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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109642/non-routine-discharge-from-military-service-mental-illness-substance-use-disorders-and-suicidality
#1
Emily Brignone, Jamison D Fargo, Rebecca K Blais, Marjorie E Carter, Matthew H Samore, Adi V Gundlapalli
INTRODUCTION: Mental illness and substance use disorders among newly returned military service members pose challenges to successful reintegration into civilian life and, in extreme cases, may lead to outcomes such as incarceration, homelessness, and suicide. One potential early indicator for these difficulties is non-routine discharge from military service. METHODS: Using data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) for 443,360 active duty service Veterans who deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq and subsequently utilized VHA services between Fiscal Years 2004 and 2013, this study examined risk for receiving a VHA-documented diagnosis of mental illness, substance use disorders, and suicidality as a function of discharge type, controlling for demographic and military service covariates...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108334/a-study-of-glutamate-levels-nr1-nr2a-nr2b-receptors-and-oxidative-stress-in-rat-model-of-japanese-encephalitis
#2
Prashant Singh Chauhan, Usha Kant Misra, Jayantee Kalita
There is paucity of studies on the role of glutamate excitotoxicity in cell damage in Japanese encephalitis. In this study the glutamate levels, its NMDA receptors, oxidative stress markers in different brain regions have been evaluated and correlated with neurobehavioral changes at different time points. Twelve day old Wistar rats were inoculated with 3×10(6)pfu/ml intracerebrally. The neurobehavioral effects were evaluated by spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA), grip strength and rota rod test on 10, 33 and 48days post inoculation (dpi)...
January 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108292/reversal-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-improves-glucose-tolerance-inflammatory-response-%C3%AE-amyloid-accumulation-and-cognitive-decline-in-the-app-psen1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
J M Walker, S Dixit, A C Saulsberry, J M May, F E Harrison
This study assessed the extent to which high fat diet (HFD)-induced β-amyloid accumulation and cognitive decline in APP/PSEN1 mice are reversible through control of fat intake. Ten months of HFD (60% calories from fat) led to significant deficits in a 2-trial Y maze task, and nest building assay, and decreased voluntary locomotor activity. The HFD induced an inflammatory response, indicated by increased expression of several inflammatory markers. Substituting a low fat diet led to pronounced weight loss and correction of glucose intolerance, decreases in the inflammatory response, and improved performance on behavioral tasks in both wild-type and APP/PSEN1 transgenic mice...
January 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107893/influence-of-stress-systems-and-physical-activity-on-different-dimensions-of-fatigue-in-female-fibromyalgia-patients
#4
Johanna M Doerr, Susanne Fischer, Urs M Nater, Jana Strahler
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is a defining characteristic and one of the most debilitating features of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The mechanisms underlying different dimensions of fatigue in FMS remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to test whether stress-related biological processes and physical activity modulate fatigue experience. METHODS: Using an ambulatory assessment design, 26 female FMS patients reported general, mental, and physical fatigue levels at six time points per day for 14 consecutive days...
February 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106378/cell-selective-apoptosis-induced-by-polymorphic-alteration-of-self-assembled-silica-nano-webs
#5
Meysam Keshavarz, Bo Tan, Krishnan Venkatakrishnan
The biocompatibility of silicon-based nanomaterial makes it suitable for biophysical and biomedical applications. However, the application of silicon-based nanomaterials has been mainly restricted to nanoparticles (NPs) as a potential drug carrier and the extracellular matrix (ECM) as a platform for cell adhesion and proliferation. Here, we introduced silica NPs self-assembled into a 3D nano-web architecture that was shown to inherit the therapeutic and proliferative attributes of both NPs and ECMs. The self-assembled silica nano-web (SNW) has, therefore, not only shown targeted drug-like behavior in HeLa cells without the use of bio-markers but also has shown ECM characteristics...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105940/integrated-single-cell-data-analysis-reveals-cell-specific-networks-and-novel-coactivation-markers
#6
Shila Ghazanfar, Adam J Bisogni, John T Ormerod, David M Lin, Jean Y H Yang
BACKGROUND: Large scale single cell transcriptome profiling has exploded in recent years and has enabled unprecedented insight into the behavior of individual cells. Identifying genes with high levels of expression using data from single cell RNA sequencing can be useful to characterize very active genes and cells in which this occurs. In particular single cell RNA-Seq allows for cell-specific characterization of high gene expression, as well as gene coexpression. RESULTS: We offer a versatile modeling framework to identify transcriptional states as well as structures of coactivation for different neuronal cell types across multiple datasets...
