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Temporal discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915063/reassessing-the-chronology-of-the-archaeological-site-of-anzick
#1
Lorena Becerra-Valdivia, Michael R Waters, Thomas W Stafford, Sarah L Anzick, Daniel Comeskey, Thibaut Devièse, Thomas Higham
Found in 1968, the archaeological site of Anzick, Montana, contains the only known Clovis burial. Here, the partial remains of a male infant, Anzick-1, were found in association with a Clovis assemblage of over 100 lithic and osseous artifacts-all red-stained with ochre. The incomplete, unstained cranium of an unassociated, geologically younger individual, Anzick-2, was also recovered. Previous chronometric work has shown an age difference between Anzick-1 and the Clovis assemblage (represented by dates from two antler rod samples)...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852425/-ir-rational-choices-of-humans-rhesus-macaques-and-capuchin-monkeys-in-dynamic-stochastic-environments
#2
Julia Watzek, Sarah F Brosnan
Human and animal decision-making is known to violate rational expectations in a variety of contexts. Previous models suggest that statistical structures of real-world environments can favor such seemingly irrational behavior, but this has not been tested empirically. We tested 16 capuchin monkeys, seven rhesus monkeys, and 30 humans in a computerized experiment that implemented such stochastic environments. Subjects chose from among up to three options of different value that disappeared and became available again with different probabilities...
May 28, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29806533/adhd-and-the-choice-of-small-immediate-over-larger-delayed-rewards-a-comparative-meta-analysis-of-performance-on-simple-choice-delay-and-temporal-discounting-paradigms
#3
Ivo Marx, Thomas Hacker, Xue Yu, Samuele Cortese, Edmund Sonuga-Barke
OBJECTIVE: Impulsive choices can lead to suboptimal decision making, a tendency which is especially marked in individuals with ADHD. We compared two different paradigms assessing impulsive choice: the simple choice paradigm (SCP) and the temporal discounting paradigm (TDP). METHOD: Random effects meta-analyses on 37 group comparisons (22 SCP; 15 TDP) consisting of 3.763 participants (53% ADHD). RESULTS: Small-to-medium effect sizes emerged for both paradigms, confirming that participants with ADHD choose small immediate over large delayed rewards more frequently than controls...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713789/an-improved-within-session-self-adjusting-delay-discounting-procedure-for-the-study-of-choice-impulsivity-in-rats
#4
Mejda Wahab, Leigh V Panlilio, Marcello Solinas
RATIONALE: Delay-discounting procedures involving choice between small immediate rewards and large delayed rewards are used to study impulsivity in rodents. Improving existing procedures may provide new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying decision-making processes. OBJECTIVES: To develop a novel delay-discounting procedure that adjusts the delay value within individual sessions based on the rat's most recent choices. METHODS: Compared to previously developed procedure, we required a more consistent demonstration of preference, five consecutive choices of the large or small reward, a criterion that is more likely to reflect deliberate choice by the animal, as opposed to two consecutive choices...
April 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698025/taxing-cognitive-capacities-reduces-choice-consistency-rather-than-preference-a-model-based-test
#5
Sebastian Olschewski, Jörg Rieskamp, Benjamin Scheibehenne
How do people make preferential choices in situations where their cognitive capacities are limited? Many studies link the manipulation of cognitive resources to qualitative changes in preferences. However, there is a widely overlooked alternative hypothesis, namely, that a reduction in cognitive capacities leads to an increase in choice inconsistency. We developed a mathematical model and followed a hierarchical Bayesian estimation approach to test to what extent a reduction in cognitive capacities leads to a shift in preference or an increase in choice inconsistency...
