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Temporal discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225034/simulating-future-value-in-intertemporal-choice
#1
Alec Solway, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
The laboratory study of how humans and other animals trade-off value and time has a long and storied history, and is the subject of a vast literature. However, despite a long history of study, there is no agreed upon mechanistic explanation of how intertemporal choice preferences arise. Several theorists have recently proposed model-based reinforcement learning as a candidate framework. This framework describes a suite of algorithms by which a model of the environment, in the form of a state transition function and reward function, can be converted on-line into a decision...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214123/a-tool-for-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-field-scale-sediment-bound-phosphorus-mitigation-measures-and-application-to-analysis-of-spatial-and-temporal-targeting-in-the-lunan-water-catchment-scotland
#2
Andy Vinten, James Sample, Adekunle Ibiyemi, Yakubu Abdul-Salam, Marc Stutter
The cost-effectiveness of six edge-of-field measures for mitigating diffuse pollution from sediment bound phosphorus (P) runoff from temperate arable farmland is analysed at catchment/field scales. These measures were: buffer strips, permanent grassland in the lowest 7% of arable fields, dry detention bunds, wetlands, and temporary barriers such as sediment fences. Baseline field P export was estimated using export coefficients (low risk crops) or a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (high risk crops). The impact of measures was estimated using simple equations...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198452/undervaluing-delayed-rewards-explains-adolescents-impulsivity-in-inter-temporal-choice-an-erp-study
#3
Yunyun Huang, Ping Hu, Xueting Li
Adolescence has frequently been characterized as a period of choice impulsivity relative to adulthood. According to the control-integrated valuation model of inter-temporal choice, this choice impulsivity may be driven partly by an age-related difference in reward processing. We hypothesized that, compared to adults, adolescents would undervalue delayed rewards during reward processing and would thus be more impulsive in inter-temporal choice. To test this hypothesis at the behavioural and neural levels, we first measured the choice impulsivity of 18 adolescents and 19 adults using a delay discounting task (DDT)...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188866/does-a-future-oriented-temporal-perspective-relate-to-body-mass-index-eating-and-exercise-a-meta-analysis
#4
Allison M Sweeney, Ileana Culcea
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to quantify the magnitude of the association between future temporal perspective and Body Mass Index (BMI), diet, and exercise, respectively, and to clarify whether subjective future-focus scales or delay-discounting tasks are a more robust predictor of health behaviors. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for studies that included a dispositional measure of future temporal perspective and a measure of BMI, eating, and/or exercise behavior...
February 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174528/anxious-individuals-are-impulsive-decision-makers-in-the-delay-discounting-task-an-erp-study
#5
Lisheng Xia, Ruolei Gu, Dandan Zhang, Yuejia Luo
Impulsivity, which is linked to a wide range of psychiatric disorders, is often characterized by a preference for immediate but smaller rewards over delayed but larger rewards. However, debate exists on the relationship between anxiety and impulsivity. Here we use event-related potential (ERP) components as biomarkers in the temporal discounting task to examine the effect of anxiety on inter-temporal decision-making. Our behavioral results indicated that the high trait anxiety (HTA) group made significantly more immediate choices than the low trait anxiety (LTA) group...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174525/cardiac-signals-are-independently-associated-with-temporal-discounting-and-time-perception
#6
Bowen J Fung, Damien L Crone, Stefan Bode, Carsten Murawski
Cardiac signals reflect the function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and have previously been associated with a range of self-regulatory behaviors such as emotion regulation and memory recall. It is unknown whether cardiac signals may also be associated with self-regulation in the temporal domain, in particular impulsivity. We assessed both decision impulsivity (temporal discounting, TD) and time perception impulsivity (duration reproduction, DR) in 120 participants while they underwent electrocardiography in order to test whether cardiac signals were related to these two aspects of impulsivity...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129914/is-the-rational-addiction-model-inherently-impossible-to-estimate
#7
Audrey Laporte, Adrian Rohit Dass, Brian S Ferguson
The Rational Addiction (RA) model is increasingly often estimated using individual level panel data with mixed results; in particular, with regard to the implied rate of time discount. This paper suggests that the odd values of the rate of discount frequently found in the literature may in fact be a consequence of the saddle-point dynamics associated with individual level inter-temporal optimization problems. We report the results of Monte Carlo experiments estimating RA-type difference equations that seem to suggest the possibility that the presence of both a stable and an unstable root in the dynamic process may create serious problems for the estimation of RA equations...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121991/single-session-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-temporarily-improves-symptoms-mood-and-self-regulatory-control-in-bulimia-nervosa-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Maria Kekic, Jessica McClelland, Savani Bartholdy, Elena Boysen, Peter Musiat, Bethan Dalton, Meyzi Tiza, Anthony S David, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that pathological eating behaviours in bulimia nervosa (BN) are underpinned by alterations in reward processing and self-regulatory control, and by functional changes in neurocircuitry encompassing the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Manipulation of this region with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may therefore alleviate symptoms of the disorder. OBJECTIVE: This double-blind sham-controlled proof-of-principle trial investigated the effects of bilateral tDCS over the DLPFC in adults with BN...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073390/the-behavioural-constellation-of-deprivation-causes-and-consequences
#9
Gillian V Pepper, Daniel Nettle
Socioeconomic differences in behaviour are pervasive and well documented, but their causes are not yet well understood. Here, we make the case that there is a cluster of behaviours associated with lower socioeconomic status, which we call the behavioural constellation of deprivation. We propose that the relatively limited control associated with lower socioeconomic status curtails the extent to which people can expect to realise deferred rewards, leading to more present-oriented behaviour in a range of domains...
