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Temporal discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416327/executive-functioning-and-substance-use-in-adolescence-neurobiological-and-behavioral-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Rachel E Kahn, Nina Lauharatanahirun, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Warren K Bickel, Pearl H Chiu, Brooks King-Casas
The current review is guided by the theoretical perspective that emphasizes the regulating role of executive functioning (Carver, Johnson, & Joormann, 2009) and presents studies that elucidate the ways that executive functioning (inhibition and working memory) explain individual differences in adolescent substance use independently or by regulating the reactive system (reward and punishment sensitivity). Behavioral studies indicate that main effects of executive functioning on adolescent substance use are often nonsignificant or weak in effect sizes...
April 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414355/experimental-study-of-temporal-spatial-binary-pattern-projection-for-3d-shape-acquisition
#2
Pei Zhou, Jiangping Zhu, Xianyu Su, Zhisheng You, Hailong Jing, Chao Xiao, Min Zhong
Three-dimensional (3D) acquisition of an object with modest accuracy and speed is of particular concern in practice. The performance of digital sinusoidal fringe pattern projection using an off-the-shelf digital video projector is generally discounted by the nonlinearity and low switch rate. In this paper, a binary encoding method to encode one computer-generated standard sinusoidal fringe pattern is presented for circumventing such deficiencies. In previous work [Opt. Eng.54, 054108 (2015)OPEGAR0091-328610...
April 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411154/neural-mechanisms-of-individual-differences-in-temporal-discounting-of-monetary-and-primary-rewards-in-adolescents
#3
Erik de Water, Gabry W Mies, Bernd Figner, Yuliya Yoncheva, Wouter van den Bos, F Xavier Castellanos, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk Scheres
Adolescents are generally characterized as impulsive. However, impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that involves multiple component processes. Which of these components contribute to adolescent impulsivity is currently unclear. This study focused on the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in distinct components of temporal discounting (TD), i.e., the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Participants were 58 adolescents (12-16 years-old) who performed an fMRI TD task with both monetary and snack rewards...
April 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368193/impact-bias-or-underestimation-outcome-specifications-predict-the-direction-of-affective-forecasting-errors
#4
Eva C Buechel, Jiao Zhang, Carey K Morewedge
Affective forecasts are used to anticipate the hedonic impact of future events and decide which events to pursue or avoid. We propose that because affective forecasters are more sensitive to outcome specifications of events than experiencers, the outcome specification values of an event, such as its duration, magnitude, probability, and psychological distance, can be used to predict the direction of affective forecasting errors: whether affective forecasters will overestimate or underestimate its hedonic impact...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356145/adoption-of-innovative-and-evidence-based-practices-for-children-and-adolescents-in-state-supported-mental-health-clinics-a-qualitative-study
#5
Lawrence A Palinkas, Mee Young Um, Chung Hyeon Jeong, Ka Ho Brian Chor, Serene Olin, Sarah M Horwitz, Kimberly E Hoagwood
BACKGROUND: This study examined how mental health clinic administrators decided whether or not to adopt evidence-based and other innovative practices by exploring their views of implementation barriers and facilitators and operation of these views in assessment of implementation costs and benefits. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 agency chief executive officers and program directors of 34 New York State-licensed mental health clinics serving children and adolescents...
March 29, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352226/cognitive-control-modulates-effects-of-episodic-simulation-on-delay-discounting-in-aging
#6
Laura K Sasse, Jan Peters, Stefanie Brassen
Enhancing prospective thinking by tagging the future with specific episodic events has been shown to reduce delay discounting in young age ("tag-effect"). So far, it is unclear whether such beneficial effect extends to old adulthood. Since the general ability of future thinking and cognitive control are crucial modulators of temporal discounting in young age, potential age-related decline in these functions might impact on the effect. We focused on this issue by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with an established intertemporal choice task including episodic "tags" in healthy older participants...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345215/temporal-discounting-and-the-tendency-to-delay-gratification-across-the-eating-disorder-spectrum
#7
Savani Bartholdy, Samantha Rennalls, Hollie Danby, Claire Jacques, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt, Owen G O'Daly
Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) have been associated with poorer reward-related inhibitory control, reflected by a reduced tendency to delay gratification. The opposite has been reported in anorexia nervosa (AN), but differences have not been directly compared across eating disorders (EDs). This study investigated self-reported (Delaying Gratification Inventory) and task-based (temporal discounting) inhibitory control in 66 women with an ED and 28 healthy controls (HCs). Poorer task-based inhibitory control was observed in the BN compared with the AN group and poorer self-reported inhibitory control in the BN and in the BED groups compared with the AN and the HC groups, suggesting that reward-related inhibitory control varies across EDs...