April 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695989/future-time-perspective-impacts-gain-related-but-not-loss-related-intertemporal-choice
#6
Tian Li, Yuxin Tan, Xianmin Gong, Shufei Yin, Fangshu Qiu, Xue Hu
Future time perspective (FTP) modulates individuals' temporal orientation in selecting their motivations and goals, which widely influences their cognitions and behaviors. However, it remains unclear how FTP exactly affects intertemporal choice. To clarify the effect of FTP on intertemporal choice, 90 college students ( M age = 21.70, SD = 1.23) were randomly assigned to the limited FTP condition (16 males, 29 females) and the open-ended FTP condition (17 males, 28 females). In the limited FTP condition, participants were instructed to imagine their states of being 70 years old, whereas in the open-ended FTP condition, they were instructed to describe their current states...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694264/does-power-reduce-temporal-discounting-commentary-on-joshi-and-fast-2013
#7
Min Zhang, Pamela K Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686631/the-perception-of-time-is-underestimated-in-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa
#8
Carmelo M Vicario, Kim Felmingham
Research has revealed reduced temporal discounting (i.e., increased capacity to delay reward) and altered interoceptive awareness in anorexia nervosa (AN). In line with the research linking temporal underestimation with a reduced tendency to devalue a reward and reduced interoceptive awareness, we tested the hypothesis that time duration might be underestimated in AN. Our findings revealed that patients with AN displayed lower timing accuracy in the form of timing underestimation compared with controls. These results were not predicted by clinical, demographic factors, attention, and working memory performance of the participants...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684133/neural-activation-during-delay-discounting-is-associated-with-6-month-change-in-risky-sexual-behavior-in-adolescents
#9
Casey K Gardiner, Hollis C Karoly, Rachel E Thayer, Arielle S Gillman, Amithrupa Sabbineni, Angela D Bryan
Background: Identifying cognitive and neural mechanisms of decision making in adolescence can enhance understanding of, and interventions to reduce, risky health behaviors in adolescence. Delay discounting, or the propensity to discount the magnitude of temporally distal rewards, has been associated with diverse health risk behaviors, including risky sex. This cognitive process involves recruitment of reward and cognitive control brain regions, which develop on different trajectories in adolescence and are also implicated in real-world risky decision making...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670611/advances-in-biomarker-guided-therapy-for-pediatric-and-adult-onset-neuroinflammatory-disorders-targeting-chemokines-cytokines
#10
REVIEW
Michael R Pranzatelli
The concept and recognized components of "neuroinflammation" are expanding at the intersection of neurobiology and immunobiology. Chemokines (CKs), no longer merely necessary for immune cell trafficking and positioning, have multiple physiologic, developmental, and modulatory functionalities in the central nervous system (CNS) through neuron-glia interactions and other mechanisms affecting neurotransmission. They issue the "help me" cry of neurons and astrocytes in response to CNS injury, engaging invading lymphoid cells (T cells and B cells) and myeloid cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils) (adaptive immunity), as well as microglia and macrophages (innate immunity), in a cascade of events, some beneficial (reparative), others destructive (excitotoxic)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663440/temporal-framing-and-the-hidden-zero-effect-rate-dependent-outcomes-on-delay-discounting
#11
Gideon P Naudé, Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, Amy J Henley, Florence D DiGennaro Reed
Recent research suggests that presenting time intervals as units (e.g., days) or as specific dates, can modulate the degree to which humans discount delayed outcomes. Another framing effect involves explicitly stating that choosing a smaller-sooner reward is mutually exclusive to receiving a larger-later reward, thus presenting choices as an extended sequence. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 201) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in a 2 (delay framing) by 2 (zero framing) design...
May 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529411/working-memory-training-improves-alcohol-users-episodic-future-thinking-a-rate-dependent-analysis
#12
Sarah E Snider, Harshawardhan U Deshpande, Jonathan M Lisinski, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Stephen M LaConte, Warren K Bickel
BACKGROUND: Episodic thinking, whether past or future, uses similar neural machinery, and individuals with alcohol dependence have clear challenges with both. Moreover, alcohol-dependent individuals' narrowed temporal window likely gives rise to greater valuation of immediate rewards. We aimed to strengthen working memory (WM) in alcohol-dependent individuals and measure performance on near-transfer (novel WM) and far-transfer delay discounting (DD) tasks, including episodic future thinking (EFT) performance...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490561/waiting-impulsivity-a-distinctive-feature-of-adhd-neuropsychology
#13
Jeroen Van Dessel, Sarah Morsink, Saskia Van der Oord, Jurgen Lemiere, Matthijs Moerkerke, Margaux Grandelis, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Marina Danckaerts
Impulsivity is a core feature of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been conceptualized in a number of different ways. In the current article, we examine how the new concept of "waiting impulsivity", which refers to premature responding before a scheduled target appears, adds to our understanding of impulsivity in ADHD. Sixty children (8-12 years old; 30 ADHD; 30 typically developing controls) completed the 4-choice serial reaction time task, a measure of waiting impulsivity, alongside tasks measuring inhibitory control and temporal discounting and questionnaires measuring behavioral disorder symptoms, delay aversion, and various aspects of impulsivity...