January 11, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009473/temporal-discounting-across-three-psychiatric-disorders-anorexia-nervosa-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-social-anxiety-disorder
#10
Joanna E Steinglass, Karolina M Lempert, Tse-Hwei Choo, Marcia B Kimeldorf, Melanie Wall, B Timothy Walsh, Abby J Fyer, Franklin R Schneier, H Blair Simpson
BACKGROUND: Temporal discounting refers to the tendency for rewards to lose value as the expected delay to receipt increases. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been found to show reduced temporal discounting rates, indicating a greater preference for delayed rewards compared to healthy peers. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) commonly co-occur with AN, and anxiety has been related to development and prognosis of AN. We examined whether reduced temporal discounting is present across these potentially related disorders, and explored the relationship between temporal discounting and anxiety transdiagnostically...
December 23, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997285/short-and-sweet-the-persuasive-effects-of-message-framing-and-temporal-context-in-antismoking-warning-labels
#11
Saar Mollen, Susanne Engelen, Loes T E Kessels, Bas van den Putte
Current warning labels on cigarette packages are generally focused on long-term losses that can be incurred if one continues smoking. This study compares the effects of these labels against warning labels that stress short-term losses of smoking as well as labels that stress short- and long-term benefits that can be obtained when one quits smoking. A 2 (message frame: gain vs. loss) × 2 (temporal context: short vs. long term) between-subjects experiment was conducted among 132 smokers, with attitude toward quitting smoking and intention to quit smoking, as well as information-seeking behavior and message recall, as the dependent variables...
January 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867498/bone-muscle-crosstalk-targets-muscle-regeneration-pathway-regulated-by-core-circadian-transcriptional-repressors-dec1-and-dec2
#12
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Gorski, Jeffrey L Price
Deletion of proprotein convertase Mbtps1 in bone osteocytes leads to a significant postnatal increase in skeletal muscle size and contractile function, while causing only a 25% increase in stiffness in long bones. Concerns about leakiness in skeletal muscle were discounted since Cre recombinase expression does not account for our findings, and, Mbtps1 protein and mRNA is not deleted. Interestingly, the response of normal skeletal muscle to exercise and the regenerative response of skeletal muscle to the deletion of Mbtps1 in bone share some key regulatory features including a preference for slow twitch muscle fibers...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818375/time-discounting-and-tobacco-smoking-a-systematic-review-and-network-analysis
#13
Pepita Barlow, Martin McKee, Aaron Reeves, Gauden Galea, David Stuckler
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking harms health, so why do people smoke and fail to quit? An explanation originating in behavioural economics suggests a role for time-discounting, which describes how the value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. A large number of studies test the relationship of time-discounting with tobacco outcomes but the temporal pattern of this relationship and its variation according to measurement methods remain unclear. We review the association between time-discounting and smoking across (i) the life course, from initiation to cessation, and (ii) diverse discount measures...
