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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437848/inferring-network-structure-in-non-normal-and-mixed-discrete-continuous-genomic-data
#1
Anindya Bhadra, Arvind Rao, Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani
Inferring dependence structure through undirected graphs is crucial for uncovering the major modes of multivariate interaction among high-dimensional genomic markers that are potentially associated with cancer. Traditionally, conditional independence has been studied using sparse Gaussian graphical models for continuous data and sparse Ising models for discrete data. However, there are two clear situations when these approaches are inadequate. The first occurs when the data are continuous but display non-normal marginal behavior such as heavy tails or skewness, rendering an assumption of normality inappropriate...
April 24, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436484/how-voluntary-orienting-of-attention-and-alerting-modulate-costs-of-conflict-processing
#2
Alberto Zani, Alice Mado Proverbio
There is evidence that pre-cued valid orienting of attention to competing information diminishes costs of brain processing of conflict. Still unclear, because scantily addressed by neuroimaging studies and mostly analyzed by means of behavioral indexing, it is whether conflict undergoes an equivalent modulation by tonic and pre-cued phasic alerting. Here, we investigated the functional relationships between attention orienting, alerting and executive systems using the Attention Network Test (ANT). Both reaction times (RTs) and ERPs were recorded...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436351/reactivity-to-unpredictable-threat-as-a-treatment-target-for-fear-based-anxiety-disorders
#3
S M Gorka, L Lieberman, H Klumpp, K L Kinney, A E Kennedy, O Ajilore, J Francis, J Duffecy, M G Craske, J Nathan, S Langenecker, S A Shankman, K L Phan
BACKGROUND: Heightened reactivity to unpredictable threat (U-threat) is a core individual difference factor underlying fear-based psychopathology. Little is known, however, about whether reactivity to U-threat is a stable marker of fear-based psychopathology or if it is malleable to treatment. The aim of the current study was to address this question by examining differences in reactivity to U-threat within patients before and after 12-weeks of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435697/calcium-phosphates-and-silicon-exploring-methods-of-incorporation
#4
Ana I Rodrigues, Rui L Reis, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Isabel B Leonor, Pamela Habibović
BACKGROUND: Bioinorganics have been explored as additives to ceramic bone graft substitutes with the aim to improve their performance in repair and regeneration of large bone defects. Silicon (Si), an essential trace element involved in the processes related to bone formation and remodeling, was shown not only to enhance osteoblasts proliferation but also to stimulate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and preosteoblasts into the osteogenic lineage. In this study, the added value of Si to calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings was evaluated...
2017: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434642/-late-life-depression-or-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-which-tools-for-the-differential-diagnosis
#5
A-I Gasser, V Salamin, S Zumbach
INTRODUCTION: Depression and Alzheimer's disease are both very frequent in elderly people. Cognitive deficits are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but they are also common in depressed elderly people who often present cognitive deficits such as memory, attention and executive function problems. On the other hand, people with early Alzheimer's disease demonstrate emotional and behavioral disorders generally encountered in depression such as loss of energy, apathy, mood disorder, and irritability...
April 20, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434164/microglia-loss-contributes-to-the-development-of-major-depression-induced-by-different-types-of-chronic-stresses
#6
Lijuan Tong, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Hu, Jili Wang, Zhuo Chen, Wei Zhang, Chao Huang
Recently, the loss and dystrophy of hippocampal microglia induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) has been reported to mediate the development of major depression in mice whose microglial cells were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein-conjuncted-CX3C receptor type 1. However, whether this happens in endogenous microglia with no genetic intervention remains unclear. Here, we addressed this issue in mice treated with different types of chronic stresses, including the CUS, chronic restraint stress (CRS) and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS)...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429825/validation-of-the-mds-research-criteria-for-prodromal-parkinson-s-disease-longitudinal-assessment-in-a-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-rbd-cohort
#7
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Jacques Y Montplaisir, Amelie Pelletier, Jean-François Gagnon, Daniela Berg, Ronald B Postuma
BACKGROUND: Recently, the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society introduced the prodromal criteria for PD. Objectives Our study aimed to examine diagnostic accuracy of the criteria as well as the independence of prodromal markers to predict conversion to PD or dementia with Lewy bodies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was performed on 121 individuals with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder who were followed annually for 1 to 12 years...
