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Marek's disease virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194622/characterization-of-a-gallid-herpesvirus-2-strain-with-novel-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-long-terminal-repeat-inserts
#1
Yan-Ping Zhang, Ke-Yan Bao, Guo-Rong Sun, Hong-Chao Lv, Hong-Yu Cui, Yu-Long Gao, Xiao-Mei Wang, Chang-Jun Liu
A bacterial artificial chromosome clone, designated LCY, was constructed from a Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2) isolate from a GaHV-2 and reticuloendotheliosis virus co-infected clinical sample. The LCY GaHV-2 insert was sequenced and found to consist of 175,319 nucleotides. LCY GaHV-2 open reading frames (ORFs) had a high sequence identity to those of reference strains. The major difference was that two REV long terminal repeats (LTRs), in the same direction, were inserted at the internal repeat short (IRs)/unique short (Us) and Us/terminal repeat short (TRs) junctions...
February 13, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160668/expression-of-marek-s-disease-virus-oncoprotein-meq-during-infection-in-the-natural-host
#2
S-H Sheldon Tai, Cari Hearn, Sudawapee Umthong, Olga Agafitei, Hans H Cheng, John R Dunn, Masahiro Niikura
Gallid herpesvirus 2 (Marek's disease virus, MDV) causes lymphoproliferative Marek's disease (MD), and is unique among alphaherpesviruses as the viral genome encodes an oncoprotein, Meq. To elucidate the temporal relationship between Meq expression and the development of MD lymphomas in infected chickens, we generated a virulent recombinant MDV that expresses GFP simultaneously with Meq. By using this virus, we monitored the dynamics of Meq expression in vivo throughout the course of infection. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the percentage of Meq-expressing cells dramatically increased in the early latent phase but decreased thereafter...
February 1, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160143/molecular-characterisation-of-fowl-adenovirus-type-7-isolated-from-poultry-associated-with-inclusion-body-hepatitis-in-poland
#3
Jowita Samanta Niczyporuk
The fowl adenovirus field strain FAdV-JSN-5/10j (GenBank accession number KP879219) was isolated from the intestine of a 7-week-old chicken diagnosed with inclusion body hepatitis and simultaneously with Marek's disease, and for that reason, it was chosen for molecular study. It was identified as fowl adenovirus genotype 7 (species Fowl aviadenovirus E) based on nucleotide sequence analysis of the loop L1 region of the hexon gene. Nucleotide sequence alignment of this strain, FAdV-7 reference strains B-3A ATCC VR-832 (AF339922) and YR36 (AF508955), and eight additional FAdV-7 field strains confirmed its classification as FAdV-JS-5/10j and showed that these viruses are very similar to each other...
February 3, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151004/evaluation-of-factors-influencing-the-development-of-late-marek-s-disease-virus-induced-immunosuppression-virus-pathotype-and-host-sex
#4
Nik M Faiz, Aneg L Cortes, James S Guy, Oscar J Fletcher, Thomas Cimino, Isabel M Gimeno
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphoma and immunosuppression in chickens. MDV induced immunosuppression (MDV-IS) is complex and can be divided into two phases: early-MDV-IS associated with cytolytic infection in the lymphoid organs in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MDV (MAbs) and late-MDV-IS that appears later in the pathogenesis and occurs even in chickens bearing MAbs. We have recently developed a model to reproduce late-MDV-IS under laboratory conditions. This model evaluates late-MDV-IS indirectly by assessing the effect of MDV infection on the efficacy of infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines against challenge with infectious laryngotracheitis virus...
February 2, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127395/the-industrialization-of-farming-may-be-driving-virulence-evolution
#5
Carly Rozins, Troy Day
Farming practices have changed dramatically over the years. The industrialization of farming has provided parasites with an abundance of hosts and is thought to have influenced parasite evolution. For example, the parasite that causes the highly contagious poultry disease, Marek's disease, has evolved over the past 60 years into a highly virulent pathogen. It is assumed that the industrialization of the industry and vaccination have selected for more virulent strains of the virus. Here, with the use of an impulsive differential equation model, we investigate how modern broiler farm practices could independently lead to virulence evolution...
