keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Temporal discounting

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867498/bone-muscle-crosstalk-targets-muscle-regeneration-pathway-regulated-by-core-circadian-transcriptional-repressors-dec1-and-dec2
#1
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Gorski, Jeffrey L Price
Deletion of proprotein convertase Mbtps1 in bone osteocytes leads to a significant postnatal increase in skeletal muscle size and contractile function, while causing only a 25% increase in stiffness in long bones. Concerns about leakiness in skeletal muscle were discounted since Cre recombinase expression does not account for our findings, and, Mbtps1 protein and mRNA is not deleted. Interestingly, the response of normal skeletal muscle to exercise and the regenerative response of skeletal muscle to the deletion of Mbtps1 in bone share some key regulatory features including a preference for slow twitch muscle fibers...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818375/time-discounting-and-tobacco-smoking-a-systematic-review-and-network-analysis
#2
Pepita Barlow, Martin McKee, Aaron Reeves, Gauden Galea, David Stuckler
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking harms health, so why do people smoke and fail to quit? An explanation originating in behavioural economics suggests a role for time-discounting, which describes how the value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. A large number of studies test the relationship of time-discounting with tobacco outcomes but the temporal pattern of this relationship and its variation according to measurement methods remain unclear. We review the association between time-discounting and smoking across (i) the life course, from initiation to cessation, and (ii) diverse discount measures...
November 6, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817906/temporal-discounting-and-emotional-self-regulation-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Daniel Augusto Utsumi, Mônica Carolina Miranda, Mauro Muszkat
Temporal Discounting (TD) reflects a tendency to discount a reward more deeply the longer its delivery is delayed. TD tasks and behavioral scales have been used to investigate 'hot' executive functions in ADHD. The present study analyzed TD task performance shown by ADHD and control groups for correlations with emotional self-regulation metrics from two scales, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Children (ages 8-12) with ADHD (n=25) and controls (n=24) were assessed using material rewards (toys) for three types of task: Hypothetical (H); Hypothetical with temporal expectation (HTE); and Real (R)...
October 29, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806865/altered-neural-efficiency-of-decision-making-during-temporal-reward-discounting-in-anorexia-nervosa
#4
Joseph A King, Daniel Geisler, Fabio Bernardoni, Franziska Ritschel, Ilka Böhm, Maria Seidel, Eva Mennigen, Stephan Ripke, Michael N Smolka, Veit Roessner, Stefan Ehrlich
OBJECTIVE: The ability of individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) to resist hunger and restrict caloric intake is often believed to reflect an unusual amount of self-control. However, the underlying neural substrate is poorly understood, especially in adolescent patients. METHOD: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used during an intertemporal choice task to probe the hemodynamic correlates of a common measurement of self-control-delayed (monetary) reward discounting-in a sample of acutely ill, predominately adolescent female patients with AN (n = 31) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 31)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785126/temporal-dynamics-of-the-interaction-between-reward-and-time-delay-during-intertemporal-choice
#5
Dan-Yang Gui, Jin-Zhen Li, Xiaoli Li, Yue-Jia Luo
Intertemporal choice involves the processes of valuation and choice. Choice is often the result of subjective valuation, in which reward is integrated with time delay. Here, using event-related potential (ERP) signals as temporal hallmarks, we aim to investigate temporal dynamics of how reward interacts with time delay during a delayed discounting task. We found that participants preferred immediate rewards when delayed rewards were small or over long-term delays. Our ERP results suggested that the P200 component reflected an initial valuation of reward and time delay, while the frontal N2 component correlated with individual choices of immediate option of rewards...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779911/neural-systems-underlying-individual-differences-in-intertemporal-decision-making
#6
Amanda Elton, Christopher T Smith, Michael H Parrish, Charlotte A Boettiger
Excessively choosing immediate over larger future rewards, or delay discounting (DD), associates with multiple clinical conditions. Individual differences in DD likely depend on variations in the activation of and functional interactions between networks, representing possible endophenotypes for associated disorders, including alcohol use disorders. Numerous fMRI studies have probed the neural bases of DD, but investigations of large-scale networks remain scant. We addressed this gap by testing whether activation within large-scale networks during Now/Later decision-making predicts individual differences in DD...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774513/brain-stimulation-reveals-crucial-role-of-overcoming-self-centeredness-in-self-control
#7
Alexander Soutschek, Christian C Ruff, Tina Strombach, Tobias Kalenscher, Philippe N Tobler
Neurobiological models of self-control predominantly focus on the role of prefrontal brain mechanisms involved in emotion regulation and impulse control. We provide evidence for an entirely different neural mechanism that promotes self-control by overcoming bias for the present self, a mechanism previously thought to be mainly important for interpersonal decision-making. In two separate studies, we show that disruptive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the temporo-parietal junction-a brain region involved in overcoming one's self-centered perspective-increases the discounting of delayed and prosocial rewards...