March 27, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314950/-waiting-impulsivity-in-isolation-reared-and-socially-reared-rats-effects-of-amphetamine
#8
Yia-Ping Liu, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Rats reared in social isolation exhibit various cognitive and behavioural abnormalities in adulthood. However, impulsivity following this treatment still remains unclear, especially in response to medications used in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, such as amphetamine. METHODS: Using an isolation-rearing (IR) manipulation, the present study examined the effects of IR on impulsive action and impulsive choice when also treated with doses of D-amphetamine, by employing the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and a temporal discounting of reward task (TDRT), respectively...
March 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300478/step-by-step-harvesting-the-dynamics-of-delay-discounting-decisions
#9
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Maja Dshemuchadse
People show a tendency to devalue rewards when they are delayed in time. This so-called delay discounting often happens to an extent that seems irrational from an economical perspective. Research studying outcomes of delay discounting decisions has successfully derived descriptive models for such choice preferences. However, this outcome-based approach faces limitations in integrating the influence of contextual factors on the decision. Recently, this outcome-centred perspective on delay discounting has been complemented by a focus on the process dynamics leading to delay discounting decisions...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289888/value-based-decision-making-battery-a-bayesian-adaptive-approach-to-assess-impulsive-and-risky-behavior
#10
Shakoor Pooseh, Nadine Bernhardt, Alvaro Guevara, Quentin J M Huys, Michael N Smolka
Using simple mathematical models of choice behavior, we present a Bayesian adaptive algorithm to assess measures of impulsive and risky decision making. Practically, these measures are characterized by discounting rates and are used to classify individuals or population groups, to distinguish unhealthy behavior, and to predict developmental courses. However, a constant demand for improved tools to assess these constructs remains unanswered. The algorithm is based on trial-by-trial observations. At each step, a choice is made between immediate (certain) and delayed (risky) options...
March 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282631/does-goal-relevant-episodic-future-thinking-amplify-the-effect-on-delay-discounting
#11
Sara O'Donnell, Tinuke Oluyomi Daniel, Leonard H Epstein
Delay discounting (DD) is the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Research shows episodic future thinking (EFT), or mentally simulating future experiences, reframes the choice between small immediate and larger delayed rewards, and can reduce DD. Only general EFT has been studied, whereby people reframe decisions in terms of non-goal related future events. Since future thinking is often goal-oriented and leads to greater activation of brain regions involved in prospection, goal-oriented EFT may be associated with greater reductions in DD than general goal-unrelated EFT...
March 7, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260842/time-discounting-and-credit-market-access-in-a-large-scale-cash-transfer-programme
#12
Sudhanshu Handa, Bruno Martorano, Carolyn Halpern, Audrey Pettifor, Harsha Thirumurthy
Time discounting is thought to influence decision-making in almost every sphere of life, including personal finances, diet, exercise and sexual behavior. In this article we provide evidence on whether a national poverty alleviation program in Kenya can affect inter-temporal decisions. We administered a preferences module as part of a large-scale impact evaluation of the Kenyan Government's Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children. Four years into the program we find that individuals in the treatment group are only marginally more likely to wait for future money, due in part to the erosion of the value of the transfer by inflation...
June 2016: Journal of African Economies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258827/impulsivity-predicts-weight-loss-after-obesity-surgery
#13
Myutan Kulendran, Leah Borovoi, Sanjay Purkayastha, Ara Darzi, Ivo Vlaev
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that executive function, and specifically inhibitory control, is related to obesity and eating behavior. The goal of this study was to determine whether personality traits and inhibitory control predict weight loss after bariatric procedures. Although the impressive weight reduction after bariatric surgery has been shown in short- and medium-term studies, the effect of personality traits on this reduction is uncertain. Specifically, the effect of impulsivity is still largely unknown...