February 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126602/the-effect-of-feed-supplementation-with-zinc-chelate-and-zinc-sulphate-on-selected-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-parameters-and-cytokine-concentration-in-broiler-chickens
#6
Łukasz Jarosz, Agnieszka Marek, Zbigniew Grądzki, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Marcin Kalinowski
The ability of poultry to withstand infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa depends upon the integrity of the immune system. Zinc is important for proper functioning of heterophils, mononuclear phagocytes and T lymphocytes. Numerous data indicate that the demand for zinc in poultry is not met in Poland due to its low content in feeds of vegetable origin. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementation of inorganic (ZnSO4 and ZnSO4(+) phytase enzyme), and organic forms of zinc (Zn with glycine and Zn with glycine and phytase enzyme) on selected parameters of the cellular and humoral immune response in broiler chickens by evaluating the percentage of CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD8(+), CD25(+), MHC Class II, and BU-1(+) lymphocytes, the phagocytic activity of monocytes and heterophils, and the concentration of IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α in the peripheral blood...
September 14, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113043/activation-of-gga-mir-155-by-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-t-strain-and-its-contribution-to-transformation
#7
Yongxiu Yao, Deepali Vasoya, Lydia Kgosana, Lorraine Smith, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang, Michael Watson, Venugopal Nair
The v-rel oncoprotein encoded by reticuloendotheliosis virus T strain (Rev-T) is a member of the rel/NF-κB family of transcription factors capable of transformation of primary chicken spleen and bone marrow cells. Rapid transformation of avian haematopoietic cells by v-rel occurs through a process of deregulation of multiple protein-encoding genes through its direct effect on their promoters. More recently, upregulation of oncogenic miR-155 and its precursor pre-miR-155 were demonstrated in Rev-T-infected chicken embryo fibroblast cultures as well as Rev-T-induced B-cell lymphomas...
January 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057380/current-and-future-vaccines-and-vaccination-strategies-against-infectious-laryngotracheitis-ilt-respiratory-disease-of-poultry
#8
Maricarmen García
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the industry worldwide. Vaccination is the principal tool in the control of the disease. Two types of vaccines, live attenuated and recombinant viral vector, are commercially available. The first generation of GaHV-1 vaccines available since the early 1960's are live viruses, attenuated by continuous passages in cell culture or embryos. These vaccines significantly reduce mortalities and, in particular, the chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines have shown to limit outbreaks of the disease...
December 24, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043157/complete-nucleotide-sequence-analysis-of-the-oncogene-meq-from-serotype-1-marek-s-disease-virus-isolates-from-india
#9
P Suresh, J Johnson Rajeswar, K Sukumar, T J Harikrishnan, P Srinivasan
1. A study was undertaken to characterise the oncogene Meq at the molecular level for three serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) field isolates from vaccinated poultry flocks which had encountered a Marek's disease outbreak in the southern part of India. The isolates were named Ind/TN/11/01, Ind/KA/12/02 and Ind/TN/12/03. The oncogene Meq was amplified by PCR and sequenced. 2. The isolates were shown to have a homology for the Meq gene of 99.1-99.8% with various isolates from China and 98.5-99.2% with isolates from Europe and the USA...
January 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038868/marek-s-disease-vaccines-current-status-and-strategies-for-improvement-and-development-of-vector-vaccines
#10
Sanjay M Reddy, Yoshihiro Izumiya, Blanca Lupiani
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative viral disease of chickens, which has been controlled through vaccination since 1969. MD vaccines protect against tumors but do not provide sterilizing immunity, and thus it is generally believed that their use has contributed to increase virulence of field strains with the ability to cause MD in vaccinated chickens. Traditional methods of developing vaccines, like cell culture attenuation, have proved unsuccessful for the development of improved vaccines to protect against highly virulent MD virus (MDV) field strains...
