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Temporal discounting

Lisbeth Ku, Anise M S Wu, Angie K P Lao, Kerwin I N Lam
Chinese consumers' spending has been expanding rapidly in the past decade, and along with it household and credit card debt. The present research collected evidence to triangulate the contention that materialism is positively related with Chinese's problem spending tendency (PST), and that present-time-perspective (PTP) and future-time perspectives (FTP) interact systematically with materialism to affect PST. A survey of the general population in Macao, China (Study 1; N = 239) confirmed that materialism was positively correlated with PST...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Qinghua He, Mei Chen, Chuansheng Chen, Gui Xue, Tingyong Feng, Antoine Bechara
Previous correlational imaging studies have implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in decision making. Using High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS), the present study directly investigated the causal role of the DLPFC in performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Inter-Temporal Choice (ITC) task. Three experiments were conducted: Experiment 1 (N = 41) to study the left DLPFC, Experiment 2 (N = 49) to study the right DLPFC, and Experiment 3 (N = 20, a subset of those in Experiment 1) to switch the experimental and control conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
M Kit Delgado, Kathryn J Wanner, Catherine McDonald
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in adolescents, and drivers aged 16-19 are the most likely to die in distracted driving crashes. This paper provides an overview of the literature on adolescent cellphone use while driving, focusing on the crash risk, incidence, risk factors for engagement, and the effectiveness of current mitigation strategies. We conclude by discussing promising future approaches to prevent crashes related to cellphone use in adolescents. Handheld manipulation of the phone while driving has been shown to have a 3 to 4-fold increased risk of a near crash or crash, and eye glance duration greater than 2 seconds increases crash risk exponentially...
June 16, 2016: Media Commun
Jessica McClelland, Bethan Dalton, Maria Kekic, Savani Bartholdy, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Eating Disorders (ED) and obesity are suggested to involve a spectrum of self-regulatory control difficulties. Temporal discounting (TD) tasks have been used to explore this idea. This systematic review examines behavioural and neuroimaging TD data in ED and obesity. METHOD: Using PRISMA guidelines, we reviewed relevant articles in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase from inception until 17th August 2016. Studies that reported behavioural differences in TD and/or TD neuroimaging data in ED/obesity were included...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Amanda J Quisenberry, Alexander Bianco, Kirstin M Gatchalian, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Warren K Bickel
Healthy decisions are associated with valuation of the future whereas unhealthy decisions are associated with devaluation of the future. Comparisons of future discounting of delayed rewards in adolescent smokers and non-smokers have been equivocal and past discounting of monetary gains has not been reported in adolescents. Here, adolescents completed future and past delay discounting tasks. A mixed-model analysis of covariance using a model with the lowest Bayesian Information Criterion revealed that adolescents discount the past more than the future and smokers discount more than non-smokers...
September 20, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Marijn Lijffijt, Scott D Lane, Sanjay J Mathew, Matthew S Stanford, Alan C Swann
We tested whether enhanced stimulus orienting operationalized as N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials to increasing loudness (50-90 dB clicks) could be associated with trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11), impulsive action (commission error on the Immediate Memory Task), or impulsive choice (immediate responses on temporal discounting tasks). We measured N1 and P2 loudness sensitivity in a passive listening task as linear intensity-sensitivity slopes in 36 men with antisocial personality disorder with a history of conviction for criminal conduct and 16 healthy control men...
September 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Joshua C Gray, Michael T Amlung, Abraham A Palmer, James MacKillop
The 27-item Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ; Kirby, Petry, & Bickel, 1999) and 30-item Probability Discounting Questionnaire (PDQ; Madden, Petry, & Johnson, 2009) are widely used, validated measures of preferences for immediate versus delayed rewards and guaranteed versus risky rewards, respectively. The MCQ measures delayed discounting by asking individuals to choose between rewards available immediately and larger rewards available after a delay. The PDQ measures probability discounting by asking individuals to choose between guaranteed rewards and a chance at winning larger rewards...
September 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Warren K Bickel, A George Wilson, Chen Chen, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Christopher T Franck
Insufficient resources are associated with negative consequences including decreased valuation of future reinforcers. To determine if these effects result from scarcity, we examined the consequences of acute, abrupt changes in resource availability on delay discounting-the subjective devaluation of rewards as delay to receipt increases. In the current study, 599 individuals recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk read a narrative of a sudden change (positive, neutral, or negative) to one's hypothetical future income and completed a delay discounting task examining future and past monetary gains and losses...
2016: PloS One
Ben Seymour, Michael Barbe, Peter Dayan, Tamara Shiner, Ray Dolan, Gereon R Fink
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease is known to cause a subtle but important adverse impact on behaviour, with impulsivity its most widely reported manifestation. However, precisely which computational components of the decision process are modulated is not fully understood. Here we probe a number of distinct subprocesses, including temporal discount, outcome utility, instrumental learning rate, instrumental outcome sensitivity, reward-loss trade-offs, and perseveration...