November 6, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817906/temporal-discounting-and-emotional-self-regulation-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Daniel Augusto Utsumi, Mônica Carolina Miranda, Mauro Muszkat
Temporal Discounting (TD) reflects a tendency to discount a reward more deeply the longer its delivery is delayed. TD tasks and behavioral scales have been used to investigate 'hot' executive functions in ADHD. The present study analyzed TD task performance shown by ADHD and control groups for correlations with emotional self-regulation metrics from two scales, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Children (ages 8-12) with ADHD (n=25) and controls (n=24) were assessed using material rewards (toys) for three types of task: Hypothetical (H); Hypothetical with temporal expectation (HTE); and Real (R)...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806865/altered-neural-efficiency-of-decision-making-during-temporal-reward-discounting-in-anorexia-nervosa
#15
Joseph A King, Daniel Geisler, Fabio Bernardoni, Franziska Ritschel, Ilka Böhm, Maria Seidel, Eva Mennigen, Stephan Ripke, Michael N Smolka, Veit Roessner, Stefan Ehrlich
OBJECTIVE: The ability of individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) to resist hunger and restrict caloric intake is often believed to reflect an unusual amount of self-control. However, the underlying neural substrate is poorly understood, especially in adolescent patients. METHOD: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used during an intertemporal choice task to probe the hemodynamic correlates of a common measurement of self-control-delayed (monetary) reward discounting-in a sample of acutely ill, predominately adolescent female patients with AN (n = 31) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 31)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785126/temporal-dynamics-of-the-interaction-between-reward-and-time-delay-during-intertemporal-choice
#16
Dan-Yang Gui, Jin-Zhen Li, Xiaoli Li, Yue-Jia Luo
Intertemporal choice involves the processes of valuation and choice. Choice is often the result of subjective valuation, in which reward is integrated with time delay. Here, using event-related potential (ERP) signals as temporal hallmarks, we aim to investigate temporal dynamics of how reward interacts with time delay during a delayed discounting task. We found that participants preferred immediate rewards when delayed rewards were small or over long-term delays. Our ERP results suggested that the P200 component reflected an initial valuation of reward and time delay, while the frontal N2 component correlated with individual choices of immediate option of rewards...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779911/neural-systems-underlying-individual-differences-in-intertemporal-decision-making
#17
Amanda Elton, Christopher T Smith, Michael H Parrish, Charlotte A Boettiger
Excessively choosing immediate over larger future rewards, or delay discounting (DD), associates with multiple clinical conditions. Individual differences in DD likely depend on variations in the activation of and functional interactions between networks, representing possible endophenotypes for associated disorders, including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Numerous fMRI studies have probed the neural bases of DD, but investigations of large-scale networks remain scant. We addressed this gap by testing whether activation within large-scale networks during Now/Later decision-making predicts individual differences in DD...
March 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774513/brain-stimulation-reveals-crucial-role-of-overcoming-self-centeredness-in-self-control
#18
Alexander Soutschek, Christian C Ruff, Tina Strombach, Tobias Kalenscher, Philippe N Tobler
Neurobiological models of self-control predominantly focus on the role of prefrontal brain mechanisms involved in emotion regulation and impulse control. We provide evidence for an entirely different neural mechanism that promotes self-control by overcoming bias for the present self, a mechanism previously thought to be mainly important for interpersonal decision-making. In two separate studies, we show that disruptive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the temporo-parietal junction-a brain region involved in overcoming one's self-centered perspective-increases the discounting of delayed and prosocial rewards...
October 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709606/-we-want-the-world-and-we-want-it-now-materialism-time-perspectives-and-problem-spending-tendency-of-chinese
#19
Lisbeth Ku, Anise M S Wu, Angie K P Lao, Kerwin I N Lam
Chinese consumers' spending has been expanding rapidly in the past decade, and along with it household and credit card debt. The present research collected evidence to triangulate the contention that materialism is positively related with Chinese's problem spending tendency (PST), and that present-time-perspective (PTP) and future-time perspectives (FTP) interact systematically with materialism to affect PST. A survey of the general population in Macao, China (Study 1; N = 239) confirmed that materialism was positively correlated with PST...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703440/anodal-stimulation-of-the-left-dlpfc-increases-igt-scores-and-decreases-delay-discounting-rate-in-healthy-males
#20
Qinghua He, Mei Chen, Chuansheng Chen, Gui Xue, Tingyong Feng, Antoine Bechara
Previous correlational imaging studies have implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in decision making. Using High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS), the present study directly investigated the causal role of the DLPFC in performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Inter-Temporal Choice (ITC) task. Three experiments were conducted: Experiment 1 (N = 41) to study the left DLPFC, Experiment 2 (N = 49) to study the right DLPFC, and Experiment 3 (N = 20, a subset of those in Experiment 1) to switch the experimental and control conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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