April 21, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429101/human-circulating-and-tissue-gastric-cancer-stem-cells-display-distinct-epithelial-mesenchymal-features-and-behaviors
#8
Shengliang Zhang, Yanna Shang, Tie Chen, Xin Zhou, Wengtong Meng, Chuanwen Fan, Ran Lu, Qiaorong Huang, Xue Li, Xu Hong, Zongguang Zhou, Jiankun Hu, Xianming Mo
INTRODUCTION: Metastasis is a leading cause of cancer-related-deaths worldwide. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been believed to be responsible for tumor initiation and metastasis, but till now, difference of cellular features and behaviors between CSCs from tumor tissues (TCSCs) and circulation (CCSCs) remains largely unknown, which hinders the progression of targeted therapies for metastasis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we provide the features of circulating gastric cancer stem cells (CGCSCs) isolated from human gastric adenocarcinoma...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428858/genetic-diversity-and-spatial-structure-of-the-rufous-throated-antbird-gymnopithys-rufigula-an-amazonian-obligate-army-ant-follower
#9
Juliana Menger, Klaus Henle, William E Magnusson, Antonella Soro, Martin Husemann, Martin Schlegel
Amazonian understory antbirds are thought to be relatively sedentary and to have limited dispersal ability; they avoid crossing forest gaps, and even narrow roads through a forest may limit their territories. However, most evidence for sedentariness in antbirds comes from field observations and plot-based recapture of adult individuals, which do not provide evidence for lack of genetic dispersal, as this often occurs through juveniles. In this study, we used microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control-region sequences to investigate contemporary and infer historical patterns of genetic diversity and structure of the Rufous-throated Antbird (Gymnopithys rufigula) within and between two large reserves in central Amazonia...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427322/dental-pulp-pluripotent-like-stem-cells-dppsc-a-new-stem-cell-population-with-chromosomal-stability-and-osteogenic-capacity-for-biomaterials-evaluation
#10
Raquel Núñez-Toldrà, Ester Martínez-Sarrà, Carlos Gil-Recio, Miguel Ángel Carrasco, Ashraf Al Madhoun, Sheyla Montori, Maher Atari
BACKGROUND: Biomaterials are widely used to regenerate or substitute bone tissue. In order to evaluate their potential use for clinical applications, these need to be tested and evaluated in vitro with cell culture models. Frequently, immortalized osteoblastic cell lines are used in these studies. However, their uncontrolled proliferation rate, phenotypic changes or aberrations in mitotic processes limits their use in long-term investigations. Recently, we described a new pluripotent-like subpopulation of dental pulp stem cells derived from the third molars (DPPSC) that shows genetic stability and shares some pluripotent characteristics with embryonic stem cells...
April 21, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425939/fructose-consumption-in-the-development-of-obesity-and-the-effects-of-different-protocols-of-physical-exercise-on-the-hepatic-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Rodrigo Martins Pereira, José Diego Botezelli, Kellen Cristina da Cruz Rodrigues, Rania A Mekary, Dennys Esper Cintra, José Rodrigo Pauli, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, Leandro Pereira de Moura
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context, the liver seems to be a key organ for understanding the deleterious health effects promoted by fructose consumption. Fructose promotes complications in glucose metabolism, accumulation of triacylglycerol in the hepatocytes, and alterations in the lipid profile, which, associated with an inflammatory response and alterations in the redox state, will imply a systemic picture of insulin resistance...
April 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425432/angiogenic-and-lymphangiogenic-profiles-in-histological-variants-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#12
Vesna Skuletic, Gordana D Radosavljevic, Jelena Pantic, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Ivan Jovanovic, Nikola Jankovic, Dusica Petrovic, Andra Jevtovic, Radan Dzodic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic
INTRODUCTION    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a well-differentiated tumor that occurs in several histological variants whose biological behaviors remain unclear. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are critical processes that enable tumor progression.  OBJECTIVES    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angiogenic and lymphangiogenic phenotypes of PTC considering the differences between histological variants. PATIENTS AND METHODS    Angiogenic and lymphangiogenic profiles were analyzed by microvascular density (MVD) and lymphovascular density (LVD) determination in 73 cases of PTC using immunohistochemistry...
