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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330303/bio-prospecting-of-cuttle-fish-waste-and-cow-dung-for-the-production-of-fibrinolytic-enzyme-from-bacillus-cereus-ind5-in-solid-state-fermentation
#1
Gurupatham Devadhasan Biji, Arumugaperumal Arun, Eswaran Muthulakshmi, Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
The process parameters governing the production of fibrinolytic enzyme in solid state fermentation employing Bacillus cereus IND5 and using cuttle fish waste and cow dung substrate were optimized. The pH value of the medium, moisture content, sucrose, casein and magnesium sulfate were considered for two-level full factorial design and pH, casein and magnesium sulfate were identified as the important factors for fibrinolytic enzyme production. Central composite design was applied to investigate the interactive effect among variables (pH, casein and magnesium sulfate) and response surface plots were created to find the pinnacle of process response...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327456/relationship-between-plasma-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-concentrations-during-the-rearing-period-and-subsequent-embryo-productivity-in-japanese-black-cattle
#2
H Nabenishi, G Kitahara, S Takagi, A Yamazaki, T Osawa
To use plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations as early-stage markers for donor cow selection, we investigated the relationship between plasma AMH concentrations in Japanese black heifers and subsequent embryo productivity following superovulation treatment. Plasma AMH and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in 6 heifers were evaluated once per month from 3 mo before successful AI for primiparity to 3 mo postpartum. Following calving, embryo collection by superovulation treatment was performed at 3- to 4-mo intervals...
February 4, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326079/differences-in-ureolytic-bacterial-composition-between-the-rumen-digesta-and-rumen-wall-based-on-urec-gene-classification
#3
Di Jin, Shengguo Zhao, Nan Zheng, Dengpan Bu, Yves Beckers, Stuart E Denman, Christopher S McSweeney, Jiaqi Wang
Ureolytic bacteria are key organisms in the rumen producing urease enzymes to catalyze the breakdown of urea to ammonia for the synthesis of microbial protein. However, little is known about the diversity and distribution of rumen ureolytic microorganisms. The urease gene (ureC) has been the target gene of choice for analysis of the urea-degrading microorganisms in various environments. In this study, we investigated the predominant ureC genes of the ureolytic bacteria in the rumen of dairy cows using high-throughput sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325170/rapid-discrimination-between-buffalo-and-cow-milk-and-detection-of-adulteration-of-buffalo-milk-with-cow-milk-using-synchronous-fluorescence-spectroscopy-in-combination-with-multivariate-methods
#4
Serap Durakli Velioglu, Elif Ercioglu, Ismail Hakki Boyaci
This research paper describes the potential of synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectroscopy for authentication of buffalo milk, a favourable raw material in the production of some premium dairy products. Buffalo milk is subjected to fraudulent activities like many other high priced foodstuffs. The current methods widely used for the detection of adulteration of buffalo milk have various disadvantages making them unattractive for routine analysis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the potential of SF spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods for rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of the adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323676/impact-of-elimination-diets-on-nutrition-and-growth-in-children-with-multiple-food-allergies
#5
Carina Venter, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Kate Maslin, Carlo Agostoni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growth and nutritional intake of children with cows' milk allergy and other food allergens has been thoroughly investigated in recent years across many different countries and age groups. An impaired growth in atopic children should not be attributed only to a high number of allergens and foods to be avoided, but to a general condition of 'sub-inflammation', which unfavorably affects the absorption and utilization of fuel and substrates. Atopic study participants may represent a good target for personalized nutrition and in this review we sought to outline many of the issues that should be taken into account when dietitians advise patients regarding food avoidance and expected effects on growth...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322319/functional-confirmation-of-plag1-as-the-candidate-causative-gene-underlying-major-pleiotropic-effects-on-body-weight-and-milk-characteristics
#6
Tania Fink, Kathryn Tiplady, Thomas Lopdell, Thomas Johnson, Russell G Snell, Richard J Spelman, Stephen R Davis, Mathew D Littlejohn
A major pleiotropic quantitative trait locus (QTL) located at ~25 Mbp on bovine chromosome 14 affects a myriad of growth and developmental traits in Bos taurus and indicus breeds. These QTL have been attributed to two functional variants in the bidirectional promoter of PLAG1 and CHCHD7. Although PLAG1 is a good candidate for mediating these effects, its role remains uncertain given that these variants are also associated with expression of five additional genes at the broader locus. In the current study, we conducted expression QTL (eQTL) mapping of this region using a large, high depth mammary RNAseq dataset representing 375 lactating cows...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321788/characteristics-of-aerococcus-viridans-isolated-from-bovine-subclinical-mastitis-and-its-effect-on-milk-scc-yield-and-composition
#7
Meng Sun, Jian Gao, Tariq Ali, Dan Yu, Shiyao Zhang, Saeed U Khan, Séamus Fanning, Bo Han
Aerococcus viridians (A. viridans), an environmental Gram-positive bacterium, has been documented to be associated with bovine mastitis. However, its exact role in bovine mastitis and the changes it brings about in milk characteristics are not yet known. The objectives of the current study were to describe the antibiotic resistance of A. viridans from bovine mastitis as well as the correlation between existence of this pathogen in udders and the somatic cell counts (SCC), daily milk yield, and composition of individual cow...
