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Temporal discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663440/temporal-framing-and-the-hidden-zero-effect-rate-dependent-outcomes-on-delay-discounting
#1
Gideon P Naudé, Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, Amy J Henley, Florence D DiGennaro Reed
Recent research suggests that presenting time intervals as units (e.g., days) or as specific dates, can modulate the degree to which humans discount delayed outcomes. Another framing effect involves explicitly stating that choosing a smaller-sooner reward is mutually exclusive to receiving a larger-later reward, thus presenting choices as an extended sequence. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 201) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in a 2 (delay framing) by 2 (zero framing) design...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529411/working-memory-training-improves-alcohol-users-episodic-future-thinking-a-rate-dependent-analysis
#2
Sarah E Snider, Harshawardhan U Deshpande, Jonathan M Lisinski, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Stephen M LaConte, Warren K Bickel
BACKGROUND: Episodic thinking, whether past or future, uses similar neural machinery, and individuals with alcohol dependence have clear challenges with both. Moreover, alcohol-dependent individuals' narrowed temporal window likely gives rise to greater valuation of immediate rewards. We aimed to strengthen working memory (WM) in alcohol-dependent individuals and measure performance on near-transfer (novel WM) and far-transfer delay discounting (DD) tasks, including episodic future thinking (EFT) performance...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490561/waiting-impulsivity-a-distinctive-feature-of-adhd-neuropsychology
#3
Jeroen Van Dessel, Sarah Morsink, Saskia Van der Oord, Jurgen Lemiere, Matthijs Moerkerke, Margaux Grandelis, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Marina Danckaerts
Impulsivity is a core feature of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been conceptualized in a number of different ways. In the current article, we examine how the new concept of "waiting impulsivity", which refers to premature responding before a scheduled target appears, adds to our understanding of impulsivity in ADHD. Sixty children (8-12 years old; 30 ADHD; 30 typically developing controls) completed the 4-choice serial reaction time task, a measure of waiting impulsivity, alongside tasks measuring inhibitory control and temporal discounting and questionnaires measuring behavioral disorder symptoms, delay aversion, and various aspects of impulsivity...
February 28, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380679/effect-of-motion-perception-on-intertemporal-choice-is-associated-with-the-altered-time-perception
#4
Xianchun Li, Di Yuan, Ying Fan, Chao Yan, Liangcai Gao
Intertemporal choice refers to the choice between receiving a small immediate reward or a large delayed one. Previous studies have indicated that time perception plays a critical role in the intertemporal choice, and it could be affected by the features of the target stimulus in the time reproduction task, such as speed of movement and state of motion. However, there is no evidence about whether backward or forward motion perception could alter the intertemporal choice. Thus, in our current study, 29 participants were asked to perform two tasks in a random order...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373590/risk-preferences-impose-a-hidden-distortion-on-measures-of-choice-impulsivity
#5
Silvia Lopez-Guzman, Anna B Konova, Kenway Louie, Paul W Glimcher
Measuring temporal discounting through the use of intertemporal choice tasks is now the gold standard method for quantifying human choice impulsivity (impatience) in neuroscience, psychology, behavioral economics, public health and computational psychiatry. A recent area of growing interest is individual differences in discounting levels, as these may predispose to (or protect from) mental health disorders, addictive behaviors, and other diseases. At the same time, more and more studies have been dedicated to the quantification of individual attitudes towards risk, which have been measured in many clinical and non-clinical populations using closely related techniques...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366699/a-meta-analytical-review-of-brain-activity-associated-with-intertemporal-decisions-evidence-for-an-anterior-posterior-tangibility-axis
#6
REVIEW
Benjamin J Smith, John R Monterosso, Cheryl J Wakslak, Antoine Bechara, Stephen J Read
In temporal discounting experiments, subjects are repeatedly presented with option sets in which they must choose between receiving a small amount of money sooner (SmallerSooner) or a larger amount of money at a more distant point in time (LargerLater). Although over 50 temporal discounting experiments using fMRI are described in literature, there has not been a meta-analysis identifying regions activated when subjects choose SmallerSooner versus LargerLater alternatives. Evidence suggests a prefrontal cortex 'abstraction hierarchy', from abstract planning in more anterior regions to concrete processing in posterior regions...
