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Marek's disease virus

Andrew C Brown, Vishwanatha R A P Reddy, Joshua Lee, Venugopal Nair
Marek's disease (MD) is a neoplastic disease of poultry caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly contagious alphaherpesvirus. Meq, the major MDV oncoprotein, induces neoplastic transformation of T-cells through several mechanisms, including inhibition of apoptosis. In contrast, the chicken anemia virus (CAV)-encoded protein apoptin (VP3) is a powerful inducer of apoptosis of tumor cells, a property that is exploited for anticancer therapeutics. Although the molecular mechanisms of selective induction of tumor cell apoptosis by apoptin are not fully understood, its tumor cell-restricted nuclear translocation is thought to be important...
June 22, 2018: Oncotarget
Sabari Nath Neerukonda, Upendra K Katneni, Matthew Bott, Serguei P Golovan, Mark S Parcells
Marek's disease (MD) is a pathology of chickens associated with paralysis, immune suppression, and the rapid formation of T-cell lymphomas. MD is caused by the herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus (MDV). We examined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways during MDV infection of cells in culture and lymphocytes in vivo. MDV strains activate the UPR as measured by increased mRNA expression of GRP78/BiP with concomitant XBP1 splicing and induction of its target gene, EDEM1...
July 3, 2018: Virology
Taejoong Kim, Henry D Hunt, Mark S Parcells, Vicky van Santen, Sandra J Ewald
The function of the chicken's major histocompatibility complex (MHC or B complex) class I major (BF2) and minor (BF1) glycoproteins is compared for their expression, ability to present viral antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and interaction with natural killer (NK) cells. MHC-restricted CTLs recognized virus antigen in the context of the BF2*21 major glycoprotein but not the BF1*21 minor glycoprotein. Marek's disease virus (MDV), a large DNA virus known to reduce the cell surface expression of class I glycoprotein, reduced the expression of BF2 glycoprotein while BF1glycoprotein expressions are remained as no change or slight increase...
June 9, 2018: Immunogenetics
Zhongwen Zhou, Ning Cui, Shuai Su, Shuhong Sun, Zhizhong Cui
Integration of retro-viral long terminal repeat (LTR) into the Marek's disease virus (MDV) genome can occur both in co-cultivation cell cultures and naturally in dual infected chickens. It is clear that the LTR insert is associated with the pathogenicity of MDV. The objective of this study was to compare the host responses to MDV with a different retro-viral LTR insert. Gene-chip containing chicken genome was employed to investigate the gene transcription profile of chicken embryo fibroblasts cells, and 795 genes were differentially expressed in chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with GX0101 with a reticuloendotheliosis virus LTR insert as compared to GX0101-ALV-LTR significantly...
June 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Kekungu-U Puro, Uttaran Bhattacharjee, Samprity Baruah, Arnab Sen, Samir Das, Sandeep Ghatak, Sunil Doley, Rajkumari Sanjukta, Ingudam Shakuntala
The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus from the lesions and histopathology of organs associated with mortality in Kuroiler (dual purpose variety of poultry developed and marketed by Keggfarms Pvt. Ltd, India) birds suspected of Marek's disease. Among 1047 birds from two farms of different location with 5.5 and 34% mortality, two types of lesion were observed in post mortem examination; tumors in vital organs-liver, spleen, kidney, lung and ovaries and generalized small nodular tumour in the abdominal cavity...
June 2018: Virusdisease
Venugopal Nair
Marek's disease (MD), characterised by rapid-onset lymphoid tumours, immunosuppression and paralysis, is one of the most widespread economically important diseases of poultry world-wide. Caused by the highly contagious Marek's disease virus, control of MD is mainly achieved through vaccination with live attenuated vaccines, although improvements in genetic resistance have also been an important component of disease control. Despite the overall success of the vaccination policy in controlling MD in the last 40 years, continuous evolution of virulence and emergence of hypervirulent pathotypes remains the major challenge for sustainable control of this disease...
July 3, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Yashar Sadigh, Claire Powers, Simon Spiro, Miriam Pedrera, Andrew Broadbent, Venugopal Nair
Live herpesvirus-vectored vaccines are widely used in veterinary medicine to protect against many infectious diseases. In poultry, three strains of herpesvirus vaccines are used against Marek's disease (MD). However, of these, only the herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully developed and used as a recombinant vaccine vector to induce protection against other avian viral diseases such as infectious bursal disease (IBD), Newcastle disease (ND) or avian influenza (AI). Although effective when administered individually, recombinant HVT vectors have limitations when combined in multivalent vaccines...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Jegarubee Bavananthasivam, Tamiru N Alkie, Jake Astill, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem, Sarah K Wootton, Shahriar Behboudi, Alexander Yitbarek, Shayan Sharif
One of the economically important diseases in the poultry industry is Marek's disease (MD) which is caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV). The use of current vaccines provides protection against clinical signs of MD in chickens. However, these vaccines do not prevent the transmission of MDV to susceptible hosts, hence they may promote the development of new virulent strains of MDV. This issue persuaded us to explore alternative approaches to control MD in chickens. Induction of innate responses at the early stage of life in the chicken may help to prevent or reduce MDV infection...
June 27, 2018: Vaccine
Chunfang Zhao, Xin Li, Bo Han, Lujiang Qu, Changjun Liu, Jiuzhou Song, Ling Lian, Ning Yang
Marek's disease is an oncogenic and lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by Marek's disease virus. Hypermethylation or hypomethylation of CpG islands in gene promoter region are involved in the initiation and progression of carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed differential methylation levels of upstream region of gga-miR-130b-3p gene between Marek's disease virus-infected tumorous and non-infected spleens. Around the upstream 1 kb of gga-miR-130b-3p gene, two amplicons were designed that covered 616 bp...