March 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321408/novel-sequential-screening-and-enhanced-production-of-fibrinolytic-enzyme-by-bacillus-sp-ind12-using-response-surface-methodology-in-solid-state-fermentation
#8
Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan, P Rajendran, Samuel Gnana Prakash Vincent, Arumugaperumal Arun, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Oh Young Kwon, Young Ock Kim
Fibrinolytic enzymes have wide applications in clinical and waste treatment. Bacterial isolates were screened for fibrinolytic enzyme producing ability by skimmed milk agar plate using bromocresol green dye, fibrin plate method, zymography analysis, and goat blood clot lysis. After these sequential screenings, Bacillus sp. IND12 was selected for fibrinolytic enzyme production. Bacillus sp. IND12 effectively used cow dung for its growth and enzyme production (687 ± 6.5 U/g substrate). Further, the optimum bioprocess parameters were found out for maximum fibrinolytic enzyme production using cow dung as a low cost substrate under solid-state fermentation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318590/supplementation-with-rumen-protected-methionine-or-choline-during-the-transition-period-influences-whole-blood-immune-response-in-periparturient-dairy-cows
#9
M Vailati-Riboni, Z Zhou, C B Jacometo, A Minuti, E Trevisi, D N Luchini, J J Loor
Methionine, together with Lys, is the most limiting AA for milk production in dairy cows. Besides its crucial role in milk production, Met and its derivate metabolites (e.g., glutathione, taurine, polyamines) are well-known immunonutrients in nonruminants, helping support and boost immune function and activity. In the present study, the effects of Met or choline, as its precursor, were investigated using an ex vivo whole blood challenge. The study involved 33 multiparous Holstein cows (from a larger cohort with a factorial arrangement of treatments) assigned from d -21 to +30 relative to parturition to a basal control (CON) diet, CON plus rumen-protected Met (MET, Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA) at a rate of 0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318589/evaluation-of-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-versus-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-plus-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-as-presynch-methods-preceding-an-ovsynch-in-lactating-dairy-cows-a-meta-analysis
#10
S Borchardt, P Haimerl, A Pohl, W Heuwieser
Presynchronization of cows with 2 injections of prostaglandin administered 14 d apart (Presynch-Ovsynch) is a widely adopted procedure to increase pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) at first service. Recently, a presynchronization protocol including GnRH and PGF2α (Double-Ovsynch; GnRH, 7 d, PGF2α, 3 d, GnRH) followed 7 d later by an Ovsynch protocol was introduced to overcome the limitations of PGF2α-based protocols for presynchronization of anovular cows and to precisely set up cows on d 7 of the estrous cycle when the Ovsynch is initiated...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318588/comparative-composition-diversity-and-abundance-of-oligosaccharides-in-early-lactation-milk-from-commercial-dairy-and-beef-cows
#11
William M Sischo, Diana M Short, Mareen Geissler, Apichaya Bunyatratchata, Daniela Barile
Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318587/technical-note-mining-data-from-on-farm-electronic-equipment-to-identify-the-time-dairy-cows-spend-away-from-the-pen
#12
A J Thompson, D M Weary, M A G von Keyserlingk
The electronic equipment used on farms can be creatively co-opted to collect data for which it was not originally designed. In the current study, we describe 2 novel algorithms that harvest data from electronic feeding equipment and data loggers used to record standing and lying behavior, to estimate the time that dairy cows spend away from their pen to be milked. Our 2 objectives were to (1) measure the ability of the first algorithm to estimate the time cows spend away from the pen as a group and (2) determine the capability of a second algorithm to estimate the time it takes for individual cows to return to their pen after being milked...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318584/short-communication-early-modification-of-the-circadian-organization-of-cow-activity-in-relation-to-disease-or-estrus
#13
Isabelle Veissier, Marie-Madeleine Mialon, Karen Helle Sloth
Biological rhythms are an essential regulator of life. There is evidence that circadian rhythm of activity is disrupted under chronic stress in animals and humans, and it may also be less marked during diseases. Here we investigated whether a detectable circadian rhythm of activity exists in dairy cows in commercial settings using a real-time positioning system. We used CowView (GEA Farm Technologies) to regularly record the individual positions of 350 cows in a Danish dairy farm over 5 mo and to infer the cows' activity (resting, feeding, in alley)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318583/effects-of-feeding-hull-less-barley-on-production-performance-milk-fatty-acid-composition-and-nutrient-digestibility-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#14
