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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328393/paediatric-virology-and-its-interaction-between-basic-science-and-clinical-practice-review
#1
Ioannis N Mammas, Anne Greenough, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Maria Rusan, Angeliki Melidou, Paraskevi Korovessi, Georgia Papaioannou, Alexia Papatheodoropoulou, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Maria Liston, George Sourvinos, Demetrios A Spandidos
The 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on October 7th, 2017 in Athens, Greece, highlighted the role of breast feeding in the prevention of viral infections during the first years of life. Moreover, it focused on the long-term outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections in prematurely born infants and emphasised the necessity for the development of relevant preventative strategies. Other topics that were covered included the vaccination policy in relation to the migration crisis, mother‑to‑child transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, vaccination against human papilloma viruses in boys and advances on intranasal live‑attenuated vaccination against influenza...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327237/regional-age-and-respiratory-secretion-specific-prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-associated-with-asthma-exacerbation-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Xue-Yan Zheng, Yan-Jun Xu, Wei-Jie Guan, Li-Feng Lin
Despite increased understanding of how viral infection is involved in asthma exacerbations, it is less clear which viruses are involved and to what extent they contribute to asthma exacerbations. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence of different respiratory viruses during asthma exacerbations. Systematic computerized searches of the literature up to June 2017 without language limitation were performed. The primary focus was on the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including AdV (adenovirus), BoV (bocavirus), CoV (coronavirus), CMV (cytomegalovirus), EnV (enterovirus), HSV (herpes simplex virus), IfV (influenza virus), MpV (metapneumovirus), PiV (parainfluenzavirus), RV (rhinovirus) and RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) during asthma exacerbations...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320737/genomic-circuitry-underlying-immunological-response-to-pediatric-acute-respiratory-infection
#3
Sarah E Henrickson, Sasikanth Manne, Douglas V Dolfi, Kathleen D Mansfield, Kaela Parkhouse, Rakesh D Mistry, Elizabeth R Alpern, Scott E Hensley, Kathleen E Sullivan, Susan E Coffin, E John Wherry
Acute respiratory tract viral infections (ARTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. CD8 T cells are fundamental to host responses, but transcriptional alterations underlying anti-viral mechanisms and links to clinical characteristics remain unclear. CD8 T cell transcriptional circuitry in acutely ill pediatric patients with influenza-like illness was distinct for different viral pathogens. Although changes included expected upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transcriptional downregulation was prominent upon exposure to innate immune signals in early IFV infection...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310901/why-do-we-not-want-to-recommend-influenza-vaccination-to-young-children-a-qualitative-study-of-australian-parents-and-primary-care-providers
#4
Ruby Biezen, Danilla Grando, Danielle Mazza, Bianca Brijnath
INTRODUCTION: Influenza vaccination has been shown to be safe and effective against influenza and in the prevention of complicating secondary respiratory illnesses. However, its uptake in young children remains low. This study explored the views, attitudes and practices of parents and primary care providers (PCPs) on their knowledge and acceptance of influenza vaccination in children under 5. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional qualitative research design, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews with PCPs (i...
January 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228279/in-vitro-model-of-fully-differentiated-human-nasal-epithelial-cells-infected-with-rhinovirus-reveals-epithelium-initiated-immune-responses
#5
Kai Sen Tan, Hsiao Hui Ong, Yan Yan, Jing Liu, Chunwei Li, Yew Kwang Ong, Kim Thye Thong, Hyung Won Choi, De-Yun Wang, Vincent T Chow
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the commonest cause of the common cold. While less pathogenic compared to other respiratory viruses, it is frequently associated with exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases such as rhinosinusitis and asthma exacerbation. Currently, there are limited studies on HRV infection of nasal epithelial cells despite being the first site of viral contact, immune initiation, and airway inter-connectivity. Hence, we established a model of HRV infection of in vitro differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs) derived from multiple individuals...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197154/risk-factors-for-serious-outcomes-associated-with-influenza-illness-in-high-versus-low-and-middle-income-countries-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Brenda L Coleman, Shaza A Fadel, Tiffany Fitzpatrick, Sera-Melisa Thomas
AIM: To determine factors associated with a serious outcome (hospital admission or severe outcome: critical care or death) and associated with illness caused by laboratory-confirmed influenza, with a specific interest in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). METHOD: Databases were searched on 11 March 2016 for reports of influenza and factors associated with mortality or morbidity in humans, with no language restrictions. Pooled risks were estimated using random-effects models...
December 2, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186364/efficacy-and-safety-of-oseltamivir-in-children-systematic-review-and-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
Ryan E Malosh, Emily T Martin, Terho Heikkinen, W Abdullah Brooks, Richard J Whitley, Arnold S Monto
Background: Oseltamivir has been used to treat children with influenza for nearly two decades, with treatment currently approved for infants 2 weeks of age or older, but efficacy and safety remain controversial. Newer randomized placebo controlled trials (RCT), not included in previous meta-analyses, can add to the evidence base. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify RCTs of oseltamivir therapy in children. We obtained individual patient data and examined protocol-defined outcomes...