2016: Scientific Reports
Savani Bartholdy, Jiumu Cheng, Ulrike Schmidt, Iain C Campbell, Owen G O'Daly
Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sara Coelho, Manuela Guerreiro, Catarina Chester, Dina Silva, João Maroco, Fabio Paglieri, Alexandre de Mendonça
INTRODUCTION: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may make suboptimal decisions particularly in complex situations, and this could be due to temporal discounting, the tendency to prefer immediate rewards over delayed but larger rewards. The present study proposes to evaluate intertemporal preferences in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. METHOD: Fifty-five patients with MCI and 57 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological evaluation and a delay discounting questionnaire, which evaluates three parameters: hyperbolic discounting (k), the percentage of choices for delayed and later rewards (%LL), and response consistency (Acc)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Savani Bartholdy, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt, Owen G O'Daly
The aetiology of eating disorders (EDs) is unclear, but many hypotheses implicate alterations in behavioural control. Specifically and because of its relevance to symptomatology, there has been much interest in inhibitory control, i.e., the ability to inhibit inappropriate/unwanted behaviours. This has been studied in relation to reactive motor inhibition (withholding a response in reaction to a signal), reward-based inhibition (e.g., temporal discounting paradigms) and to reversal learning (e.g., set shifting tasks assessing cognitive flexibility and compulsivity)...
August 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Yang-Yang Zhang, Lijuan Xu, Li-Lin Rao, Lei Zhou, Yuan Zhou, Tianzi Jiang, Shu Li, Zhu-Yuan Liang
Gain-loss asymmetry in temporal discounting (i.e., when individuals discount gains more than losses) has been implicated in numerous problematic and addictive behaviors, resulting in enormous personal and societal costs. On the basis of findings from a previous study, we speculated that approach-avoidance motivation would modulate gain-loss asymmetry. To test this speculation, we examined the effects of motivation on gain-loss asymmetry by analyzing functional connectivity. We found that approach and avoidance motivation were negatively associated with functional connectivity between the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and functional connectivity between the MOFC and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in the gain domain...
2016: Scientific Reports
Marc Deffains, Liliya Iskhakova, Shiran Katabi, Suzanne N Haber, Zvi Israel, Hagai Bergman
The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) constitute the input stage of the basal ganglia (BG) network and together innervate BG downstream structures using GABA and glutamate, respectively. Comparison of the neuronal activity in BG input and downstream structures reveals that subthalamic, not striatal, activity fluctuations correlate with modulations in the increase/decrease discharge balance of BG downstream neurons during temporal discounting classical condition task. After induction of parkinsonism with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), abnormal low beta (8-15 Hz) spiking and local field potential (LFP) oscillations resonate across the BG network...
2016: ELife
Daniel D Holt, Kathryn Glodowski, Rochelle R Smits-Seemann, Andrew M Tiry
There is a growing body of literature demonstrating domain effects where the rate of temporal discounting depends, in part, on the commodity being evaluated. The commodity of money, for example, is typically discounted much less steeply than commodities of entertainment or food. There are several plausible explanations for domain effects: differences in conditioned reinforcer status, degree of fungibility, and differences in metabolic function. While money can be thought of as a conditioned reinforcer exchangeable for a number of different outcomes (highly fungible), comparing money to food (non-fungible) does not separate whether the difference in rates of discounting are due to food having metabolic importance, being perishable, being less fungible, or all of the above...
October 2016: Behavioural Processes
Xue Yu, Edmund Sonuga-Barke
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with ADHD have been shown to prefer smaller sooner over larger later rewards. This has been explained in terms of abnormally steeper discounting of the value of delayed reinforcers. Evidence for this comes from different experimental paradigms. In some, participants experience delay in the laboratory (real-time delay tasks; R-TD), in others they imagine the delay to reinforcers (hypothetical delay tasks; HD). METHOD: We directly contrasted the performance of 7- to 12-year-old children with ADHD (n = 23) and matched controls (n = 23) on R-TD and HD tasks with monetary rewards...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Michael Moutoussis, Raymond J Dolan, Peter Dayan
The weight with which a specific outcome feature contributes to preference quantifies a person's 'taste' for that feature. However, far from being fixed personality characteristics, tastes are plastic. They tend to align, for example, with those of others even if such conformity is not rewarded. We hypothesised that people can be uncertain about their tastes. Personal tastes are therefore uncertain beliefs. People can thus learn about them by considering evidence, such as the preferences of relevant others, and then performing Bayesian updating...
July 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Mona Buhusi, Kaitlin Olsen, Benjamin Z Yang, Catalin V Buhusi
Maladaptive reactivity to stress is linked to improper decision making, impulsivity, and discounting of delayed rewards. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) alters dopaminergic function, re-shapes dopaminergic circuits in key areas involved in decision making, and impairs prefrontal-cortex dependent response inhibition and working memory. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is essential for regulating dopamine (DA) release in the basal ganglia and for the survival of dopaminergic neurons; GDNF-deficient mice are considered an animal model for aging-related Parkinsonism...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Lisa Nagy, Terho Heikkinen, Alfred Sackeyfio, Richard Pitman
BACKGROUND: Trivalent influenza vaccines encompass one influenza B lineage; however, predictions have been unreliable on which of two antigenically distinct circulating lineages will dominate. Quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccines contain strains from both lineages. This analysis assesses the cost effectiveness of switching from trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination (TIV) in Finland to quadrivalent vaccination, using inactivated (QIV) or live-attenuated (Q-LAIV) vaccines. METHODS: A transmission model simulated the dynamics of influenza infection while accounting for indirect (herd) protection...
September 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Vijay Mohan K Namboodiri, Joshua M Levy, Stefan Mihalas, David W Sims, Marshall G Hussain Shuler
Understanding the exploration patterns of foragers in the wild provides fundamental insight into animal behavior. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that path lengths (distances between consecutive turns) taken by foragers are well fitted by a power law distribution. Numerous theoretical contributions have posited that "Lévy random walks"-which can produce power law path length distributions-are optimal for memoryless agents searching a sparse reward landscape. It is unclear, however, whether such a strategy is efficient for cognitively complex agents, from wild animals to humans...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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