Y Yang, G Ferreira, C L Teets, B A Corl, W E Thomason, C A Griffey
The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318582/purulent-vaginal-discharge-in-grazing-dairy-cows-risk-factors-reproductive-performance-and-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-treatment
#15
M J Giuliodori, M Magnasco, R P Magnasco, I M Lacau-Mengido, R L de la Sota
The objectives of this study were to assess the association of a 4-point scale of vaginal discharge score (VDS) with time to pregnancy to define criteria for a practical case of purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) in dairy cows, to test the risk factors for PVD, and, finally, the effect of a dose of PGF2α on cure and reproductive performance. In experiment 1, grazing Holstein cows (n = 2,414) had their vaginal discharge scored at ∼32 d in milk (DIM) on a 4-point scale, the effect of VDS on the hazard of pregnancy by 300 DIM was then assessed to derive a case definition of PVD...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318580/the-canadian-national-dairy-study-2015-adoption-of-milking-practices-in-canadian-dairy-herds
#16
E Belage, S Dufour, C Bauman, A Jones-Bitton, D F Kelton
Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318578/relationships-between-body-condition-score-change-prior-mid-lactation-phenotypic-residual-feed-intake-and-hyperketonemia-onset-in-transition-dairy-cows
#17
Francesca M Rathbun, Ryan S Pralle, Sandra J Bertics, Louis E Armentano, K Cho, C Do, Kent A Weigel, Heather M White
Extensive efforts have been made to identify more feed-efficient dairy cows, yet it is unclear how selection for feed efficiency will influence metabolic health. The objectives of this research were to determine the relationships between residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, body condition score (BCS) change, and hyperketonemia (HYK) incidence. Blood and milk samples were collected twice weekly from cows 5 to 18 d postcalving for a total of 4 samples. Hyperketonemia was diagnosed at a blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318577/effect-of-dietary-mineral-phosphorus-and-phytate-on-in-situ-ruminal-phytate-disappearance-from-different-concentrates-in-dairy-cows
#18
E Haese, J Möhring, H Steingass, M Schollenberger, M Rodehutscord
The first objective of this study was to determine the influence of dietary composition on the in situ disappearance of phytate (InsP6) from wheat, corn, soybean meal, and rapeseed meal [solvent-extracted, without (RSM) or with (hRSM) heat treatment] in the rumen of dairy cows. The second objective was to assess the primary degradation products of InsP6 in the rumen. Three diets differing in phosphorus and InsP6 concentration (basal diet = 0.38% P in dry matter; high-P diet = 0.56% P; high-InsP6 diet = 0.39% P) were fed to 3 ruminally fistulated lactating Jersey cows in a 3 × 3 Latin square...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318576/risk-factors-associated-with-postpartum-subclinical-hypocalcemia-in-dairy-cows
#19
R C Neves, B M Leno, T Stokol, T R Overton, J A A McArt
Our study objectives were to evaluate the association of prepartum plasma Mg concentrations with subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) classification at parturition and to evaluate the association of other cow-level risk factors with SCH classification at calving or at 2 d in milk (DIM). A total of 301 animals from 2 dairy herds located in New York were enrolled in a cohort study. Blood samples were collected at approximately 1 wk before the expected calving date, within 4 h of calving, and at 2 DIM. Prepartum samples had plasma macromineral concentrations (Ca, K, Mg, P), albumin, and β-hydroxybutyrate analyzed...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318575/heritabilities-of-measured-and-mid-infrared-predicted-milk-fat-globule-size-milk-fat-and-protein-percentages-and-their-genetic-correlations
#20
A Fleming, F S Schenkel, A Koeck, F Malchiodi, R A Ali, M Corredig, B Mallard, M Sargolzaei, F Miglior
The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability of milk fat globule (MFG) size and mid-infrared (MIR) predicted MFG size in Holstein cattle. The genetic correlations between measured and predicted MFG size with milk fat and protein percentage were also investigated. Average MFG size was measured in 1,583 milk samples taken from 254 Holstein cows from 29 herds across Canada. Size was expressed as volume moment mean (D[4,3]) and surface moment mean (D[3,2]). Analyzed milk samples also had average MFG size predicted from their MIR spectral records...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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