November 24, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013385/a-double-stranded-probe-coupled-with-isothermal-amplification-for-qualitative-and-quantitative-detection-of-avian-reovirus
#11
D Kumar, T K S Chauhan, R K Agarwal, K Dhama, P P Goswami, A K Mariappan, A K Tiwari, B P Mishra
We applied a probe-based real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Cy5-RTqLAMP) technique targeting the avian reovirus (ARV) S3 gene to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for virus detection and quantification. This test specifically detected the presence of ARV, but not other viruses or bacteria present in clinical or artificially spiked samples, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, fowl adenovirus, Marek's disease virus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp...
December 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988990/cervical-human-papilloma-virus-infection-in-the-early-postoperative-period-after-liver-transplantation-prevalence-risk-factors-and-concordance-with-anal-infections
#12
Karolina Grąt, Michał Grąt, Karolina M Wronka, Bronisława Pietrzak, Barbara Suchońska, Szymon Walter de Walthoffen, Grażyna Młynarczyk, Marek Krawczyk, Mirosław Wielgoś
Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing several human papilloma virus (HPV)-related malignancies, including cervical and anal cancers. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the initial prevalence and risk factors for high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) cervical infections in liver transplant recipients, as well as their concordance with anal infections. A total of 50 female patients were enrolled in the Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery at the Medical University of Warsaw (centre with >1600 liver transplantations)...
December 17, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982090/recombinant-marek-s-disease-virus-type-1-provides-full-protection-against-very-virulent-marek-s-and-infectious-bursal-disease-viruses-in-chickens
#13
Kai Li, Yongzhen Liu, Changjun Liu, Li Gao, Yanping Zhang, Hongyu Cui, Yulong Gao, Xiaole Qi, Li Zhong, Xiaomei Wang
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a preferred vector in the construction of recombinant vaccines. However, bivalent vaccine based on MDV that confers full protection against both very virulent Marek's and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infections in chickens has not been produced. Here we developed a system utilizing overlapping fosmid DNAs transfection that rescues an MDV type 1 (MDV1) vaccine strain. Using this system, we inserted the IBDV VP2 gene at MDV1 genome sites UL41, US10 and US2. The VP2 protein was stably expressed in the recombinant MDV-infected cells and self-assembled into IBDV subviral particles...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975190/investigation-of-marek-s-disease-virus-from-chickens-in-central-ethiopia
#14
Berhan Demeke, Shiferaw Jenberie, Biruk Tesfaye, Gelagay Ayelet, Martha Yami, Charles Euloge Lamien, Esayas Gelaye
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic chickens and less commonly, turkeys and quails, caused by a highly contagious, cell-associated, oncogenic herpesvirus. In Ethiopia, MD is believed to be introduced with importation of exotic and crossbred to improve the poultry production and has been reported to be a potential threat to the poultry sector both in backyard and commercial farming systems. This study was aimed at isolation and molecular analysis of MD virus isolates circulating in chicken population in the central part of Ethiopia where commercial farms are populated...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942974/turkey-herpesvirus-with-an-insertion-in-the-ul3-4-region-displays-an-appropriate-balance-between-growth-activity-and-antibody-eliciting-capacity-and-is-suitable-for-the-establishment-of-a-recombinant-vaccine
#15
Kiyohiko Andoh, Kenichi Yamazaki, Yoko Honda, Takashi Honda
We constructed turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vector vaccines in which the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was inserted into the HVT genome in the following regions: UL3-4, UL22-23, UL45-46, and US10-SORF3. We then evaluated the relationship between the gene insertion site and the capacity of the virus to elicit antibodies. rHVT/IBD (US10) showed good growth activity in vitro, with growth comparable to that of the parent HVT. On the other hand, rHVT/IBD (UL3-4), rHVT/IBD (UL22-23), and rHVT/IBD (UL45-46) exhibited decreased growth activity in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells compared to the parent HVT...