November 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166940/effects-of-urban-coarse-particles-inhalation-on-oxidative-and-inflammatory-parameters-in-the-mouse-lung-and-colon
#8
Cécile Vignal, Muriel Pichavant, Laurent Y Alleman, Madjid Djouina, Florian Dingreville, Esperanza Perdrix, Christophe Waxin, Adil Ouali Alami, Corinne Gower-Rousseau, Pierre Desreumaux, Mathilde Body-Malapel
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is a recognized aggravating factor for pulmonary diseases and has notably deleterious effects on asthma, bronchitis and pneumonia. Recent studies suggest that air pollution may also cause adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Accumulating experimental evidence shows that immune responses in the pulmonary and intestinal mucosae are closely interrelated, and that gut-lung crosstalk controls pathophysiological processes such as responses to cigarette smoke and influenza virus infection...
November 22, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166936/detection-of-pathogens-by-real-time-pcr-in-adult-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-bronchial-asthma
#9
Yutaka Yoshii, Kenichiro Shimizu, Miyuki Morozumi, Naoko Chiba, Kimiko Ubukata, Hironori Uruga, Shigeo Hanada, Hiroshi Wakui, Shunsuke Minagawa, Hiromichi Hara, Takanori Numata, Keisuke Saito, Jun Araya, Katsutoshi Nakayama, Kazuma Kishi, Kazuyoshi Kuwano
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infection is a major cause of acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (AEBA). Although recent findings suggest that common bacteria are causally associated with AEBA, a comprehensive epidemiologic analysis of infectious pathogens including common/atypical bacteria and viruses in AEBA has not been performed. Accordingly, we attempted to detect pathogens during AEBA by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in comparison to conventional methods. METHODS: We prospectively enroled adult patients with AEBA from August 2012 to March 2014...
November 22, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143374/asthma-and-lung-function-in-adulthood-after-a-viral-wheezing-episode-in-early-childhood
#10
K Backman, H Ollikainen, E Piippo-Savolainen, K Nuolivirta, M Korppi
BACKGROUND: Viral aetiology of infection has a significant role in the long-term outcome of early-childhood wheezing. OBJECTIVE: This study examines asthma and lung function in adulthood after early-childhood wheezing induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV). METHODS: A total of 100 children were hospitalized for a wheezing episode at less than 24 months of age from 1992 to 1993 in Kuopio University Hospital (Finland)...
November 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132960/influenza-derived-peptides-cross-react-with-allergens-and-provide-asthma-protection
#11
Chrysanthi Skevaki, Christoph Hudemann, Mikhail Matrosovich, Christian Möbs, Sinu Paul, Andreas Wachtendorf, Bilal Alashkar Alhamwe, Daniel P Potaczek, Stefanie Hagner, Diethard Gemsa, Holger Garn, Alessandro Sette, Harald Renz
BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis is the leading concept to explain the current asthma epidemic, which is built on the observation that a lack of bacterial contact early in life induces allergic Th2 immune responses. OBJECTIVE: Since little is known about the contribution of respiratory viruses in this context, we evaluated the effect of prior influenza-infection on the development of allergic asthma. METHODS: Mice were infected with influenza and once recovered, subjected to an ovalbumin or house dust mite-induced experimental asthma protocol...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128032/acute-effects-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-lower-respiratory-infections-in-hanoi-children-an-eight-year-time-series-study
#12
Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung, Christian Schindler, Tran Minh Dien, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Laura Perez, Nino Künzli
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory diseases are the most frequent causes of hospital admission in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Daily levels of air pollution are associated with lower respiratory diseases, as documented in many time-series studies. However, investigations in low-and-middle-income countries, such as Vietnam, remain sparse. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the short-term association of ambient air pollution with daily counts of hospital admissions due to pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma among children aged 0-17 in Hanoi, Vietnam...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105786/influenza-burden-prevention-and-treatment-in-asthma-a-scoping-review-by-the-eaaci-influenza-in-asthma-task-force
#13
REVIEW
Jürgen Schwarze, Peter Openshaw, Akhilesh Jha, Stefano R Del Giacco, Davide Firinu, Olympia Tsilochristou, Graham Roberts, Anna Selby, Cezmi Akdis, Ioana Agache, Adnan Custovic, Enrico Heffler, Georgia Pinna, Musa Khaitov, Alexandra Nikonova, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Ather Akhlaq, Ulugbek Nurmatov, Harald Renz, Aziz Sheikh, Chrysanthi Skevaki
To address uncertainties in the prevention and management of influenza in people with asthma, we performed a scoping review of the published literature on influenza burden; current vaccine recommendations; vaccination coverage; immunogenicity, efficacy, effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccines; and the benefits of antiviral drugs in people with asthma. We found significant variation in the reported rates of influenza detection in individuals with acute asthma exacerbations making it unclear to what degree influenza causes exacerbations of underlying asthma...
