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Behavior marker

Julio Fernandez-Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Karol Cichewicz, Emma J Garren, Chika Adiele, Yoshinori Aso, Zhang Wang, Martin Wu, Serge Birman, Gerald M Rubin, Jay Hirsh
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter with conserved behavioral roles between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In addition to its neural functions, in insects DA is a critical substrate for cuticle pigmentation and hardening. Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) is the rate limiting enzyme for DA biosynthesis. Viable brain DA deficient flies were previously generated using tissue selective GAL4-UAS binary expression rescue of a DTH null mutation and these flies show specific behavioral impairments. To circumvent the limitations of rescue via binary expression, here we achieve rescue utilizing genomically integrated mutant DTH...
October 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Kai Li, Jiangming Yu, Youtao Xie, Mingyu You, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
Ideal coatings for orthopedic implants should be able to induce excellent osseointegration with host bone tissue, which requires good osteogenic responses and limited inflammatory reactions. Cerium oxide (CeO2) ceramics have anti-oxidative properties and can be used to decrease mediators of inflammation, making them attractive for biomedical application. In this study, two kinds of CeO2 incorporated calcium silicate coatings (CS-10Ce and CS-30Ce) were prepared via plasma spraying technique, and the effects of CeO2 addition on the responses of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and RAW264...
October 20, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
C Piñol-Felis, T Fernández-Marcelo, J Viñas-Salas, C Valls-Bautista
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Our aim is to describe the state of the art about the role of telomeres and telomerase in the clinical management of CRC and its potential utility as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers and targets of new treatments. Telomere length could be a new diagnostic marker as an anomalous behavior is observed in peripheral blood cells when CRC patients and healthy people are compared. Moreover, telomeres and telomerase may be used as diagnostic markers considering that universal changes appear along the CRC process...
October 19, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Jamal El-Saghir, Farah Nassar, Nadim Tawil, Marwan El-Sabban
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are membrane nano-vesicles secreted by a multitude of cells that harbor biological constituents such as proteins, lipids, mRNA and microRNA. Exosomes can potentially transfer their cargo to other cells, implicating them in many patho-physiological processes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), residents of the bone marrow and metastatic niches, potentially interact with cancer cells and/or their derived exosomes. In this study, we investigated whether exosomes derived from adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) cells act as intercellular messengers delivering leukemia-related genes that modulate the properties of human MSCs in favor of leukemia...
October 19, 2016: Retrovirology
Sebastian Kwiatkowski, Barbara Dołęgowska, Ewa Kwiatkowska, Rafał Rzepka, Andrzej Torbè, Magdalena Bednarek-Jędrzejek
Preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction are two separate disease entities that, according to numerous reports, share the same pathogenesis. In both, angiogenesis disorders and generalized inflammation are the dominant symptoms. In this study, we hypothesized that both diseases demonstrate the same profile in early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction patients, with the only difference being the degree of exacerbation of lesions. One hundred sixty-seven patients were enrolled in the study and divided into four groups: early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction groups, and one control group...
2016: PloS One
Natalie J Loxton, Renée J Tipman
Sensitivity to the rewarding properties of appetitive substances has long been implicated in excessive consumption of palatable foods and drugs of abuse. Previous research focusing on individual differences in reward responsiveness has found heightened trait reward sensitivity to be associated with binge-eating, hazardous drinking, and illicit substance use. Food addiction has been proposed as an extreme form of compulsive-overeating and has been associated with genetic markers of heightened reward responsiveness...
October 15, 2016: Appetite
Denghe Liu, Lu Sun, Xue Qin, Tianhua Liu, Shu Zhang, Yinkun Liu, Shan Li, Kun Guo
OBJECTIVE: Reprogramming energy metabolism has been defined as the ninth hallmark of cancer; glucose deprivation might be a novel, feasible and effective approach for cancer treatment. However, the comprehensive illustration of behavior alteration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells induced by glucose restriction is lacking and associated molecular mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: Three human HCC cell lines were cultured with normal control (25.0 mM D-glucose) and low glucose (5...
September 2016: Discovery Medicine
Meagan E Ita, Nathan D Crosby, Ben A Bulka, Beth A Winkelstein
STUDY DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry labeled pre- and post-synaptic structural markers to quantify excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the spinal superficial dorsal horn at 14 days after painful facet joint injury in the rat. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pain and synapse density in the spinal cord after facet injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neck pain is a major contributor to disability and often becomes chronic...
October 17, 2016: Spine
Y Wang, L Yang, Z L Zhang
Here we reported two patients who presented with panuveitis and were transferred from ophthalmologists to rheumatologists, for both the patients had oral and genital ulcers. They were misdiagnosed with Behcet's disease at first glance. Two young males presented with acute uveitis with history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers. They initially presented with symptoms and signs resembling Behcet's disease and were treated with systemic steroids with suboptimal responses. Routine laboratory test revealed syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Sashka Krumova, Svetla Todinova, Deyan Mavrov, Pencho Marinov, Vassia Atanassova, Krassimir Atanassov, Stefka G Taneva
BACKGROUND: Biological microcalorimetry has entered into a phase where its potential for disease diagnostics is readily recognized. A wide variety of oncological and immunological disorders have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and characteristic thermodynamic profiles were reported. Now the challenge before DSC is not the experimental data collection but the development of analysis protocols for reliable data stratification/classification and discrimination of disease specific features (calorimetric markers)...
October 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Virginia Mela, Sara Jimenez, Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Vicente Barrios, Eva-María Marco, Ana-Belén Lopez-Rodriguez, Jesús Argente, María-Paz Viveros, Julie A Chowen
The neonatal leptin surge, occurring from postnatal day (PND) 5 to 13 and peaking at PND9 in rodents, is important for the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control and reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that treatment with a leptin antagonist from PND 5 to 9, coincident with peak leptin levels in the neonatal surge, modified trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the hypothalamus of peri-pubertal rats. The kisspeptin system and metabolic neuropeptide and hormone levels were also modified...