December 5, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105927/candidate-snp-markers-of-aggressiveness-related-complications-and-comorbidities-of-genetic-diseases-are-predicted-by-a-significant-change-in-the-affinity-of-tata-binding-protein-for-human-gene-promoters
#7
Irina V Chadaeva, Mikhail P Ponomarenko, Dmitry A Rasskazov, Ekaterina B Sharypova, Elena V Kashina, Marina Yu Matveeva, Tatjana V Arshinova, Petr M Ponomarenko, Olga V Arkova, Natalia P Bondar, Ludmila K Savinkova, Nikolay A Kolchanov
BACKGROUND: Aggressiveness in humans is a hereditary behavioral trait that mobilizes all systems of the body-first of all, the nervous and endocrine systems, and then the respiratory, vascular, muscular, and others-e.g., for the defense of oneself, children, family, shelter, territory, and other possessions as well as personal interests. The level of aggressiveness of a person determines many other characteristics of quality of life and lifespan, acting as a stress factor. Aggressive behavior depends on many parameters such as age, gender, diseases and treatment, diet, and environmental conditions...
December 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105557/the-anticancer-drug-sunitinib-promotes-autophagyand-protects-from-neurotoxicity-in-an-hiv-1-tat-model-of-neurodegeneration
#8
Jerel A Fields, Jeff Metcalf, Cassia Overk, Anthony Adame, Brian Spencer, Wolfgang Wrasidlo, Jazmin Florio, Edward Rockenstein, Johnny J He, Eliezer Masliah
Despite the success of antiretroviral therapies to control systemic HIV-1 infection, the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) has not decreased among aging patients with HIV. Autophagy pathway alterations, triggered by HIV-1 proteins including gp120, Tat, and Nef, might contribute to the neurodegenerative process in aging patients with HAND. Although no treatments are currently available to manage HAND, we have previously shown that sunitinib, an anticancer drug that blocks receptor tyrosine-kinase and cyclin kinase pathways, might be of interest...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104336/indicators-of-cognitive-impairment-from-a-medical-record-review-correlations-with-early-30-d-readmissions-among-hospitalized-patients-in-a-nephrology-unit
#9
Matthew J Jasinski, Mark A Lumley, Sandeep Soman, Jerry Yee, Mark W Ketterer
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease have the highest 30-day hospital readmission rates of any medical condition. Previous research suggests that cognitive impairment contributes to readmission. It is important to identify patients at risk for early readmission, and this might be accomplished efficiently using medical record data. METHOD: We reviewed the medical records of 100 patients with kidney disease (57 women, mean age = 61.2) who were hospitalized in the nephrology unit at an urban U...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103534/examining-the-link-between-cocaine-binging-and-individual-social-and-behavioral-factors-among-street-based-cocaine-users
#10
Élise Roy, Nelson Arruda, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Djamal Berbiche, Michel Perreault, Karine Bertrand, Magali Dufour, Julie Bruneau
AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of cocaine binging and examine associated factors, to characterize binge episodes and to study the relationship between cocaine binging and HIV and HCV risk behaviors among street-based cocaine users. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in Montréal, Canada. Interviewer-administered questionnaire were carried out at 3-month intervals. Cocaine binging was defined as using large quantities of cocaine, without stopping, over a limited period of time, until resources run out or until being physically incapable of consuming...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103291/the-gut-brain-axis-in-healthy-females-lack-of-significant-association-between-microbial-composition-and-diversity-with-psychiatric-measures
#11
Susan C Kleiman, Emily C Bulik-Sullivan, Elaine M Glenny, Stephanie C Zerwas, Eun Young Huh, Matthew C B Tsilimigras, Anthony A Fodor, Cynthia M Bulik, Ian M Carroll
OBJECTIVE: This study examined associations between the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota and measures of depression, anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, stress, and personality in a group of healthy adult females. METHODS: Female participants (n = 91) ages 19-50 years with BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2 were recruited from central North Carolina between July 2014 and March 2015. Participants provided a single fecal sample and completed an online psychiatric questionnaire that included five measures: (i) Beck Anxiety Inventory; (ii) Beck Depression Inventory-II; (iii) Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; (iv) Perceived Stress Scale; and (v) Mini International Personality Item Pool...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101814/arbutus-andrachne-l-reverses-sleep-deprivation-induced-memory-impairments-in-rats
#12
Karem H Alzoubi, Bayan S Malkawi, Omar F Khabour, Tamam El-Elimat, Feras Q Alali
Sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with cognitive deficits. It was found to affect the hippocampus region of the brain by impairing memory formation. This impairment is suggested to be caused by elevation in oxidative stress in the body, including the brain during SD. It was hypothesized that the methanolic extract of the fruits of Arbutus andrachne L. (Ericaceae) will prevent chronic SD-induced impairment of hippocampal memory via its antioxidative properties. The methanolic extract of the fruits of A. andrachne was evaluated for its beneficial properties to reverse SD-induced cognitive impairment in rats...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101746/music-preferences-friendship-and-externalizing-behavior-in-early-adolescence-a-siena-examination-of-the-music-marker-theory-using-the-snare-study
#13
Aart Franken, Loes Keijsers, Jan Kornelis Dijkstra, Tom Ter Bogt
Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the development of externalizing behavior, while taking the effects of friends' externalizing behavior into account. Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50% boys; M age = 12...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100843/pathophysiology-and-molecular-basis-of-selected-metabolic-abnormalities-in-huntington-s-disease
#14
Jolanta Krzysztoń-Russjan
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, devastating neurodegenerative disease with a known genetic background and autosomally dominant inheritance pattern. HTT gene mutation (mHTT) is associated with polymorphic fragment elongation above 35 repeats of the CAG triplet. The mHTT product is an altered protein with a poly-Q elongated fragment, with the highest expression determined in the central nervous system (CNS) and with differentiated expression outside the CNS. A drastic loss of striatal and deeper layers of the cerebral cortex neurons was determined in the CNS, but muscle and body weight mass loss with dysfunction of many organs was also observed...