November 6, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089191/a-multi-site-feasibility-study-to-assess-fever-and-wheezing-in-children-after-influenza-vaccines-using-text-messaging
#14
Melissa S Stockwell, Colin D Marchant, A Patrica Wodi, Elizabeth D Barnett, Karen R Broder, Kathleen Jakob, Paige Lewis, Meyer Kattan, Anne Marie Rezendes, Angela Barrett, Devindra Sharma, Nadira Fernandez, Philip LaRussa
BACKGROUND: Using text messaging for vaccine safety monitoring, particularly for non-medically attended events, would be valuable for pandemic influenza and emergency vaccination program preparedness. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of text messaging to evaluate fever and wheezing post-influenza vaccination in a prospective, observational, multi-site pediatric study. METHODS: Children aged 2-11 years old, with an emphasis on children with asthma, were recruited during the 2014-2015 influenza season from three community-based clinics in New York City, and during the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 seasons from a private practice in Fall River, Massachusetts...
October 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049206/the-molecular-epidemiology-of-respiratory-viruses-associated-with-asthma-attacks-a-single-center-observational-study-in-japan
#15
Takeshi Saraya, Hirokazu Kimura, Daisuke Kurai, Haruyuki Ishii, Hajime Takizawa
Few reports have described the significance of viral respiratory infections (VRIs) in exacerbation of asthma in adult patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate the profiles of VRIs in adult patients with asthma along with their molecular epidemiology.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Kyorin University Hospital from August 2012 to May 2015. To identify respiratory pathogens in inpatients and outpatients suffering from asthma attacks, RT-PCR/sequencing/phylogenetic analysis methods were applied alongside conventional microbiological methods...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048277/retrospective-observational-study-of-atypical-winter-respiratory-illness-season-using-real-time-syndromic-surveillance-england-2014-15
#16
Sue Smith, Roger Morbey, Richard G Pebody, Thomas C Hughes, Simon de Lusignan, F Alex Yeates, Helen Thomas, Sarah J O'Brien, Gillian E Smith, Alex J Elliot
During winter 2014-15, England experienced severe strains on acute health services. We investigated whether syndromic surveillance could contribute to understanding of the unusually high level of healthcare needs. We compared trends for several respiratory syndromic indicators from that winter to historical baselines. Cumulative and mean incidence rates were compared by winter and age group. All-age influenza-like illness was at expected levels; however, severe asthma and pneumonia levels were above those expected...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042178/patterns-of-influenza-vaccination-coverage-in-the-united-states-from-2009-to-2015
#17
Alice P Y Chiu, Jonathan Dushoff, Duo Yu, Daihai He
BACKGROUND: Globally, influenza is a major cause of morbidity, hospitalization and mortality. Influenza vaccination has shown substantial protective effectiveness in the United States. METHODS: We investigated state-level patterns of coverage rates of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination, among the overall population (six months or older) in the U.S. and specifically among children (aged between 6 months and 17 years) and the elderly (aged 65 years or older), from 2009/10 to 2014/15, and associations with ecological factors...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033947/interferon-%C3%AE-s-front-line-guardians-of-immunity-and-homeostasis-in-the-respiratory-tract
#18
REVIEW
Evangelos Andreakos, Maria Salagianni, Ioanna E Galani, Ourania Koltsida
Type III interferons (IFNs), also termed lambda IFNs (IFNλs) or interleukins-28/29, constitute a new addition to the IFN family. They are induced upon infection and are particularly abundant at barrier surfaces, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Although they signal through a unique heterodimeric receptor complex comprising IFNLR1 and IL10RB, they activate a downstream signaling pathway remarkably similar to that of type I IFNs and share many functions with them. Yet, they also have important differences which are only now starting to unfold...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975014/the-relative-burden-of-menopausal-and-postmenopausal-symptoms-versus-other-major-conditions-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-medical-expenditure-panel-survey-data
#19
Annlouise R Assaf, Andrew G Bushmakin, Nina Joyce, Michael J Louie, Michael Flores, Margaret Moffatt
BACKGROUND: The direct costs associated with menopausal and postmenopausal symptoms (hereafter "menopausal symptoms") may include the costs of physician and emergency department visits, medications, laboratory testing, and the management of side effects. However, much remains unknown about the costs related to menopausal symptoms, including how they compare with the costs of other diseases that are common among menopausal women. OBJECTIVE: To compare the economic burden of menopausal symptoms with other select prevalent chronic conditions among a nationally representative sample of US menopausal women aged 45 to 65 years...
September 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914750/live-attenuated-influenza-vaccination-prior-to-age-3-years-and-subsequent-development-of-asthma-a-14-year-follow-up-study
#20
Roger P Baxter, Ned Lewis, Bruce Fireman, John Hansen, Nicola P Klein, Justin R Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are not licensed in children <2 years because of a wheezing safety signal that has not been fully elucidated. In 2000, the Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center conducted a placebo controlled randomized clinical trial (RCT) of LAIV in children. As many of these children were still enrolled in Kaiser Permanente in 2014, we could assess the possible long-term association between LAIV and subsequent asthma diagnosis. METHODS: We identified all children who were originally enrolled into the LAIV RCT at < 3 years of age...
September 12, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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