October 14, 2016: Peptides
David Mathar, Leonora Wilkinson, Anna K Holl, Jane Neumann, Lorenz Deserno, Arno Villringer, Marjan Jahanshahi, Annette Horstmann
Incidental learning of appropriate stimulus-response associations is crucial for optimal functioning within our complex environment. Positive and negative prediction errors (PEs) serve as neural teaching signals within distinct ('direct'/'indirect') dopaminergic pathways to update associations and optimize subsequent behavior. Using a computational reinforcement learning model, we assessed learning from positive and negative PEs on a probabilistic task (Weather Prediction Task - WPT) in three populations that allow different inferences on the role of dopamine (DA) signals: (1) Healthy volunteers that repeatedly underwent [(11)C]raclopride Positron Emission Tomography (PET), allowing for assessment of striatal DA release during learning, (2) Parkinson's disease (PD) patients tested both on and off L-DOPA medication, (3) early Huntington's disease (HD) patients, a disease that is associated with hyper-activation of the 'direct' pathway...
September 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Michael Saul, Petra Majdak, Samuel Perez, Matthew Reilly, Theodore Garland, Justin S Rhodes
Though exercise is critical for health, many lack the motivation to exercise, and it is unclear how motivation might be increased. To uncover the molecular underpinnings of increased motivation for exercise, we analyzed the transcriptome of the striatum in four mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running and four non-selected control lines. The striatum was dissected and RNA was extracted and sequenced from four individuals of each line. We found multiple genes and gene systems with strong relationships to both selection and running history over the previous 6 days...
October 17, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Ming-Fong Chang, Jung-Hsien Hsieh, Hao Chiang, Hung-Wei Kan, Cho-Min Huang, Luke Chellis, Bo-Shiou Lin, Shi-Chuen Miaw, Chun-Liang Pan, Chi-Chao Chao, Sung-Tsang Hsieh
Delivering gene constructs into the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is a powerful but challenging therapeutic strategy for sensory disorders affecting the DRG and their peripheral processes. The current delivery methods of direct intra-DRG injection and intrathecal injection have several disadvantages, including potential injury to DRG neurons and low transfection efficiency, respectively. This study aimed to develop a spinal nerve injection strategy to deliver polyethylenimine mixed with plasmid (PEI/DNA polyplexes) containing green fluorescent protein (GFP)...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Leorik Pereira da Silva, Marianna Sampaio Serpa, Thalita Santana, George João Ferreira do Nascimento, Emanuel Sávio de Souza Andrade, Ana Paula Veras Sobral
Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are important lesions of the gnathic bones due to their clinicopathological heterogeneity and variable biological behavior; therefore, epidemiological studies are needed to outline the incidence and behavior of these tumors. To evaluate the incidence and epidemiological profile of ameloblastoma (AMB) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) from an oral pathology service, and correlate morphological findings of these tumors with the immunoexpression of a cellular proliferation marker (Ki-67), a retrospective study (2002-2012) was conducted to characterize demographic, clinical, radiological, and morphological data of AMBs and KCOTs...
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Priska Leisibach, Didier Schneiter, Alex Soltermann, Yoshi Yamada, Walter Weder, Wolfgang Jungraithmayr
BACKGROUND: Thymic epithelial tumors (TET) are rare neoplasms with inconsistent treatment strategies. When researching for molecular pathways to find new therapies, the correlation between specific molecular markers and outcome has only rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between survival, metastatic potential and invasiveness of aggressive subtypes of TET and immunohistochemical markers. METHODS: Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), progression-free survival (PFS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) of patients with WHO type B2/B3 mixed type thymoma (MT), thymoma type B3 (B3) and thymic carcinoma (TC), undergoing surgery [1998-2013] were determined...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Raf Donders, Kathleen Sanen, Rik Paesen, Eli Slenders, Wilfried Gyselaers, Piet Stinissen, Marcel Ameloot, Niels Hellings
In situ detection of MSCs remains difficult and warrants additional methods to aid with their characterization in vivo. Two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy (TPM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) could fill this gap. Both techniques enable the detection of cells and extracellular structures, based on intrinsic properties of the specific tissue and intracellular molecules under optical irradiation. TPM imaging and SHG imaging have been used for label-free monitoring of stem cells differentiation, assessment of their behavior in biocompatible scaffolds, and even cell tracking in vivo...
2016: Stem Cells International
Iryna Yavorska, Michael Wehr
Cortical inhibitory neurons exhibit remarkable diversity in their morphology, connectivity, and synaptic properties. Here, we review the function of somatostatin-expressing (SOM) inhibitory interneurons, focusing largely on sensory cortex. SOM neurons also comprise a number of subpopulations that can be distinguished by their morphology, input and output connectivity, laminar location, firing properties, and expression of molecular markers. Several of these classes of SOM neurons show unique dynamics and characteristics, such as facilitating synapses, specific axonal projections, intralaminar input, and top-down modulation, which suggest possible computational roles...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Lynn M Grattan, Carol Boushey, Kate Tracy, Vera Trainer, Sparkle M Roberts, Nicolas Schluterman, J Glenn Morris
This study represents a preliminary effort to examine the possible impacts of chronic, low level Domoic Acid (DA) exposure on memory in the CoASTAL cohort. Five hundred thirteen men and women representing three Native American Tribes were studied with standard measures of cognition and razor clam consumption (a known vector of DA exposure) over a four year period. In addition, a pilot metric of DA concentration exposure was used which took into consideration average DA concentration levels in source beaches as well as consumption...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
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