal-complexes-of-cow-and-camel-%C3%AE-lactalbumin-with-oleic-acid-show-different-structure-and-stability
#9
Leonid Breydo, Hussein A Almehdar, Esmail M El-Fakharany, Elrashdy M Redwan, Vladimir N Uversky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235029/impacts-of-integrated-nutrient-management-on-methane-emission-global-warming-potential-and-carbon-storage-capacity-in-rice-grown-in-a-northeast-india-soil
#10
Ashmita Bharali, Kushal Kumar Baruah, Sunitee Gohain Baruah, Pradip Bhattacharyya
Rice soil is a source of emission of two major greenhouse gases (methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)) and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO2). The effect of inorganic fertilizers in combination with various organics (cow dung, green manure (Sesbania aculeata) Azolla compost, rice husk) on CH4 emission, global warming potential, and soil carbon storage along with crop productivity were studied at university farm under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design for 2 years in a monsoon rice (cv...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234314/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-bovine-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-phage-cocktail-in-a-murine-model-of-mastitis
#11
Koen Breyne, Ryan W Honaker, Zachary Hobbs, Manuela Richter, Maciej Żaczek, Taylor Spangler, Jonas Steenbrugge, Rebecca Lu, Anika Kinkhabwala, Bruno Marchon, Evelyne Meyer, Lucia Mokres
Overuse of antibiotics is a major problem in the treatment of bovine mastitis, and antibiotic treatment is frequently non-curative, thus alternative treatments are necessary. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a purified phage cocktail for treatment of bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in a well-defined mouse model. Candidate phages were selected based on their in vitro performance and subsequently processed into an optimally composed phage cocktail. The highest scoring phages were further tested for efficacy and resistance suppression in broth and raw milk, with and without supplemental IgG...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234055/oral-immunotherapy-combined-with-omalizumab-for-high-risk-cow-s-milk-allergy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Masaya Takahashi, Kazuhiko Soejima, Shoichiro Taniuchi, Yasuko Hatano, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Hideki Ishikawa, Makoto Irahara, Youhei Sasaki, Hiroshi Kido, Kazunari Kaneko
We evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral immunotherapy (OIT) combined with 24 weeks of omalizumab (OMB) at inducing desensitization in children with cow's milk allergy (CM) compared with an untreated group. The present study was a prospective randomized controlled trial. Sixteen patients (age, 6-14 years) with high IgE levels to CM were enrolled in the present study. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive OMB-OIT group or untreated group. The primary outcome was the induction of desensitization at 8 weeks after OMB was discontinued in OMB-OIT treated group and at 32 weeks after study entry...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233776/bovine-mastitis-an-appraisal-of-its-alternative-herbal-cure
#13
REVIEW
Saleem Mushtaq, Aabid Manzoor Shah, Aiyatullah Shah, Sajad Ahmad Lone, Aehtesham Hussain, Qazi Parvaiz Hassan, Md Niamat Ali
Bovine mastitis is globally recognised as the most common and costly disease affecting dairy herds. The disease causes huge financial losses to dairy industries by reduced yield and milk quality, deaths and culling of affected cows and also by associated treatment costs. The disease occurs due to invasion of the mammary glands by pathogenic bacteria followed by their multiplication in the milk producing tissues. The most common treatment method available against bovine mastitis is the intra-mammary infusion of antibiotics...
December 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233193/bovine-leptospirosis-in-urban-and-peri-urban-dairy-farming-in-low-income-countries-a-one-health-issue
#14
Elisabeth Lindahl Rajala, Nosirjon Sattorov, Sofia Boqvist, Ulf Magnusson
Global trends in urbanization are increasing the spread of neglected zoonotic infections such as leptospirosis, and reducing the number of human cases of leptospirosis is best accomplished by controlling the infection in the animal reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo and L. interrogans serovar Hardjo (L. Hardjo) exposure and to assess the associated risk factors for infection in small-scale dairy farming in the urban and peri-urban area of Dushanbe, Tajikistan...