December 9, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933433/full-length-infectious-clone-of-an-iranian-isolate-of-chicken-anemia-virus
#16
Amir Kaffashi, Fatemeh Eshratabadi, Abdelhamed Shoushtari
An Iranian field strain of chicken anemia virus (CAV), designated IR CAV, was isolated in the Marek's disease virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line MDCC-MSB1 (MSB1) culture for the first time. The full-length CAV DNA of this strain was cloned in the bacterial plasmid pTZ57R/T to create the molecular clone pTZ-CAV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of viral proteins of IR CAV were compared with those of representative CAV sequences including reference and commercial vaccine strains. IR CAV was not related to vaccine strains and also found to have glutamine at positions 139 and 144 confirming previous studies in which such mutations were associated with a slow rate of virus spread in cell culture...
December 8, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908832/evaluation-of-two-strains-of-marek-s-disease-virus-serotype-1-for-the-development-of-recombinant-vaccines-against-very-virulent-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#17
Kai Li, Yongzhen Liu, Changjun Liu, Li Gao, Yulong Gao, Yanping Zhang, Hongyu Cui, Xiaole Qi, Li Zhong, Xiaomei Wang
Attenuated strains of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1), and the closely related herpesvirus of turkeys, are among the most potent vectors for development of recombinant vaccines for poultry. To investigate the effects of MDV1 strain characteristics on the protective efficacy of the recombinant vaccines, we developed two recombinant MDV1 vaccines for expressing the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) based on two different MDV1 strains, the attenuated strain 814 and the Meq gene-deleted recombinant MDV1 strain rLMS△Meq, as the viral vectors...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902909/marek-s-disease-in-backyard-chickens-a-study-of-pathologic-findings-and-viral-loads-in-tumorous-and-nontumorous-birds
#18
Aslı Mete, Radhika Gharpure, Maurice E Pitesky, Dan Famini, Karen Sverlow, John Dunn
Marek's disease (MD) is a major cause of mortality in backyard chickens. The diagnosis of MD is complex, however, and knowledge of Marek's disease virus (MDV) in spontaneous field cases such as in backyard chickens is largely unknown. In this study, 40 backyard chickens with a presumptive MD diagnosis based on histologic lymphoid infiltrations in peripheral nerves with and without lymphomas were investigated. Twenty-eight of the birds were submitted to the diagnostic laboratory for disease explorations, and 12 chickens were from a flock in which some members demonstrated anisocoria and pupil irregularities compatible with ocular MD...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902902/history-of-the-first-generation-marek-s-disease-vaccines-the-science-and-little-known-facts
#19
Karel A Schat
Shortly after the isolation of Marek's disease (MD) herpesvirus (MDV) in the late 1960s vaccines were developed in England, the United States, and The Netherlands. Biggs and associates at the Houghton Poultry Research Station (HPRS) in England attenuated HPRS-16, the first cell-culture-isolated MDV strain, by passaging HPRS-16 in chick kidney cells. Although HPRS-16/Att was the first commercially available vaccine, it never became widely used and was soon replaced by the FC126 strain of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine developed by Witter and associates at the Regional Poultry Research Laboratory (now Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory [ADOL]) in East Lansing, MI...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894330/marek-s-disease-in-chickens-a-review-with-focus-on-immunology
#20
REVIEW
Nitish Boodhoo, Angila Gurung, Shayan Sharif, Shahriar Behboudi
Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a commercially important neoplastic disease of poultry which is only controlled by mass vaccination. Importantly, vaccines that can provide sterile immunity and inhibit virus transmission are lacking; such that vaccines are only capable of preventing neuropathy, oncogenic disease and immunosuppression, but are unable to prevent MDV transmission or infection, leading to emergence of increasingly virulent pathotypes. Hence, to address these issues, developing more efficacious vaccines that induce sterile immunity have become one of the important research goals for avian immunologists today...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Research
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