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Marek's disease virus

Utsav Pandey, Andrew S Bell, Daniel W Renner, David A Kennedy, Jacob T Shreve, Chris L Cairns, Matthew J Jones, Patricia A Dunn, Andrew F Read, Moriah L Szpara
The intensification of the poultry industry over the last 60 years facilitated the evolution of increased virulence and vaccine breaks in Marek's disease virus (MDV-1). Full-genome sequences are essential for understanding why and how this evolution occurred, but what is known about genome-wide variation in MDV comes from laboratory culture. To rectify this, we developed methods for obtaining high-quality genome sequences directly from field samples without the need for sequence-based enrichment strategies prior to sequencing...
September 2016: MSphere
Kai Li, Yongzhen Liu, Changjun Liu, Li Gao, Yanping Zhang, Yulong Gao, Hongyu Cui, Xiaole Qi, Li Zhong, Xiaomei Wang
The vaccine efficacy of recombinant viruses can be influenced by many factors. Accordingly, the activity of promoters has been one of the major factors affecting the antigen expression and protection rate. In the present study, two recombinant Marek's disease virus type 1 (MDV1) vaccines containing the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) under control of different promoters were generated from overlapping fosmid DNAs. The rMDV-Pec-VP2 virus containing the VP2 gene under control of the Pec promoter (CMV enhancer and chicken β-actin chimera promoter) demonstrated higher VP2 expression and stronger antibody response against IBDV in chickens than the rMDV-CMV-VP2 virus using the CMV promoter...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Marla C McPherson, Hans H Cheng, Mary E Delany
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphotropic and oncogenic disease of chickens that can lead to death in susceptible and unvaccinated host birds. The causative pathogen, MD virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus, integrates into host genome near the telomeres. MD occurrence is controlled across the globe by biosecurity, selective breeding for enhanced MD genetic resistance, and widespread vaccination of flocks using attenuated serotype 1 MDV or other serotypes. Despite over 40 years of usage, the specific mechanism(s) of MD vaccine-related immunity and anti-tumor effects are not known...
October 5, 2016: Vaccine
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Phillip Delekta, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. The latently infected CD4(+) T cells carry the virus to visceral organs, peripheral nerves, and feather follicle epithelium (FFE). FFE is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virus particles are produced and disseminated into the environment...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Xuming Hu, Wenqi Zhu, Shihao Chen, Yangyang Liu, Zhen Sun, Tuoyu Geng, Chengyi Song, Bo Gao, Xiaoyan Wang, Aijian Qin, Hengmi Cui
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements that are present in a wide range of vertebrates and have been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including cancer. However, the characteristic expression patterns of ERVs, particularly in virus-induced tumours, is not fully clear. DNA methylation was analysed by bisulfite pyrosequencing, and gene expression was analysed by RT-qPCR. In this study, we first found that the endogenous avian retrovirus ALVE1 was highly expressed in some chicken tissues (including the heart, bursa, thymus, and spleen) at 2 days of age, but its expression was markedly decreased at 35 days of age...
September 29, 2016: Archives of Virology
Abinash Padhi, Mark S Parcells
Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), a poultry-borne alphaherpesvirus, is a devastating disease of poultry causing an estimated annual loss of one billion dollars to poultry producers, worldwide. Despite decades of control through vaccination, MDV field strains continue to emerge having increased virulence. The evolutionary mechanism driving the emergence of this continuum of strains to increased MDV virulence, however, remains largely enigmatic. Increase in MDV virulence has been associated with specific amino acid changes within the C-terminus domain of Mareks's EcoRI-Q (meq)-encoded oncoprotein...
2016: PloS One
Mridula Gupta, Dipak Deka, Ramneek
Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a highly contagious neoplastic disease of chicken that can be prevented by vaccination. However, in recent years many cases of vaccine failure have been reported worldwide as chickens develop symptoms of MD in spite of proper vaccination. Distinct polymorphism and point mutations in Meq gene of MDV have been reported to be associated with virulence and oncogenicity. The present study was carried out with the objective to isolate and characterize field isolates of MDV on the basis of Meq gene...
September 2016: Meta Gene
Shuqing Yang, Liyuan Wang, Shuhong Sun
In the present study, avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and serotype-1 strains of Marek's disease virus (MDV-1) were detected from a flock of 27-wk-old brown layer hens in China, accompanied by an average daily mortality of 0.44%. Postmortem examination of 25 sick hens and five apparently healthy hens selected randomly from the flock showed significant pathologic changes consistent with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS), including hepatomegaly, peritoneal fluid, and hepatic subcapsular hemorrhages. Microscopic examination of these livers showed multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and mild lymphocytic infiltration...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Yukari Ishihara, Motoyuki Esaki, Shuji Saitoh, Takanori Sato, Atsushi Yasuda
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a major disease affecting the poultry industry and is caused by infection with IBD virus (IBDV). To develop a novel vaccine to prevent IBD in chickens, recombinant Marek's disease virus Rispens viruses carrying the VP2 gene of IBDV driven by five different promoters (Rispens/IBD) were constructed using homologous recombination and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Rispens/IBD driven by the chicken beta-actin (Bac) promoter (Rispens/Bac-IBD), Rous sarcoma virus promoter, or simian virus 40 promoter were administered to 1-day-old SPF chicks, and the protective efficacy against IBDV was evaluated by challenging chicks with virulent IBDV...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Sudeep Perumbakkam, Henry D Hunt, Hans H Cheng
Marek's disease (MD) is an important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. In this study using two chicken lines, one resistant and another susceptible to MD, splenic T cells and cecal microbiome were profiled to gain a better understanding of primary differences in these lines. The percent of splenic CD4(+) T cells were similar regardless of MDV challenge status in both bird lines. In contrast, CD8αα profiles were different (P < 0.005) between chicken lines under naïve status and under MDV challenge, suggesting that CD8αα T cells play a key role in mediating MDV infection...
