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Neurocognitive discounting

Narun Pornpattananangkul, Ajay Nadig, Storm Heidinger, Keegan Walden, Robin Nusslock
Although waiting for a reward reduces or discounts its value, some people have a stronger tendency to wait for larger rewards and forgo smaller-but-immediate rewards. This ability to delay gratification is captured by individual differences in so-called intertemporal choices in which individuals are asked to choose between larger-but-delayed versus smaller-but-immediate rewards. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether enhancement in two neurocognitive processes, outcome anticipation and outcome evaluation, modulate individual variability in intertemporal responses...
February 21, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
William P Horan, Matthew W Johnson, Michael F Green
Delay discounting (DD) is a future-oriented decision-making process that refers to whether one is willing to forego a smaller, sooner reward for the sake of a larger, later reward. It can be assessed using hypothetical tasks, which involve choices between hypothetical rewards of varying amounts over delay periods of days to years, or experiential tasks, which involve receiving actual rewards in real time over delay periods of seconds to minutes. Initial studies in schizophrenia have only used hypothetical tasks and have been mixed in finding either elevated or normal levels of DD...
April 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Maria Kekic, Jessica McClelland, Savani Bartholdy, Elena Boysen, Peter Musiat, Bethan Dalton, Meyzi Tiza, Anthony S David, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that pathological eating behaviours in bulimia nervosa (BN) are underpinned by alterations in reward processing and self-regulatory control, and by functional changes in neurocircuitry encompassing the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Manipulation of this region with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may therefore alleviate symptoms of the disorder. OBJECTIVE: This double-blind sham-controlled proof-of-principle trial investigated the effects of bilateral tDCS over the DLPFC in adults with BN...
2017: PloS One
Alexander Soutschek, Christian C Ruff, Tina Strombach, Tobias Kalenscher, Philippe N Tobler
Neurobiological models of self-control predominantly focus on the role of prefrontal brain mechanisms involved in emotion regulation and impulse control. We provide evidence for an entirely different neural mechanism that promotes self-control by overcoming bias for the present self, a mechanism previously thought to be mainly important for interpersonal decision-making. In two separate studies, we show that disruptive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the temporo-parietal junction-a brain region involved in overcoming one's self-centered perspective-increases the discounting of delayed and prosocial rewards...
October 2016: Science Advances
Luca Lavagnino, Danilo Arnone, Bo Cao, Jair C Soares, Sudhakar Selvaraj
The ability to exercise appropriate inhibitory control is critical in the regulation of body weight, but the exact mechanisms are not known. In this systematic review, we identified 37 studies that used specific neuropsychological tasks relevant to inhibitory control performance in obese participants with and without binge eating disorder (BED). We performed a meta-analysis of the studies that used the stop signal task (N=8). We further examined studies on the delay discounting task, the go/no-go task and the Stroop task in a narrative review...
September 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Woo-Young Ahn, Divya Ramesh, Frederick Gerard Moeller, Jasmin Vassileva
BACKGROUND: Identifying objective and accurate markers of cocaine dependence (CD) can innovate its prevention and treatment. Existing evidence suggests that CD is characterized by a wide range of cognitive deficits, most notably by increased impulsivity. Impulsivity is multidimensional and it is unclear which of its various dimensions would have the highest predictive utility for CD. The machine-learning approach is highly promising for discovering predictive markers of disease. Here, we used machine learning to identify multivariate predictive patterns of impulsivity phenotypes that can accurately classify individuals with CD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Christina S Meade, Daniella M Cordero, Andrea L Hobkirk, Brandon M Metra, Nan-Kuei Chen, Scott A Huettel
HIV infection can cause direct and indirect damage to the brain and is consistently associated with neurocognitive disorders, including impairments in decision-making capacities. The tendency to devalue rewards that are delayed (temporal discounting) is relevant to a range of health risk behaviors. Making choices about delayed rewards engages the executive control network of the brain, which has been found to be affected by HIV. In this case-control study of 18 HIV-positive and 17 HIV-negative adults, we examined the effects of HIV on brain activation during a temporal discounting task...
July 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Woo-Young Ahn, Jasmin Vassileva
BACKGROUND: Recent animal and human studies reveal distinct cognitive and neurobiological differences between opiate and stimulant addictions; however, our understanding of the common and specific effects of these two classes of drugs remains limited due to the high rates of polysubstance-dependence among drug users. METHODS: The goal of the current study was to identify multivariate substance-specific markers classifying heroin dependence (HD) and amphetamine dependence (AD), by using machine-learning approaches...
April 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kostas A Fanti, Eva R Kimonis, Maria-Zoe Hadjicharalambous, Laurence Steinberg
The present study aimed to test whether neurocognitive deficits involved in decision making underlie subtypes of conduct-disorder (CD) differentiated on the basis of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Eighty-five participants (M age = 10.94 years) were selected from a sample of 1200 children based on repeated assessment of CD and CU traits. Participants completed a multi-method battery of well-validated measures of risky decision making and associated constructs of selective attention and future orientation (Stroop, Stoplight, and Delay-Discounting Tasks)...
September 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Claudia I Rupp, J Katharina Beck, Andreas Heinz, Georg Kemmler, Sarah Manz, Katharina Tempel, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
BACKGROUND: Although there is considerable support for the relationship between impulsivity and alcohol dependence, little is known about the impact of neurocognitive aspects of impulsivity on treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the impact of neurocognitive impulsivity at treatment onset on treatment completion. METHODS: Forty-three alcohol-dependent patients entering inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence completed neurocognitive measures of impulsivity at the beginning of treatment...
