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D Alimi, M Rekik, H Akkari
One of the great challenges of veterinary parasitology is the search for alternative methods for controlling gastrointestinal parasites in small ruminants. Milk kefir is a traditional source of probiotic, with great therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the anthelmintic effects of kefir on the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus from sheep. The study used camel, goat, ewe and cow milk as a starting material, to produce camel, goat, cow and ewe milk kefir. All kefirs showed a significant concentration-dependent effect on H...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Miguel Angel Duarte-Vázquez, Carlos Raúl García-Ugalde, Blanca Erika Álvarez, Laura Mariana Villegas, Blanca Estela García-Almendárez, Jorge Luis Rosado, Carlos Regalado
Beta-casein (BC) in cow's milk occurs in several genetic variants, where BC A1 (BCA1) and BC A2 (BCA2) are the most frequent. This work deals with a method based on modified polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using urea PAGE to discriminate BCA1 and BCA2 variants from Holstein Friesian (HF) and genetically selected Jersey A2/A2 (JA2) cow's milk. Two well defined bands were obtained from BC fraction of HF milk, while that of JA2 showed a single band. Proteins from these bands were sequenced by HPLC-quadrupole linear ion trap/mass spectrometry, resulting in BCA1 and BCA2 separation from the BC fraction of HF milk, whereas BCA2 was the only constituent of JA2 fraction...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Reza Norouzirad, Jose-Ramiro González-Montaña, Felipe Martínez-Pastor, Hedayat Hosseini, Ali Shahrouzian, Mehdi Khabazkhoob, Fardin Ali Malayeri, Haniyeh Moallem Bandani, Mohsen Paknejad, Behrouz Foroughi-Nia, Atefeh Fooladi Moghaddam
Oil fields are a source of heavy metal pollution, but few studies have evaluated its impact on the intake of these contaminants through milk, an important food especially for children. From February 2015 to 2016, 118 samples of raw cow's milk, 14 of fodder and 8 of water in Southwest Iran were collected from farms close to oil fields or related industries. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels were evaluated by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean±SE in milk and fodder were 47.0±3.9 and 54.0±6...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
N Irikura, M Uematsu, G Kitahara, T Osawa, Y Sasaki
This study aimed to clarify the association of interservice interval (ISI) with conception rate (CR) and to evaluate factors affecting ISI in Japanese Black cattle. Data used in this study covered 32,639 artificial insemination (AI) records on 972 farms. The mean ± SEM of ISI and CR was 57.0 ± 0.3 days and 44.6 ± 0.3%, respectively. The relative frequency of ISI differed significantly between parity groups (p < .05). For parity 0, the proportion of ISI at an 18- to 24-day interval was 43.6%, whereas the proportions in the other parity groups ranged from 27...
April 16, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Hossein Maghsoudi, Jamal Hallajzadeh, Mozhghan Rezaeipour
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease with inflammatory component. It is associated with progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Today, drugs such as glucocorticoids (GCs) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSIADs) are commonly employed for treatment of osteoarthritis, but have serious and life-threatening side effects. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of escin on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, isoform), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and nitric oxide (NO) (1), as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on inflammatory cells, similar osteoarthritis in synoviocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, and to compare it with dexamethasone (DEX) and ibuprofen (IBP)...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Hien Dang Thanh, Van Trung Tran, Inseok Lim, Wonyong Kim
After the introduction of two global rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq in 2007 and Rotarix in 2008 in South Korea, G1[P8] rotavirus was the major rotavirus genotype in the country until 2012. However, in this study, an emergence of G2P[4] as the dominant genotype during the 2013 to 2015 season has been reported. Genetic analysis revealed that these viruses had typical DS-1-like genotype constellation and showed evidence of re-assortment in one or more genome segments, including the incorporation of NSP4 genes from strains B-47/2008 from a cow and R4/Haryana/2007 from a buffalo in India, and the VP1 and VP3 genes from strain GO34/1999 from a goat in Bangladesh...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
F C F Dias, M I R Khan, M A Sirard, G P Adams, J Singh