October 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709606/-we-want-the-world-and-we-want-it-now-materialism-time-perspectives-and-problem-spending-tendency-of-chinese
#8
Lisbeth Ku, Anise M S Wu, Angie K P Lao, Kerwin I N Lam
Chinese consumers' spending has been expanding rapidly in the past decade, and along with it household and credit card debt. The present research collected evidence to triangulate the contention that materialism is positively related with Chinese's problem spending tendency (PST), and that present-time-perspective (PTP) and future-time perspectives (FTP) interact systematically with materialism to affect PST. A survey of the general population in Macao, China (Study 1; N = 239) confirmed that materialism was positively correlated with PST...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703440/anodal-stimulation-of-the-left-dlpfc-increases-igt-scores-and-decreases-delay-discounting-rate-in-healthy-males
#9
Qinghua He, Mei Chen, Chuansheng Chen, Gui Xue, Tingyong Feng, Antoine Bechara
Previous correlational imaging studies have implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in decision making. Using High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS), the present study directly investigated the causal role of the DLPFC in performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Inter-Temporal Choice (ITC) task. Three experiments were conducted: Experiment 1 (N = 41) to study the left DLPFC, Experiment 2 (N = 49) to study the right DLPFC, and Experiment 3 (N = 20, a subset of those in Experiment 1) to switch the experimental and control conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695663/adolescent-cellphone-use-while-driving-an-overview-of-the-literature-and-promising-future-directions-for-prevention
#10
M Kit Delgado, Kathryn J Wanner, Catherine McDonald
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in adolescents, and drivers aged 16-19 are the most likely to die in distracted driving crashes. This paper provides an overview of the literature on adolescent cellphone use while driving, focusing on the crash risk, incidence, risk factors for engagement, and the effectiveness of current mitigation strategies. We conclude by discussing promising future approaches to prevent crashes related to cellphone use in adolescents. Handheld manipulation of the phone while driving has been shown to have a 3 to 4-fold increased risk of a near crash or crash, and eye glance duration greater than 2 seconds increases crash risk exponentially...
June 16, 2016: Media and Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693228/a-systematic-review-of-temporal-discounting-in-eating-disorders-and-obesity-behavioural-and-neuroimaging-findings
#11
REVIEW
Jessica McClelland, Bethan Dalton, Maria Kekic, Savani Bartholdy, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Eating Disorders (ED) and obesity are suggested to involve a spectrum of self-regulatory control difficulties. Temporal discounting (TD) tasks have been used to explore this idea. This systematic review examines behavioural and neuroimaging TD data in ED and obesity. METHOD: Using PRISMA guidelines, we reviewed relevant articles in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase from inception until 17th August 2016. Studies that reported behavioural differences in TD and/or TD neuroimaging data in ED/obesity were included...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663667/the-temporal-window-of-valuation-is-constricted-among-adolescent-smokers
#12
Amanda J Quisenberry, Alexander Bianco, Kirstin M Gatchalian, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Warren K Bickel
Healthy decisions are associated with valuation of the future whereas unhealthy decisions are associated with devaluation of the future. Comparisons of future discounting of delayed rewards in adolescent smokers and non-smokers have been equivocal and past discounting of monetary gains has not been reported in adolescents. Here, adolescents completed future and past delay discounting tasks. A mixed-model analysis of covariance using a model with the lowest Bayesian Information Criterion revealed that adolescents discount the past more than the future and smokers discount more than non-smokers...
September 20, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662886/heightened-early-attentional-stimulus-orienting-and-impulsive-action-in-men-with-antisocial-personality-disorder
#13
Marijn Lijffijt, Scott D Lane, Sanjay J Mathew, Matthew S Stanford, Alan C Swann
We tested whether enhanced stimulus orienting operationalized as N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials to increasing loudness (50-90 dB clicks) could be associated with trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11), impulsive action (commission error on the Immediate Memory Task), or impulsive choice (immediate responses on temporal discounting tasks). We measured N1 and P2 loudness sensitivity in a passive listening task as linear intensity-sensitivity slopes in 36 men with antisocial personality disorder with a history of conviction for criminal conduct and 16 healthy control men...