January 4, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225034/simulating-future-value-in-intertemporal-choice
#14
Alec Solway, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
The laboratory study of how humans and other animals trade-off value and time has a long and storied history, and is the subject of a vast literature. However, despite a long history of study, there is no agreed upon mechanistic explanation of how intertemporal choice preferences arise. Several theorists have recently proposed model-based reinforcement learning as a candidate framework. This framework describes a suite of algorithms by which a model of the environment, in the form of a state transition function and reward function, can be converted on-line into a decision...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214123/a-tool-for-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-field-scale-sediment-bound-phosphorus-mitigation-measures-and-application-to-analysis-of-spatial-and-temporal-targeting-in-the-lunan-water-catchment-scotland
#15
Andy Vinten, James Sample, Adekunle Ibiyemi, Yakubu Abdul-Salam, Marc Stutter
The cost-effectiveness of six edge-of-field measures for mitigating diffuse pollution from sediment bound phosphorus (P) runoff from temperate arable farmland is analysed at catchment/field scales. These measures were: buffer strips, permanent grassland in the lowest 7% of arable fields, dry detention bunds, wetlands, and temporary barriers such as sediment fences. Baseline field P export was estimated using export coefficients (low risk crops) or a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (high risk crops). The impact of measures was estimated using simple equations...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198452/undervaluing-delayed-rewards-explains-adolescents-impulsivity-in-inter-temporal-choice-an-erp-study
#16
Yunyun Huang, Ping Hu, Xueting Li
Adolescence has frequently been characterized as a period of choice impulsivity relative to adulthood. According to the control-integrated valuation model of inter-temporal choice, this choice impulsivity may be driven partly by an age-related difference in reward processing. We hypothesized that, compared to adults, adolescents would undervalue delayed rewards during reward processing and would thus be more impulsive in inter-temporal choice. To test this hypothesis at the behavioural and neural levels, we first measured the choice impulsivity of 18 adolescents and 19 adults using a delay discounting task (DDT)...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188866/does-a-future-oriented-temporal-perspective-relate-to-body-mass-index-eating-and-exercise-a-meta-analysis
#17
Allison M Sweeney, Ileana Culcea
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to quantify the magnitude of the association between future temporal perspective and Body Mass Index (BMI), diet, and exercise, respectively, and to clarify whether subjective future-focus scales or delay-discounting tasks are a more robust predictor of health behaviors. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for studies that included a dispositional measure of future temporal perspective and a measure of BMI, eating, and/or exercise behavior...
February 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174528/anxious-individuals-are-impulsive-decision-makers-in-the-delay-discounting-task-an-erp-study
#18
Lisheng Xia, Ruolei Gu, Dandan Zhang, Yuejia Luo
Impulsivity, which is linked to a wide range of psychiatric disorders, is often characterized by a preference for immediate but smaller rewards over delayed but larger rewards. However, debate exists on the relationship between anxiety and impulsivity. Here we use event-related potential (ERP) components as biomarkers in the temporal discounting task to examine the effect of anxiety on inter-temporal decision-making. Our behavioral results indicated that the high trait anxiety (HTA) group made significantly more immediate choices than the low trait anxiety (LTA) group...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174525/cardiac-signals-are-independently-associated-with-temporal-discounting-and-time-perception
#19
Bowen J Fung, Damien L Crone, Stefan Bode, Carsten Murawski
Cardiac signals reflect the function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and have previously been associated with a range of self-regulatory behaviors such as emotion regulation and memory recall. It is unknown whether cardiac signals may also be associated with self-regulation in the temporal domain, in particular impulsivity. We assessed both decision impulsivity (temporal discounting, TD) and time perception impulsivity (duration reproduction, DR) in 120 participants while they underwent electrocardiography in order to test whether cardiac signals were related to these two aspects of impulsivity...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129914/is-the-rational-addiction-model-inherently-impossible-to-estimate
#20
Audrey Laporte, Adrian Rohit Dass, Brian S Ferguson
The Rational Addiction (RA) model is increasingly often estimated using individual level panel data with mixed results; in particular, with regard to the implied rate of time discount. This paper suggests that the odd values of the rate of discount frequently found in the literature may in fact be a consequence of the saddle-point dynamics associated with individual level inter-temporal optimization problems. We report the results of Monte Carlo experiments estimating RA-type difference equations that seem to suggest the possibility that the presence of both a stable and an unstable root in the dynamic process may create serious problems for the estimation of RA equations...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Health Economics
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