BACKGROUND: Prolongation of superstimulatory treatment appears to be associated with a greater superovulatory response and with greater oocyte maturation in cattle. A genome-wide bovine oligo-microarray was used to compare the gene expression of granulosa cells collected from ovarian follicles after differing durations of the growing phase induced by exogenous FSH treatment. Cows were given a conventional (4-day) or long (7-day) superstimulatory treatment (25 mg FSH im at 12-h intervals; n = 6 per group), followed by prostaglandin treatment with last FSH and LH treatment 24 h later...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
Susanne Dold, Michael B Zimmermann, Tomislav Jukic, Zvonko Kusic, Qingzhen Jia, Zhongna Sang, Antonio Quirino, Teofilo O L San Luis, Ralph Fingerhut, Roland Kupka, Arnold Timmer, Greg S Garrett, Maria Andersson
Background: Dietary iodine requirements are high during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy, making women and infants vulnerable to iodine deficiency. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been remarkably successful for preventing iodine deficiency in the general population, but it is uncertain if USI provides adequate iodine intakes during the first 1000 d. Objective: We set out to assess if USI provides sufficient dietary iodine to meet the iodine requirements and achieve adequate iodine nutrition in all vulnerable population groups...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Angela Maria Gonella-Diaza, Fernando Silveira Mesquita, Everton Lopes, Kauê Ribeiro da Silva, Bruno Cogliati, Ricardo De Francisco Strefezzi, Mario Binelli
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a group of molecules that offer structural and biochemical support to cells and interact with them to regulate their function. Also, growth factors (GFs) stored in the ECM can be locally released during the ECM remodeling process. Here, we hypothesize that the balance between ECM components and remodelers is regulated according to the ovarian steroid milieu to which the oviduct is exposed during the periovulatory period. Follicular growth was manipulated to generate cows that ovulated small follicles (SF-SCL; n = 20) or large follicles (LF-LCL; n = 21) and possess corresponding Estradiol (E2) and Progesterone (P4) plasmatic concentrations...
April 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Yun-Jung Choi, Jin-Hoi Kim
Bovine postpartum diseases remain one of the most significant and highly prevalent illnesses with negative effects on the productivity, survival, and welfare of dairy cows. Antibiotics are generally considered beneficial in the treatment of endometritis; however, frequent usage of each antibiotic drug is reason for the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) of the pathogenic microorganisms, representing a major impediment for the successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases in both humans and animals...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Abdolkhalegh Golkar, Jafar M Milani, Todor Vasiljevic
Cow's milk-based infant formulas have a long tradition in infant nutrition, although some infants are unable to use them due to presence of several known allergens. Various processing methods have been identified capable of reducing cow's milk protein allergenicity including thermal and non-thermal methods and their combinations. Heat treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis have been in production of hypoallergenic infant formulas. However, modulation of allergenic epitopes depends on the extent of heat treatment applied, which consequently may also reduce a nutritional value of these proteins...
April 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
A Tomassini, G Curone, M Solè, G Capuani, F Sciubba, G Conta, A Miccheli, D Vigo
It is well established that different factors affect milk composition in cows and that milk composition, in turn, affect both technological and nutritional qualities. In this respect the comprehension of the metabolic variability of milk composition in relation to the lactation time as well as to the genetic background may be of paramount importance for the agri-food industries. In the present study we investigated the variations of the metabolic profiles during lactation in milks obtained from Friesian and autochthonous races from Northern Italy by 1 H NMR metabolomics...
April 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
B Ingham, A Smialowska, N M Kirby, C Wang, A J Carr
The casein micelle is a flexible construct, with its key structural components being casein proteins and colloidal calcium phosphate nanoclusters. According to literature, milk from different species exhibits differences in composition and physicochemical properties. X-ray scattering techniques were used to investigate and compare the nanoscale structure of casein micelles present in cow, goat and sheep milk. Although there were differences in the size and density of larger scale protein structures, at an atomic level the protein structures were similar...