April 20, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425015/the-new-classification-of-seizures-by-the-international-league-against-epilepsy-2017
#13
REVIEW
Robert S Fisher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents the newly developed International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2017 classification of seizure types. RECENT FINDINGS: The fundamental distinction is between seizures that begin focally in one hemisphere of the brain, generalized onset seizures that apparently originate in both hemispheres, and seizures of unknown onset. Focal seizures optionally can be subclassified according to whether awareness (a surrogate marker for consciousness) is intact or impaired...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424638/the-acquisition-of-orthographic-knowledge-evidence-from-the-lexicality-effects-on-n400
#14
Yu-Lin Tzeng, Chun-Hsien Hsu, Yu-Chen Huang, Chia-Ying Lee
This study aimed to understand how reading ability shapes the lexicality effects on N400. Fifty-three typical developing children from the second to the sixth grades were asked to perform the pronounceability judgment task on a set of Chinese real characters (RC), pseudocharacters (PC) and non-characters (NC), as ERPs were recorded. The cluster-based permutation analysis revealed that children with low- to medium-reading ability showed greater negativity to NCs than to RCs and PCs in frontal sites from 300 to 450 ms, while children with high ability group showed a greater positivity to NCs than both RCs and PCs at central to posterior sites...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424582/hypothalamic-neurogenesis-as-an-adaptive-metabolic-mechanism
#15
REVIEW
Antonia Recabal, Teresa Caprile, María de Los Angeles García-Robles
In the adult brain, well-characterized neurogenic niches are located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. In both regions, neural precursor cells (NPCs) share markers of embryonic radial glia and astroglial cells, and in vitro clonal expansion of these cells leads to neurosphere formation. It has also been more recently demonstrated that neurogenesis occurs in the adult hypothalamus, a brain structure that integrates peripheral signals to control energy balance and dietary intake...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424411/migration-pattern-actin-cytoskeleton-organization-and-response-to-pi3k-mtor-and-hsp90-inhibition-of-glioblastoma-cells-with-different-invasive-capacities
#16
Simon Memmel, Dmitri Sisario, Caren Zöller, Vanessa Fiedler, Astrid Katzer, Robin Heiden, Nicholas Becker, Lorenz Eing, Fábio L R Ferreira, Heiko Zimmermann, Markus Sauer, Michael Flentje, Vladimir L Sukhorukov, Cholpon S Djuzenova
High invasiveness and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) make it the most lethal brain tumor. Therefore, new treatment strategies for preventing migration and invasion of GBM cells are needed. Using two different migration assays, Western blotting, conventional and super-resolution (dSTORM) fluorescence microscopy we examine the effects of the dual PI3K/mTOR-inhibitor PI-103 alone and in combination with the Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 and/or irradiation on the migration, expression of marker proteins, focal adhesions and F-actin cytoskeleton in two GBM cell lines (DK-MG and SNB19) markedly differing in their invasive capacity...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422735/expression-of-embryonal-stem-cell-transcription-factors-in-breast-cancer-oct4-as-an-indicator-for-poor-clinical-outcome-and-tamoxifen-resistance
#17
Jae Moon Gwak, Milim Kim, Hyun Jeong Kim, Min Hye Jang, So Yeon Park
The transcription factors of embryonic stem cells, such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Bmi1, and Klf4, are known to be associated with stemness, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and aggressive tumor behavior. This study was designed to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of their expression in breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry for Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Bmi1, and Klf4 was performed in 319 cases of invasive breast cancer. The relationship between the expression of these markers and clinicopathologic features of the tumors, including breast cancer stem cell phenotype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker expression, and their prognostic value in breast cancer, were analyzed...
March 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421533/changes-in-the-prefrontal-glutamatergic-and-parvalbumin-systems-of-mice-exposed-to-unpredictable-chronic-stress
#18
Ryan Shepard, Laurence Coutellier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is highly sensitive to the effects of stress, a known risk factor of mood disorders including anxiety and depression. Abnormalities in PFC functioning have been well described in humans displaying stress-induced depressive symptoms, and hypoactivity of the PFC is now recognized to be a key feature of the depressed brain. However, little is known about the causes and mechanisms leading to this altered prefrontal functional activity in the context of stress-related mood disorders. We previously showed that unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) in mice increases prefrontal expression of parvalbumin (PV), an activity-dependent calcium-binding albumin protein expressed in a specific subtype of GABAergic neurons, highlighting a potential mechanism through which chronic stress leads to hypofunction of the PFC...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419375/transcriptional-profiling-of-cholinergic-neurons-from-basal-forebrain-identifies-changes-in-expression-of-genes-between-sleep-and-wake-mrna-profiling-in-basal-forebrain-with-sleep-sleep-deprivation
#19
Elena V Nikonova, Jason DA Gilliland, Keith Q Tanis, Alexei A Podtelezhnikov, Alison M Rigby, Raymond J Galante, Eva M Finney, David J Stone, John J Renger, Allan I Pack, Christopher J Winrow
Study objective: To assess differences in gene expression in cholinergic basal forebrain cells between sleeping and sleep deprived mice sacrificed at the same time of day. Methods: Tg(ChAT-eGFP)86Gsat mice expressing eGFP under control of the choline acetyltransferase (Chat) promoter were utilized to guide laser capture of cholinergic cells in basal forebrain. mRNA expression levels in these cells were profiled using microarrays. Gene expression in eGFP(+) neurons was compared (1) to that in eGFP(-) neurons and to adjacent white matter, (2) between 7:00 am (lights on) and 7:00 pm (lights off), (3) between sleep deprived and sleeping animals at 0, 3, 6, 9 hrs from lights on...
April 13, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418993/solid-papillary-breast-carcinomas-resembling-the-tall-cell-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-neoplasms-a-unique-invasive-tumor-with-indolent-behavior
#20
Maria P Foschini, Sofia Asioli, Susan Foreid, Gabor Cserni, Ian O Ellis, Vincenzo Eusebi, Juan Rosai
Thirteen cases of invasive solid papillary breast carcinomas resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid neoplasms (BPTC) are reported here. Some cases had long-term follow-up. BPTC is a special type of primary breast neoplasm showing a triple-negative profile but low aggressive potential. Knowledge on BPTC is still scanty; therefore, the aim of the present paper was to report on the features of an additional 13 cases. All the patients were female individuals, and the mean age at presentation was 62...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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