March 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306836/the-effect-of-hydrocortisone-administration-on-intertemporal-choice
#7
Michala Iben Riis-Vestergaard, Vanessa van Ast, Sandra Cornelisse, Marian Joëls, Johannes Haushofer
Intertemporal choices - decisions involving trade-offs of outcomes at different points in time - are often made under stress. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in the release of corticosteroids. Recent studies provide evidence that corticosteroids can induce rapid non-genomic effects focused on immediate resolution of the stressful situation, followed by slower genomic effects focused on long-term recovery after stress. It remains unknown, however, how corticosteroids affect intertemporal choice...
February 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249452/measuring-self-efficacy-executive-function-and-temporal-discounting-in-kenya
#8
Kristina Esopo, Daniel Mellow, Catherine Thomas, Hannah Uckat, Justin Abraham, Prachi Jain, Chaning Jang, Nicholas Otis, Michala Riis-Vestergaard, Amanda Starcev, Kate Orkin, Johannes Haushofer
Developing countries have low adherence to medical regimens like water chlorination or antenatal and postnatal care, contributing to high infant and child mortality rates. We hypothesize that high levels of stress affect adherence through temporal discounting, self-efficacy, and executive control. Measurement of these constructs in developing countries requires adaptation of existing measures. In the current study, we adapt psychological scales and behavioral tasks, measuring each of these three constructs, for use among adults in Kenya...
February 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166658/episodic-future-thinking-reduces-temporal-discounting-in-healthy-adolescents
#9
Uli Bromberg, Maria Lobatcheva, Jan Peters
Episodic Future Thinking has proven efficient in reducing impulsive behavior in several adult populations. Whether it also has a beneficial impact on decision making in adolescents is not known. Here the impact of episodic future thinking on discounting behavior was investigated in a sample of healthy adolescents (n = 44, age range 13-16 years). Discounting behavior in trials including episodic future thinking was significantly less impulsive than in control trials (t = 2.74, p = .009, dz = .44). In a subsample we controlled for executive function, alcohol use and developmental measures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156065/examining-exercise-in-older-adults-using-the-theory-of-planned-behavior-and-temporal-discounting
#10
Linda M Tate, Pao-Feng Tsai, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Reid D Landes, Leanne L Lefler, Keneshia Bryant-Moore
Exercise is one of the most important health behaviors to reduce and prevent the severity of many chronic diseases. The purpose of the current study was to determine if adding temporal discounting (TD) would affect the predictability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in exercising among older adults. One hundred thirty-seven older adults were recruited from 11 churches in rural Arkansas using a cross-sectional design. Information regarding participants' exercise behavior, constructs of the TPB, TD rates, and demographics was collected...
November 1, 2017: Research in Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142245/obese-and-overweight-individuals-are-less-sensitive-to-information-about-meal-times-in-portion-size-judgements
#11
A R Zimmerman, A Mason, P J Rogers, J M Brunstrom
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to a tendency to discount the future. Information regarding inter-meal interval (IMI) allows meal planning. We sought to assess how obese, overweight, and lean people select portion sizes based on the length of an IMI. We hypothesised that individuals with a high BMI would discount information about the IMI. In addition, we investigated how reduced sensitivity to IMIs relates to monetary temporal discounting. METHODS: Participants (lean, n=35; overweight, n=31; obese, n=22), selected lunchtime portion sizes in response to information about the timings of their next meal...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134457/thinking-about-others-and-the-future-neural-correlates-of-perspective-taking-relate-to-preferences-for-delayed-rewards
#12
Garret O'Connell, Chun-Ting Hsu, Anastasia Christakou, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
We infer the thoughts and feelings of others by taking their perspectives. Similar processes could be used to understand how we will be affected by future events, by allowing us to take the perspective of our future self. In this paper, we test this idea using a previously presented framework for guiding predictions. The framework proposes that a shared neural mechanism is involved in controlling egocentric bias, both while shifting our perspective away from self and towards others, and while shifting our perspective from immediate to future perspectives...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118403/quantitative-text-feature-analysis-of-autobiographical-interview-data-prediction-of-episodic-details-semantic-details-and-temporal-discounting
#13
J Peters, A Wiehler, U Bromberg
Autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking (i.e. the capacity to project oneself into an imaginary future) are typically assessed using the Autobiographical Interview (AI). In the AI, subjects are provided with verbal cues (e.g. "your wedding day") and are asked to freely recall (or imagine) the cued past (or future) event. Narratives are recorded, transcribed and analyzed using an established manual scoring procedure (Levine et al., 2002). Here we applied automatic text feature extraction methods to a relatively large (n = 86) set of AI data...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113929/interaction-of-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-l-dlpfc-and-right-orbitofrontal-cortex-ofc-in-hot-and-cold-executive-functions-evidence-from-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#14