April 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Rabehi Sabrina, Hamdi Taha Mossadak, Mamache Bakir, Meghezzi Asma, Boushaba Khaoula
Aim: The aim of this study was to detect Brucella spp. DNA in milk samples collected from seronegative cows using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for diagnosis of brucellosis in seronegative dairy cows to prevent transmission of disease to humans and to reduce economic losses in animal production. Materials and Methods: In this study, 65 milk samples were investigated for the detection of Brucella spp. The detection of the IS711 gene in all samples was done by real-time PCR assay by comparative cycle threshold method...
March 2018: Veterinary World
Meeti Punetha, A K Roy, H M Ajithakumar, Irshad Ahmed Para, Deepanshu Gupta, Mahendra Singh, Jaya Bharati
Background and Aim: Probiotics are the living microorganism which when administered improves the digestion and health of the animal. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) improves the humoral and innate immunity of the animal. Prilled fat is a hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride which has been reported to promote the release of cytokines from macrophages. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of probiotic and prilled fat during transition stage in Karan Fries (KF) cows...
February 2018: Veterinary World
Yangqing Liu, Huiying Tao, Yixin Yu, Liangliang Yue, Wen Xia, Weiqing Zheng, Hongmei Ma, Xiaoqing Liu, Haiying Chen
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) cause a significant biting nuisance to humans, livestock, which are the biological vectors of a range of risky pathogens. Accurate illustration of vector play a key role in arthropod borne diseases surveillance. However, few studies have focused on the Culicoides, which caused bluetongue disease in 29 provinces of China since 1979. In this study, we assessed cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA molecular marker for identification of ten major vector species and analyzed the Culicoides species community and diversity in different habitats...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Sławomir J Kowalczyk, Michał Czopowicz, Corinna N Weber, Elisabeth Müller, Jarosław Kaba
In adult cattle Fasciola hepatica infection usually follows a chronic subclinical course, and reduces both the milk yield and milk quality, resulting in considerable financial losses. Effective control of the disease is based on reliable identification of asymptomatically infected individuals, which now requires special parasitological or serological diagnostic tests. It is also known that F. hepatica infection induces alterations in some serum biochemical parameters. Therefore, the study was conducted to develop a model based on serum biochemical parameters allowing to identify cows at higher risk of chronic fascioliasis...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Shoko Okitsu, Toshiyuki Hikita, Aksara Thongprachum, Pattara Khamrin, Sayaka Takanashi, Satoshi Hayakawa, Niwat Maneekarn, Hiroshi Ushijima
This study describes the detection and molecular characterization of two rare G8P[14] and G3P[3] rotavirus strains, which were collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in 2014 in Japan. Among 247 rotaviruses, one G8P[14] (strain 12,597) and one G3P[3] (strain 12,638) rotaviruses were detected. The genotypes of 11 gene segments of these two rotavirus strains (RVA/Human-wt/JPN/12597/2014/G8P[14] and RVA/Human-wt/JPN/12638/2014/G3P[3]) were characterized. The genotype constellation of strain 12,597 was assigned to G8-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T9-E2-H3, and this strain possessed a rare T9 genotype of NSP3 gene which has never been reported previously in combination with G8 genotype of VP7 gene...
April 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
E D Testroet, D C Beitz, M R O'Neil, A L Mueller, H A Ramirez-Ramirez, S Clark
Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to lactating dairy cows has been implicated as a cause of late blowing defects in the production of Swiss-style cheeses. Our objectives were (1) to test the effect of feeding reduced-fat DDGS (RF-DDGS; ∼6% fat) to lactating dairy cows on the composition of milk and on the suitability of the milk for production of baby Swiss cheese and (2) to evaluate the effect of diet on cow lactation performance. Lactating Holstein dairy cows were fed both dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 crossover design...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S Leimbach, V Krömker
Because clinical mastitis, one of the most common diseases in dairy cows, is routinely treated with antimicrobial substances, it offers a high potential for future reduction of antimicrobial usage. In fact, intramammary antibiotic administration is not advisable in cases of clinical mastitis caused by coliform bacteria, yeasts, or protothecae or in cases with no detectable mastitis pathogen. To avoid unnecessary treatments with antimicrobials for the benefit of animal health and public welfare, the rapid identification of the mastitis-causing pathogens becomes necessary...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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