December 12, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232887/should-the-contribution-of-one-additional-lame-cow-depend-on-how-many-other-cows-on-the-farm-are-lame
#15
Peter Sandøe, Björn Forkman, Franziska Hakansson, Sine Norlander Andreasen, Rikke Nøhr, Matt Denwood, Thomas Bøker Lund
Welfare Quality® proposes a system for aggregation according to which the total welfare score for a group of animals is a non-linear effect of the prevalence of welfare scores across the individuals within the group. Three assumptions serve to justify this: (1) experts do not follow a linear reasoning when they assess a welfare problem; (2) it serves to prevent compensation (severe welfare problems hidden by scoring well on other aspects of welfare); (3) experts agree on the weight of different welfare measures...
December 11, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232282/selected-food-herb-drug-interactions-mechanisms-and-clinical-relevance
#16
Cecilia N Amadi, Amaka A Mgbahurike
BACKGROUND: Food/Herb-drug interactions have become a major problem in health care. These interactions can lead to loss of therapeutic efficacy or toxic effects of drugs. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: To probe the clinical relevance of such interactions, the impact of food/herb intake on the clinical effects of drug administration has to be evaluated. Failure to identify and efficiently manage food-drug interactions can lead to serious consequences. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms that underpin variability in disposition will help optimize therapy...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230401/shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-shedding-dynamics-in-an-australian-beef-herd
#17
Christina Ahlstrom, Petra Muellner, Geraldine Lammers, Meghan Jones, Sophie Octavia, Ruiting Lan, Jane Heller
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is an important foodborne pathogen that can be transmitted to humans both directly and indirectly from the feces of beef cattle, its primary reservoir. Numerous studies have investigated the shedding dynamics of E. coli O157 by beef cattle; however, the spatiotemporal trends of shedding are still not well understood. Molecular tools can increase the resolution through the use of strain typing to explore transmission dynamics within and between herds and identify strain-specific characteristics that may influence pathogenicity and spread...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230020/snp-co-association-and-network-analyses-identify-e2f3-kdm5a-and-bach2-as-key-regulators-of-the-bovine-milk-fatty-acid-profile
#18
Sara Pegolo, Christos Dadousis, Núria Mach, Yuliaxis Ramayo-Caldas, Marcello Mele, Giuseppe Conte, Stefano Schiavon, Giovanni Bittante, Alessio Cecchinato
The fatty acid (FA) profile has a considerable impact on the nutritional and technological quality of milk and dairy products. The molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of fat metabolism in bovine mammary gland have been not completely elucidated. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) across 65 milk FAs and fat percentage in 1,152 Brown Swiss cows. In total, we identified 175 significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) spanning all chromosomes. Pathway analyses revealed that 12:0 was associated with the greatest number of overrepresented categories/pathways (e...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228123/role-of-yes-associated-protein-1-angiomotin-and-mitogen-activated-kinase-kinase-1-2-in-development-of-the-bovine-blastocyst
#19
Verónica M Negrón-Pérez, Peter J Hansen
The morula-stage embryo is transformed into a blastocyst composed of epiblast, hypoblast and trophectoderm (TE) through mechanisms that, at least in the mouse, involve the Hippo signaling and mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) pathways. Using the cow as an additional model, we tested the hypotheses that TE and hypoblast differentiation were regulated by the Hippo pathway regulators, YAP1 and AMOT, and MAPK kinase 1/2 (MAPK1/2). The presence of YAP1 and CDX2 in the nucleus and cytoplasm of MII oocytes and embryos was evaluated by immunofluorescence labeling...
December 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228062/market-access-and-community-size-influence-pastoral-management-of-native-and-exotic-livestock-species-a-case-study-in-communities-of-the-cordillera-real-in-bolivia-s-high-andean-wetlands
#20
Quentin Struelens, Karina Gonzales Pomar, Susi Loza Herrera, Gaby Nina Huanca, Olivier Dangles, François Rebaudo
Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with the introduction of exotic species such as cows and sheep, resulting in a different impact on pastures compared to native camelid species-llamas and alpacas...
2017: PloS One
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