September 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644448/syntax-for-calculation-of-discounting-indices-from-the-monetary-choice-questionnaire-and-probability-discounting-questionnaire
#14
Joshua C Gray, Michael T Amlung, Abraham A Palmer, James MacKillop
The 27-item Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ; Kirby, Petry, & Bickel, 1999) and 30-item Probability Discounting Questionnaire (PDQ; Madden, Petry, & Johnson, 2009) are widely used, validated measures of preferences for immediate versus delayed rewards and guaranteed versus risky rewards, respectively. The MCQ measures delayed discounting by asking individuals to choose between rewards available immediately and larger rewards available after a delay. The PDQ measures probability discounting by asking individuals to choose between guaranteed rewards and a chance at winning larger rewards...
September 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631760/stuck-in-time-negative-income-shock-constricts-the-temporal-window-of-valuation-spanning-the-future-and-the-past
#15
Warren K Bickel, A George Wilson, Chen Chen, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Christopher T Franck
Insufficient resources are associated with negative consequences including decreased valuation of future reinforcers. To determine if these effects result from scarcity, we examined the consequences of acute, abrupt changes in resource availability on delay discounting-the subjective devaluation of rewards as delay to receipt increases. In the current study, 599 individuals recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk read a narrative of a sudden change (positive, neutral, or negative) to one's hypothetical future income and completed a delay discounting task examining future and past monetary gains and losses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624437/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-modulates-sensitivity-to-decision-outcome-value-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Ben Seymour, Michael Barbe, Peter Dayan, Tamara Shiner, Ray Dolan, Gereon R Fink
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease is known to cause a subtle but important adverse impact on behaviour, with impulsivity its most widely reported manifestation. However, precisely which computational components of the decision process are modulated is not fully understood. Here we probe a number of distinct subprocesses, including temporal discount, outcome utility, instrumental learning rate, instrumental outcome sensitivity, reward-loss trade-offs, and perseveration...
September 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621720/task-based-and-questionnaire-measures-of-inhibitory-control-are-differentially-affected-by-acute-food-restriction-and-by-motivationally-salient-food-stimuli-in-healthy-adults
#17
Savani Bartholdy, Jiumu Cheng, Ulrike Schmidt, Iain C Campbell, Owen G O'Daly
Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617711/delay-discounting-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Sara Coelho, Manuela Guerreiro, Catarina Chester, Dina Silva, João Maroco, Fabio Paglieri, Alexandre de Mendonça
INTRODUCTION: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may make suboptimal decisions particularly in complex situations, and this could be due to temporal discounting, the tendency to prefer immediate rewards over delayed but larger rewards. The present study proposes to evaluate intertemporal preferences in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. METHOD: Fifty-five patients with MCI and 57 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological evaluation and a delay discounting questionnaire, which evaluates three parameters: hyperbolic discounting (k), the percentage of choices for delayed and later rewards (%LL), and response consistency (Acc)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565516/proactive-inhibition-an-element-of-inhibitory-control-in-eating-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Savani Bartholdy, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt, Owen G O'Daly
The aetiology of eating disorders (EDs) is unclear, but many hypotheses implicate alterations in behavioural control. Specifically and because of its relevance to symptomatology, there has been much interest in inhibitory control, i.e., the ability to inhibit inappropriate/unwanted behaviours. This has been studied in relation to reactive motor inhibition (withholding a response in reaction to a signal), reward-based inhibition (e.g., temporal discounting paradigms) and to reversal learning (e.g., set shifting tasks assessing cognitive flexibility and compulsivity)...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557798/gain-loss-asymmetry-in-neural-correlates-of-temporal-discounting-an-approach-avoidance-motivation-perspective
#20
Yang-Yang Zhang, Lijuan Xu, Li-Lin Rao, Lei Zhou, Yuan Zhou, Tianzi Jiang, Shu Li, Zhu-Yuan Liang
Gain-loss asymmetry in temporal discounting (i.e., when individuals discount gains more than losses) has been implicated in numerous problematic and addictive behaviors, resulting in enormous personal and societal costs. On the basis of findings from a previous study, we speculated that approach-avoidance motivation would modulate gain-loss asymmetry. To test this speculation, we examined the effects of motivation on gain-loss asymmetry by analyzing functional connectivity. We found that approach and avoidance motivation were negatively associated with functional connectivity between the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and functional connectivity between the MOFC and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in the gain domain...
2016: Scientific Reports
keyword
keyword
77407
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"