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Temporal discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621556/exposure-to-sexual-stimuli-induces-greater-discounting-leading-to-increased-involvement-in-cyber-delinquency-among-men
#1
Wen Cheng, Wen-Bin Chiou
People frequently encounter sexual stimuli during Internet use. Research has shown that stimuli inducing sexual motivation can lead to greater impulsivity in men, as manifested in greater temporal discounting (i.e., a tendency to prefer smaller, immediate gains to larger, future ones). Extant findings in crime research suggest that delinquents tend to focus on short-term gains while failing to adequately think through the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior. We experimentally tested the possibility that exposure to sexual stimuli is associated with the tendency to engage in cyber delinquency among men, as a result of their overly discounting remote consequences...
June 16, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612049/episodic-tags-enhance-striatal-valuation-signals-during-temporal-discounting-in-pathological-gamblers
#2
Antonius Wiehler, Frederike Hermi Petzschner, Klaas Enno Stephan, Jan Peters
Similar to many addiction disorders, pathological gambling is associated with an increased preference for immediate rewards (steep temporal discounting). In healthy participants, episodic future thinking has been shown to reduce impulsivity during intertemporal choice. Here, we examine for the first time a modulation of temporal discounting via episodic future thinking in a group of pathological gamblers. We investigated a sample of 24 pathological gamblers and 24 matched healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608643/spontaneous-activity-in-the-visual-cortex-is-organized-by-visual-streams
#3
Kun-Han Lu, Jun Young Jeong, Haiguang Wen, Zhongming Liu
Large-scale functional networks have been extensively studied using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the pattern, organization, and function of fine-scale network activity remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the spontaneously emerging visual cortical activity by applying independent component (IC) analysis to resting state fMRI signals exclusively within the visual cortex. In this subsystem scale, we observed about 50 spatially ICs that were reproducible within and across subjects, and analyzed their spatial patterns and temporal relationships to reveal the intrinsic parcellation and organization of the visual cortex...
June 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583411/increased-temporal-discounting-after-chronic-stress-in-chl1-deficient-mice-is-reversed-by-5-ht2c-agonist-ro-60-0175
#4
Mona Buhusi, Kaitlin Olsen, Catalin V Buhusi
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which impaired decision-making and goal-directed behaviors are core features. One of the genes associated with schizophrenia is the Close Homolog of L1 (CHL1); CHL1-deficient mice are considered a model of schizophrenia-like deficits, including sensorimotor gating, interval timing and spatial memory impairments. Here we investigated temporal discounting in CHL1-deficient (KO) mice and their wild-type littermates. Although no discounting differences were found under baseline conditions, CHL1-KO mice showed increased impulsive choice following chronic unpredictable stress (fewer % larger-later choices, and reduced area under the discounting curve)...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581559/the-social-cost-of-methane-theory-and-applications
#5
D T Shindell, J S Fuglestvedt, W J Collins
Methane emissions contribute to global warming, damage public health and reduce the yield of agricultural and forest ecosystems. Quantifying these damages to the planetary commons by calculating the social cost of methane (SCM) facilitates more comprehensive cost-benefit analyses of methane emissions control measures and is the first step to potentially incorporating them into the marketplace. Use of a broad measure of social welfare is also an attractive alternative or supplement to emission metrics focused on a temperature target in a given year as it incentivizes action to provide benefits over a broader range of impacts and timescales...
June 5, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559227/human-centered-design-study-enhancing-the-usability-of-a-mobile-phone-app-in-an-integrated-falls-risk-detection-system-for-use-by-older-adult-users
#6
Richard Harte, Leo R Quinlan, Liam Glynn, Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero, Paul Ma Baker, Thomas Scharf, Gearóid ÓLaighin
BACKGROUND: Design processes such as human-centered design (HCD), which involve the end user throughout the product development and testing process, can be crucial in ensuring that the product meets the needs and capabilities of the user, particularly in terms of safety and user experience. The structured and iterative nature of HCD can often conflict with the necessary rapid product development life-cycles associated with the competitive connected health industry. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to apply a structured HCD methodology to the development of a smartphone app that was to be used within a connected health fall risk detection system...