February 28, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380679/effect-of-motion-perception-on-intertemporal-choice-is-associated-with-the-altered-time-perception
#14
Xianchun Li, Di Yuan, Ying Fan, Chao Yan, Liangcai Gao
Intertemporal choice refers to the choice between receiving a small immediate reward or a large delayed one. Previous studies have indicated that time perception plays a critical role in the intertemporal choice, and it could be affected by the features of the target stimulus in the time reproduction task, such as speed of movement and state of motion. However, there is no evidence about whether backward or forward motion perception could alter the intertemporal choice. Thus, in our current study, 29 participants were asked to perform two tasks in a random order...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373590/risk-preferences-impose-a-hidden-distortion-on-measures-of-choice-impulsivity
#15
Silvia Lopez-Guzman, Anna B Konova, Kenway Louie, Paul W Glimcher
Measuring temporal discounting through the use of intertemporal choice tasks is now the gold standard method for quantifying human choice impulsivity (impatience) in neuroscience, psychology, behavioral economics, public health and computational psychiatry. A recent area of growing interest is individual differences in discounting levels, as these may predispose to (or protect from) mental health disorders, addictive behaviors, and other diseases. At the same time, more and more studies have been dedicated to the quantification of individual attitudes towards risk, which have been measured in many clinical and non-clinical populations using closely related techniques...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366699/a-meta-analytical-review-of-brain-activity-associated-with-intertemporal-decisions-evidence-for-an-anterior-posterior-tangibility-axis
#16
REVIEW
Benjamin J Smith, John R Monterosso, Cheryl J Wakslak, Antoine Bechara, Stephen J Read
In temporal discounting experiments, subjects are repeatedly presented with option sets in which they must choose between receiving a small amount of money sooner (SmallerSooner) or a larger amount of money at a more distant point in time (LargerLater). Although over 50 temporal discounting experiments using fMRI are described in literature, there has not been a meta-analysis identifying regions activated when subjects choose SmallerSooner versus LargerLater alternatives. Evidence suggests a prefrontal cortex 'abstraction hierarchy', from abstract planning in more anterior regions to concrete processing in posterior regions...
March 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306836/the-effect-of-hydrocortisone-administration-on-intertemporal-choice
#17
Michala Iben Riis-Vestergaard, Vanessa van Ast, Sandra Cornelisse, Marian Joëls, Johannes Haushofer
Intertemporal choices - decisions involving trade-offs of outcomes at different points in time - are often made under stress. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in the release of corticosteroids. Recent studies provide evidence that corticosteroids can induce rapid non-genomic effects focused on immediate resolution of the stressful situation, followed by slower genomic effects focused on long-term recovery after stress. It remains unknown, however, how corticosteroids affect intertemporal choice...
February 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249452/measuring-self-efficacy-executive-function-and-temporal-discounting-in-kenya
#18
Kristina Esopo, Daniel Mellow, Catherine Thomas, Hannah Uckat, Justin Abraham, Prachi Jain, Chaning Jang, Nicholas Otis, Michala Riis-Vestergaard, Amanda Starcev, Kate Orkin, Johannes Haushofer
Developing countries have low adherence to medical regimens like water chlorination or antenatal and postnatal care, contributing to high infant and child mortality rates. We hypothesize that high levels of stress affect adherence through temporal discounting, self-efficacy, and executive control. Measurement of these constructs in developing countries requires adaptation of existing measures. In the current study, we adapt psychological scales and behavioral tasks, measuring each of these three constructs, for use among adults in Kenya...
February 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166658/episodic-future-thinking-reduces-temporal-discounting-in-healthy-adolescents
#19
Uli Bromberg, Maria Lobatcheva, Jan Peters
Episodic Future Thinking has proven efficient in reducing impulsive behavior in several adult populations. Whether it also has a beneficial impact on decision making in adolescents is not known. Here the impact of episodic future thinking on discounting behavior was investigated in a sample of healthy adolescents (n = 44, age range 13-16 years). Discounting behavior in trials including episodic future thinking was significantly less impulsive than in control trials (t = 2.74, p = .009, dz = .44). In a subsample we controlled for executive function, alcohol use and developmental measures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156065/examining-exercise-in-older-adults-using-the-theory-of-planned-behavior-and-temporal-discounting
#20
Linda M Tate, Pao-Feng Tsai, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Reid D Landes, Leanne L Lefler, Keneshia Bryant-Moore
Exercise is one of the most important health behaviors to reduce and prevent the severity of many chronic diseases. The purpose of the current study was to determine if adding temporal discounting (TD) would affect the predictability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in exercising among older adults. One hundred thirty-seven older adults were recruited from 11 churches in rural Arkansas using a cross-sectional design. Information regarding participants' exercise behavior, constructs of the TPB, TD rates, and demographics was collected...
November 1, 2017: Research in Gerontological Nursing
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