December 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100737/selectivity-in-postencoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#15
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems-level consolidation. Although high-reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for high value information is prioritized. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that postencoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of postencoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100196/exposure-to-hepatitis-c-virus-in-homeless-men-in-central-brazil-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Priscilla Martins Ferreira, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Christiane Moreira Souza, Lara Cristina da Cunha Guimarães, Cleiciane Vieira de Lima Barros, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Giovanni Rezza, Lila Spadoni, Sandra Maria Brunini
BACKGROUND: Homeless men are highly vulnerable to acquisition of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) compared to the general population. In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions, the extent of HCV infection in this population remains unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiological profile of exposure to HCV in homeless men in Central Brazil. METHODS: A Cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 men aged over 18 years attending therapeutic communities specialized in the recovery and reintegration of homeless people...
January 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100033/relaxin-3-inputs-target-hippocampal-interneurons-and-deletion-of-hilar-relaxin-3-receptors-in-floxed-rxfp3-mice-impairs-spatial-memory
#17
M Haidar, G Guèvremont, C Zhang, Rad Bathgate, E Timofeeva, C M Smith, A L Gundlach
Hippocampus is innervated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) 'projection' neurons of the nucleus incertus (NI), including a population expressing the neuropeptide, relaxin-3 (RLN3). In studies aimed at gaining an understanding of the role of RLN3 signaling in hippocampus via its Gi/o -protein-coupled receptor, RXFP3, we examined the distribution of RLN3-immunoreactive nerve fibres and RXFP3 mRNA-positive neurons in relation to hippocampal GABA neuron populations. RLN3-positive elements were detected in close-apposition with a substantial population of somatostatin (SST)- and GABA-immunoreactive neurons, and a smaller population of parvalbumin- and calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in different hippocampal areas, consistent with the relative distribution patterns of RXFP3 mRNA and these marker transcripts...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098227/adolescents-display-distinctive-tolerance-to-ambiguity-and-to-uncertainty-during-risky-decision-making
#18
Wouter van den Bos, Ralph Hertwig
Although actuarial data indicate that risk-taking behavior peaks in adolescence, laboratory evidence for this developmental spike remains scarce. One possible explanation for this incongruity is that in the real world adolescents often have only vague information about the potential consequences of their behavior and the likelihoods of those consequences, whereas in the lab these are often clearly stated. How do adolescents behave under such more realistic conditions of ambiguity and uncertainty? We asked 105 participants aged from 8 to 22 years to make three types of choices: (1) choices between options whose possible outcomes and probabilities were fully described (choices under risk); (2) choices between options whose possible outcomes were described but whose probability information was incomplete (choices under ambiguity), and (3) choices between unknown options whose possible outcomes and probabilities could be explored (choices under uncertainty)...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096099/high-saturated-fat-diet-increases-circulating-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-which-is-enhanced-by-the-rs4343-polymorphism-defining-persons-at-risk-of-nutrient-dependent-increases-of-blood-pressure
#19
Rita Schüler, Martin A Osterhoff, Turid Frahnow, Anne-Cathrin Seltmann, Andreas Busjahn, Stefan Kabisch, Li Xu, Alexander S Mosig, Joachim Spranger, Matthias Möhlig, Silke Hornemann, Michael Kruse, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a major role in blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular homeostasis. Contrary to the assumption that ACE levels are stable, circulating ACE has been shown to be altered in obesity and weight loss. We sought to examine effects of a high-saturated-fat (HF) diet on ACE within the NUtriGenomic Analysis in Twins (NUGAT) study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-six healthy and nonobese twin pairs initially consumed a carbohydrate-rich, low-fat diet over a period of 6 weeks to standardize for nutritional behavior prior to the study, followed by 6 weeks of HF diet under isocaloric conditions...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093858/parent-perceptions-of-health-promotion-for-school-age-children-with-spina-bifida
#20
Brenda L Luther, Becky J Christian
PURPOSE: To gain insight into how parents develop their beliefs of health promotion for their children with spina bifida (SB) and how they develop and promote health promotion practices for their children. DESIGN: Qualitative, exploratory design with semi-structured interviews of parents of children between 6 and 12 years of age diagnosed with SB was used for this study. RESULTS: Perceptions of health promotion were maintaining healthy bowel function and managing SB care...
January 16, 2017: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
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