May 30, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494412/long-term-reliability-and-stability-of-behavioral-measures-among-adolescents-the-delay-discounting-and-stroop-tasks
#7
Víctor Martínez-Loredo, José Ramón Fernández-Hermida, José Luis Carballo, Sergio Fernández-Artamendi
Delay Discounting (DD) and the Stroop test are two fundamental tasks for the assessment of impulsivity and inhibitory control, core features of several behavioral disorders. Although the study of reliability and temporal stability is important, only studies with adults and small samples have been carried out. The aim of this study is to assess the one-year reliability and temporal stability of both tasks among adolescents. A total of 1375 adolescents (M = 13.08 years old, SD = 0.51) made up the final sample (53...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486708/withdrawal-related-changes-in-delay-discounting-predict-short-term-smoking-abstinence
#8
Rickie Miglin, Joseph W Kable, Maureen E Bowers, Rebecca L Ashare
Introduction: Impulsive decision making is associated with smoking behavior and reflects preferences for smaller, immediate rewards and intolerance of temporal delays. Nicotine withdrawal may alter impulsive decision making and time perception. However, little is known about whether withdrawal-related changes in decision making and time perception predict smoking relapse. Methods: Forty-five smokers (14 female) completed two laboratory sessions, one following 24-hour abstinence and one smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced; biochemically verified abstinence)...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467023/the-discounting-model-selector-statistical-software-for-delay-discounting-applications
#9
Shawn P Gilroy, Christopher T Franck, Donald A Hantula
Original, open-source computer software was developed and validated against established delay discounting methods in the literature. The software executed approximate Bayesian model selection methods from user-supplied temporal discounting data and computed the effective delay 50 (ED50) from the best performing model. Software was custom-designed to enable behavior analysts to conveniently apply recent statistical methods to temporal discounting data with the aid of a graphical user interface (GUI). The results of independent validation of the approximate Bayesian model selection methods indicated that the program provided results identical to that of the original source paper and its methods...
May 3, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465167/the-neural-basis-of-delay-discounting-a-review-and-preliminary-model
#10
REVIEW
Ralph Frost, Neil McNaughton
The phenomenology of delay discounting (e.g. shape of the discount function; relation to mental health) has been reviewed in detail previously, but not its neural substrates. Its neuropsychology is crucial for both theory and clinical practice. So, here, we review the neural underpinnings of delay discounting. We introduce its objective summary measures; provide an atheoretical summary of current findings - linking brain regions to each objectively measurable variable; and then provide a preliminary five-stage summary model of cognitive processing; followed by a mapping of parameters to the flow of information through neural systems...
August 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416327/executive-functioning-and-substance-use-in-adolescence-neurobiological-and-behavioral-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Rachel E Kahn, Nina Lauharatanahirun, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Warren K Bickel, Pearl H Chiu, Brooks King-Casas
The current review is guided by the theoretical perspective that emphasizes the regulating role of executive functioning (Carver et al., 2009) and presents studies that elucidate the ways that executive functioning (inhibition and working memory) explain individual differences in adolescent substance use independently or by regulating the reactive system (reward and punishment sensitivity). Behavioral studies indicate that main effects of executive functioning on adolescent substance use are often nonsignificant or weak in effect sizes...
June 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414355/experimental-study-of-temporal-spatial-binary-pattern-projection-for-3d-shape-acquisition
#13
Pei Zhou, Jiangping Zhu, Xianyu Su, Zhisheng You, Hailong Jing, Chao Xiao, Min Zhong
Three-dimensional (3D) acquisition of an object with modest accuracy and speed is of particular concern in practice. The performance of digital sinusoidal fringe pattern projection using an off-the-shelf digital video projector is generally discounted by the nonlinearity and low switch rate. In this paper, a binary encoding method to encode one computer-generated standard sinusoidal fringe pattern is presented for circumventing such deficiencies. In previous work [Opt. Eng.54, 054108 (2015)OPEGAR0091-328610...