January 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sami Schiff, Piero Amodio, Giulia Testa, Mariateresa Nardi, Sara Montagnese, Lorenza Caregaro, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, Manuela Sellitto
Obesity is a medical condition frequently associated with psychopathological symptoms and neurocognitive and/or personality traits related to impulsivity. Impulsivity during intertemporal choices seems to be typical of obese individuals. However, so far, the specific relationship between different types of reward and neuropsychological and psychopathological profile are yet to be unravelled. Here, we investigated impulsive choice for primary and secondary reward in obese individuals and normal-weight controls with comparable neuropsychological and psychopathological status...
October 30, 2015: Brain and Cognition
Bieke De Wilde, Anneke Goudriaan, Bernard Sabbe, Wouter Hulstijn, Geert Dom
Backgrounds and aims Pathological gambling, a common psychiatric disorder, has many similarities with substance use disorders. Relapse, an important element in addictive disorders, however, has seldom been studied in pathological gambling. Hence, in analogy with previous research studies examining the role of self-report and neurocognitive measures on relapse in substance dependent patients, the present pilot study was executed. Methods Twenty-two pathological gamblers and 31 healthy controls took part in this research...
March 2013: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Laura Stevens, Herbert Roeyers, Geert Dom, Leen Joos, Wouter Vanderplasschen
BACKGROUND: Cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI) display increased impulsivity. However, despite its multifactorial nature most studies in CDI have treated impulsivity monolithically. Moreover, the impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has often not been taken into account. This study investigates whether CDI with ADHD (CDI+ADHD) differ from CDI without an ADHD diagnosis and healthy controls (HC) on several impulsivity measures. METHODS: Thirty-four CDI, 25 CDI+ADHD and 28 HC participated in this study...
2015: European Addiction Research
L Stevens, A E Goudriaan, A Verdejo-Garcia, G Dom, H Roeyers, W Vanderplasschen
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a hallmark characteristic of substance use disorders. Recently, studies have begun to explore whether increased impulsivity in substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) is associated with a greater propensity to relapse following treatment. Despite growing recognition of its multidimensional nature, however, most studies have treated impulsivity unilaterally. Accordingly, it remains unclear whether certain facets of impulsivity are more relevant to relapse than others...
July 2015: Psychological Medicine
Cutter A Lindbergh, Antonio N Puente, Joshua C Gray, James MacKillop, L Stephen Miller
INTRODUCTION: Predictors of functional independence in older adults are in need. Based on findings that delay discounting, probability discounting, and the ability to respond consistently use cognitive abilities and neural systems with central relevance to functional ability, the present study evaluated whether these behavioral economic variables account for variance in everyday functioning in older adults. It was hypothesized that greater preference for immediate/probabilistic rewards and response inconsistency would independently predict decrements in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)...
2014: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
T B Mole, M A Irvine, Y Worbe, P Collins, S P Mitchell, S Bolton, N A Harrison, T W Robbins, V Voon
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests some overlap between the pathological use of food and drugs, yet how impulsivity compares across these different clinical disorders remains unclear. Substance use disorders are commonly characterized by elevated impulsivity, and impulsivity subtypes may show commonalities and differences in various conditions. We hypothesized that obese subjects with binge-eating disorder (BED) and abstinent alcohol-dependent cohorts would have relatively more impulsive profiles compared to obese subjects without BED...
March 2015: Psychological Medicine
Laura Stevens, Antonio Verdejo-García, Anna E Goudriaan, Herbert Roeyers, Geert Dom, Wouter Vanderplasschen
With the current review, we explore the hypothesis that individual differences in neurocognitive aspects of impulsivity (i.e., cognitive and motor disinhibition, delay discounting and impulsive decision-making) among individuals with a substance use disorder are linked to unfavorable addiction treatment outcomes, including high drop-out rates and difficulties in achieving and maintaining abstinence. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge searches. Twenty-five unique empirical papers were identified and findings were considered in relation to the different impulsivity dimensions...
July 2014: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Raj K Kalapatapu, Kevin L Delucchi, Brooke A Lasher, Sophia Vinogradov, Steven L Batki
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a secondary analysis of baseline data from a recently completed pharmacological pilot clinical trial among 30 veterans with alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This trial included baseline measures of alcohol use biomarkers, both indirect (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, GGT [γ-glutamyltransferase], mean corpuscular volume, AST [aspartate aminotransferase], alanine aminotransferase) and direct (ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate), as well as neurocognitive measures (Trail Making Test parts A and B, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Balloon Analogue Risk Task, Delay Discounting Task)...
September 2013: Military Medicine
Eric Klinger
A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual's commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person's own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not...
2013: Frontiers in Psychology
Leen Joos, Anna E Goudriaan, Lianne Schmaal, Erik Fransen, Wim van den Brink, Bernard G C Sabbe, Geert Dom
Poor impulse control plays an important role in the development, course and relapse of substance use disorders. Therefore, improving impulse control may represent a promising approach in the treatment of alcohol dependence. This study aimed to test the effect of modafinil on impulse control and alcohol use in alcohol dependent patients (ADP) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-three abstinent ADP were randomized to 10 weeks modafinil (300 mg/d) or placebo. Alcohol use was quantified using the timeline follow-back method and was assessed until 6 months after treatment discontinuation...
August 2013: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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