September 7, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
S Ralapanawe, K G Renz, S K Burgess, S W Walkden-Brown
OBJECTIVE: To use specific real-time qPCR to determine (1) the vaccination success of Rispens CVI988 vaccine in feathers and dust; (2) persistence of Rispens infection in vaccinated layer chickens; (3) extent of co-infection with wild-type Marek's disease virus (MDV) in vaccinated layers; and (4) presence of Rispens virus in unvaccinated broiler flocks. METHODS: Feather, dust and serum samples were collected from birds aged 3 days to 91 weeks from three layer farms...
September 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
Muhammet Kaya, Likit Preeyanon, Jerry B Dodgson, Hans H Cheng
Utilizing RNA-seq data, 1,574 candidate genes with alternative splicing were previously identified between two chicken lines that differ in Marek's disease (MD) genetic resistance under control and Marek's disease virus infection conditions. After filtering out 1,530 genes with splice variants in the first or last exon, 44 genes were screened for possible exon loss or gain using PCR and gel electrophoresis. Consequently, 7 genes exhibited visually detectable differential expression of splice variants between lines 6 (MD resistant) and 7 (MD susceptible), and the resultant PCR products verified by DNA sequencing...
October 2016: Animal Biotechnology
M Asok Kumar, R Barathidasan, M Palanivelu, S D Singh, Mohd Yaqoob Wani, Yashpal Singh Malik, R Singh, K Dhama
Marek's disease (MD), is an economically important virus disease of poultry throughout the world. In this study, we for the first time reports development of a novel dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) for the confirmatory diagnosis of lymphoma caused by Marek's Disease Virus (MDV). Suspected lymphoma tissue extracts from the diseased birds were used for the Meq oncoprotein antigen detection, which is expressed specifically in MDV lymphomas. Recombinant Meq oncoprotein was expressed using Expresso™ Rhamnose Sumo Cloning and Expression system and the hyperimmune serum was raised against it, which was used later while developing dot-ELISA...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Lucyna Budzko, Malgorzata Marcinkowska-Swojak, Paulina Jackowiak, Piotr Kozlowski, Marek Figlerowicz
Copy number variation (CNV) is a newly discovered form of intra-species genetic polymorphism that is defined as deletions or duplications of genome segments ranging from 1 kbp to several Mbp. CNV accounts for the majority of the genetic variation observed in humans (CNV regions cover more than 10% of the human genome); therefore, it may significantly influence both the phenotype and susceptibility to various diseases. Unfortunately, the impact of CNV on a number of diseases, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, remains largely unexplored...
2016: Scientific Reports
J P Madej, G Woźniakowski, A Gaweł
Marek's disease (MD) outbreaks in poultry flocks may be associated with overriding of vaccine immune protection by very virulent (vvMDV) or very virulent plus (vv+MDV) strains. This paper presents the study on lymphoid organ morphology in the latent phase of MD caused by vv+MDV which break post-vaccinal protection in hens. We also immunohistochemically examined B and T populations as well as B/T and CD4+/CD8+ ratio of lymphocytes in lymphatic organs and, as a background, in MD lymphomas from non-lymphatic organs...
2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Sabari Nath Neerukonda, Upendra K Katneni, Sergey Golovan, Mark S Parcells
Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is widely used in the study of relative gene expression in general, and has been used in the field of Marek's disease (MD) research to measure transcriptional responses to infection and/or vaccination. Studies in the past have either employed cellular β-actin (BACT) or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as internal reference genes, although the stability of their expression in the context of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection has never been investigated. In the present study, we compared the stability of five reference genes (BACT, 28S RNA, 18S RNA, GAPDH, Peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase B [PPIB], a...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Swantje Strassheim, Isabelle Gennart, Benoït Muylkens, Marjolaine André, Denis Rasschaert, Sylvie Laurent
Herpesvirus gene expression is temporally regulated, with immediate early (IE), early (E) and late (L) genes. ICP27, which is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, is the only IE gene product conserved in all herpesviruses. We show here that the ICP27 transcript of the oncogenic Marek's disease virus shares the same polyadenylation signal as the bicistronic glycoprotein K-ICP27 transcript and is regulated by alternative promoter usage, with transcription from its own promoter (pICP27) or that of gK (pgK)...
September 2016: Journal of General Virology
Mahmoud H A Mohamed, Ibrahim M El-Sabagh, Malik A Al-Habeeb, Yousef M Al-Hammady
AIM: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the genomic features of Meq gene of Marek's disease virus (MDV) recently circulating in Saudi Arabia (SA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two poultry flocks suffering from mortalities and visceral tumors were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, King Faisal University, SA. Subjected to different diagnostic procedures: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy as well as polymerase chain reaction followed by Meq gene sequence analysis...
June 2016: Veterinary World
Zuzana Vojtechova, Ivan Sabol, Martina Salakova, Jana Smahelova, Jiri Zavadil, Lubomir Turek, Marek Grega, Jan Klozar, Bohumir Prochazka, Ruth Tachezy
BACKGROUND: Better insights into the molecular changes involved in virus-associated and -independent head and neck cancer may advance our knowledge of HNC carcinogenesis and identify critical disease biomarkers. Here we aimed to characterize the expression profiles in a matched set of well-characterized HPV-dependent and HPV-independent tonsillar tumors and equivalent immortalized keratinocyte clones to define potential and clinically relevant biomarkers of HNC of different etiology. METHODS: Fresh frozen tonsillar cancer tissues were analyzed together with non-malignant tonsillar tissues and compared with cervical tumors and normal cervical tissues...
2016: BMC Cancer
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