Vahid Nejati, Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Michael A Nitsche
An organizing principle which has recently emerged proposes that executive functions (EF) can be divided into cognitive (cold) and affective/reward-related (hot) processes related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) respectively. A controversial question is whether cold and hot EF are functionally and structurally independent or not. This study investigated how the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) and right OFC (r-OFC) interact in hot and cold EF using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066960/impaired-latent-inhibition-in-gdnf-deficient-mice-exposed-to-chronic-stress
#15
Mona Buhusi, Colten K Brown, Catalin V Buhusi
Increased reactivity to stress is maladaptive and linked to abnormal behaviors and psychopathology. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) alters catecholaminergic neurotransmission and remodels neuronal circuits involved in learning, attention and decision making. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is essential for the physiology and survival of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra and of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. Up-regulation of GDNF expression during stress is linked to resilience; on the other hand, the inability to up-regulate GDNF in response to stress, as a result of either genetic or epigenetic modifications, induces behavioral alterations...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992268/propranolol-reduces-reference-dependence-in-intertemporal-choice
#16
Karolina M Lempert, Sandra F Lackovic, Russell H Tobe, Paul W Glimcher, Elizabeth A Phelps
In intertemporal choices between immediate and delayed rewards, people tend to prefer immediate rewards, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This is known as temporal discounting. It has been proposed that this tendency emerges because immediate rewards are more emotionally arousing than delayed rewards. However, in our previous research, we found no evidence for this but instead found that arousal responses (indexed with pupil dilation) in intertemporal choice are context-dependent. Specifically, arousal tracks the subjective value of the more variable reward option in the paradigm, whether it is immediate or delayed...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988149/neural-dysfunction-during-temporal-discounting-in-paediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Clodagh Murphy, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Both Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are associated with choice impulsivity, i.e. the tendency to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. However, the extent to which this impulsivity is mediated by shared or distinct underlying neural mechanisms is unclear. Twenty-six boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 matched controls (aged 12-18) completed an fMRI version of an individually adjusted temporal discounting (TD) task which requires choosing between a variable amount of money now or £100 in one week, one month or one year...
November 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877515/neural-congruence-between-intertemporal-and-interpersonal-self-control-evidence-from-delay-and-social-discounting
#18
Paul F Hill, Richard Yi, R Nathan Spreng, Rachel A Diana
Behavioral studies using delay and social discounting as indices of self-control and altruism, respectively, have revealed functional similarities between farsighted and social decisions. However, neural evidence for this functional link is lacking. Twenty-five young adults completed a delay and social discounting task during fMRI scanning. A spatiotemporal partial least squares analysis revealed that both forms of discounting were well characterized by a pattern of brain activity in areas comprising frontoparietal control, default, and mesolimbic reward networks...
November 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862132/the-complex-relationship-of-exposure-to-new-plasmodium-infections-and-incidence-of-clinical-malaria-in-papua-new-guinea
#19
Natalie E Hofmann, Stephan Karl, Rahel Wampfler, Benson Kiniboro, Albina Teliki, Jonah Iga, Andreea Waltmann, Inoni Betuela, Ingrid Felger, Leanne J Robinson, Ivo Mueller
The molecular force of blood-stage infection (molFOB) is a quantitative surrogate metric for malaria transmission at population level and for exposure at individual level. Relationships between molFOB, parasite prevalence and clinical incidence were assessed in a treatment-to-reinfection cohort, where P.vivax (Pv) hypnozoites were eliminated in half the children by primaquine (PQ). Discounting relapses, children acquired equal numbers of new P. falciparum (Pf) and Pv blood-stage infections/year (Pf-molFOB = 0-18, Pv-molFOB = 0-23) resulting in comparable spatial and temporal patterns in incidence and prevalence of infections...
September 1, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857604/kea-nestor-notabilis-decide-early-when-to-wait-in-food-exchange-task
#20
Raoul Schwing, Stefan Weber, Thomas Bugnyar
The ability to forego an immediate reward in favor of a bigger or better one at a later point has been linked with advanced cognitive skills, such as impulse control and forward-planning, and can be assessed by the classic food exchange paradigm. While the ability to perform in such tasks has long been regarded as an exclusive trait of humans and some mammals, that is, primates and dogs, in recent years some bird species have been found to perform similarly as primates. Here we test 10 captive kea (Nestor notabilis), using a food exchange paradigm standardized in earlier experiments, but adding the use of a container to hold the initial item...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
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