April 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411154/neural-mechanisms-of-individual-differences-in-temporal-discounting-of-monetary-and-primary-rewards-in-adolescents
#14
Erik de Water, Gabry W Mies, Bernd Figner, Yuliya Yoncheva, Wouter van den Bos, F Xavier Castellanos, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk Scheres
Adolescents are generally characterized as impulsive. However, impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that involves multiple component processes. Which of these components contribute to adolescent impulsivity is currently unclear. This study focused on the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in distinct components of temporal discounting (TD), i.e., the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Participants were 58 adolescents (12-16 years-old) who performed an fMRI TD task with both monetary and snack rewards...
June 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368193/impact-bias-or-underestimation-outcome-specifications-predict-the-direction-of-affective-forecasting-errors
#15
Eva C Buechel, Jiao Zhang, Carey K Morewedge
Affective forecasts are used to anticipate the hedonic impact of future events and decide which events to pursue or avoid. We propose that because affective forecasters are more sensitive to outcome specifications of events than experiencers, the outcome specification values of an event, such as its duration, magnitude, probability, and psychological distance, can be used to predict the direction of affective forecasting errors: whether affective forecasters will overestimate or underestimate its hedonic impact...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356145/adoption-of-innovative-and-evidence-based-practices-for-children-and-adolescents-in-state-supported-mental-health-clinics-a-qualitative-study
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Lawrence A Palinkas, Mee Young Um, Chung Hyeon Jeong, Ka Ho Brian Chor, Serene Olin, Sarah M Horwitz, Kimberly E Hoagwood
BACKGROUND: This study examined how mental health clinic administrators decided whether or not to adopt evidence-based and other innovative practices by exploring their views of implementation barriers and facilitators and operation of these views in assessment of implementation costs and benefits. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 agency chief executive officers and program directors of 34 New York State-licensed mental health clinics serving children and adolescents...
March 29, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352226/cognitive-control-modulates-effects-of-episodic-simulation-on-delay-discounting-in-aging
#17
Laura K Sasse, Jan Peters, Stefanie Brassen
Enhancing prospective thinking by tagging the future with specific episodic events has been shown to reduce delay discounting in young age ("tag-effect"). So far, it is unclear whether such beneficial effect extends to old adulthood. Since the general ability of future thinking and cognitive control are crucial modulators of temporal discounting in young age, potential age-related decline in these functions might impact on the effect. We focused on this issue by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with an established intertemporal choice task including episodic "tags" in healthy older participants...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345215/temporal-discounting-and-the-tendency-to-delay-gratification-across-the-eating-disorder-spectrum
#18
Savani Bartholdy, Samantha Rennalls, Hollie Danby, Claire Jacques, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt, Owen G O'Daly
Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) have been associated with poorer reward-related inhibitory control, reflected by a reduced tendency to delay gratification. The opposite has been reported in anorexia nervosa (AN), but differences have not been directly compared across eating disorders (EDs). This study investigated self-reported (Delaying Gratification Inventory) and task-based (temporal discounting) inhibitory control in 66 women with an ED and 28 healthy controls (HCs). Poorer task-based inhibitory control was observed in the BN compared with the AN group and poorer self-reported inhibitory control in the BN and in the BED groups compared with the AN and the HC groups, suggesting that reward-related inhibitory control varies across EDs...
March 27, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314950/-waiting-impulsivity-in-isolation-reared-and-socially-reared-rats-effects-of-amphetamine
#19
Yia-Ping Liu, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Rats reared in social isolation exhibit various cognitive and behavioural abnormalities in adulthood. However, impulsivity following this treatment still remains unclear, especially in response to medications used in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, such as amphetamine. METHODS: Using an isolation-rearing (IR) manipulation, the present study examined the effects of IR on impulsive action and impulsive choice when also treated with doses of D-amphetamine, by employing the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and a temporal discounting of reward task (TDRT), respectively...
May 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300478/step-by-step-harvesting-the-dynamics-of-delay-discounting-decisions
#20
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Maja Dshemuchadse
People show a tendency to devalue rewards when they are delayed in time. This so-called delay discounting often happens to an extent that seems irrational from an economical perspective. Research studying outcomes of delay discounting decisions has successfully derived descriptive models for such choice preferences. However, this outcome-based approach faces limitations in integrating the influence of contextual factors on the decision. Recently, this outcome-centred perspective on delay discounting has been complemented by a focus on the process dynamics leading to delay discounting decisions...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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