May 11, 2018: Oncotarget
Marek Kowalczyk, Andrzej Jakubczak, Beata Horecka, Krzysztof Kostro
The Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is one of the most serious threats to modern mink breeding. The disease can have various courses, from progressive to subclinical infections. The objective of the study was to provide a comparative molecular characterization of isolates of AMDV from farms with a clinical and subclinical course of the disease. The qPCR analysis showed a difference of two orders of magnitude between the number of copies of the viral DNA on the farm with the clinical course of the disease (105 ) and the farm with the subclinical course (103 )...
May 29, 2018: Virus Genes
Yaoyao Zhang, Na Tang, Yashar Sadigh, Susan Baigent, Zhiqiang Shen, Venugopal Nair, Yongxiu Yao
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a member of alphaherpesviruses associated with Marek's disease, a highly contagious neoplastic disease in chickens. Complete sequencing of the viral genome and recombineering techniques using infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of Marek's disease virus genome have identified major genes that are associated with pathogenicity. Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing have given opportunities for precise editing of the viral genome for identifying pathogenic determinants...
May 24, 2018: Viruses
Fanfeng Meng, Qiuchen Li, Yubiao Zhang, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao
There was an outbreak of hemangioma associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) between 2006 and 2010 in China in commercial layer chickens. Recently, severe hemangiomas broke out in Hy-Line layer chickens on a poultry farm in 2017 where ALV was eradicated earlier. Six isolates of ALV-J, named SDAU1701-SDAU1706, were characterized by virus isolation and sequence analysis of the complete proviral genomes. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J was identified by an immunofluorescence assay with monoclonal antibody JE9, whereas Marek's disease virus or reticuloendotheliosis virus was not detected...
May 19, 2018: Poultry Science
Jing Zhou, Guo-Liang Zhao, Xiao-Man Wang, Xu-Sheng Du, Shuai Su, Chen-Gui Li, Venugopal Nair, Yong-Xiu Yao, Zi-Qiang Cheng
Superinfection of Marek's disease virus (MDV) and avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) causes lethal neoplasia and death in chickens. However, whether there is synergism between the two viruses in viral replication and pathogenicity has remained elusive. In this study, we found that the superinfection of MDV and ALV-J increased the viral replication of the two viruses in RNA and protein level, and synergistically promoted the expression of IL-10, IL-6, and TGF-β in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). Moreover, MDV and ALV-J protein expression in dual-infected cells detected by confocal laser scanning microscope appeared earlier in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and caused more severe cytopathy than single infection, suggesting that synergistically increased MDV and ALV-J viral-protein biosynthesis is responsible for the severe cytopathy...
May 18, 2018: Viruses
Nik M Faiz, Aneg L Cortes, James S Guy, Sanjay M Reddy, Isabel M Gimeno
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphoma and a variety of non-neoplastic syndromes in chickens. Furthermore, very virulent plus (vv+) MDVs induce a form of immunosuppression (late-MDV-IS) that might involve both neoplastic and non-neoplastic mechanisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the attenuation of MDV-induced tumours and late-MDV-IS occurs simultaneously or can be dissociated. The immunosuppressive ability of three viruses derived from vv+ MDV strain 686 (wild-type 686, the somewhat attenuated molecular clone 686-BAC, and the nononcogenic molecular clone lacking the two copies of the oncogene meq 686-BACΔMEQ) was evaluated...
May 16, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Sesny Gall, László Kőrösi, Aneg L Cortes, Andrea Delvecchio, Francesco Prandini, Peter Mitsch, Isabel M Gimeno
This article reports nine cases of neurological disease in brown layer pullets that occured in various European countries between 2015 and 2018. In all cases, the onset of neurological clinical signs was at 4-8 weeks of age and they lasted up to 22 weeks of age. Enlargement of peripheral nerves was the main lesion observed in all cases. Histopathological evaluation of nerves revealed oedema with moderate to severe infiltration of plasma cells. Marek's disease (MD) was ruled out by real-time PCR as none of the evaluated tissues had a high load of oncogenic MD virus (MDV) DNA, characteristics of MD...
August 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Biao Wang, Tammy Hylwka, Marek Smieja, Michael Surrette, Dawn M E Bowdish, Mark Loeb
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of conducting a large clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotics to reduce influenza and other respiratory virus infections in residents of long-term and chronic care facilities (LTCFs). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. SETTING: Fourteen nursing homes in Hamilton and surrounding region, Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home residents aged 65 and older (N=209)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Marike Visser, Heather Walz, Stephanie Shrader, Jey Koehler, Jamie Bellah
An adult bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus) presented for nystagmus and an inability to fly. On physical examination, the eagle was open-mouth breathing and tachycardic at 200 beats per minute, had a wrinkled cere and sunken eyes, and was an estimated 10% dehydrated. Additionally, the eagle was extremely weak, with neurologic abnormalities including bilateral proprioceptive deficits, nystagmus, and no pupillary light reflex in the left eye. Despite aggressive treatment, the eagle continued to decline rapidly and subsequently died...
March 2018: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Milan Daniel, Vlasta Danielová, Alena Fialová, Marek Malý, Bohumír Kříž, Patricia A Nuttall
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a serious acute neuroinfection of humans caused by a tick-borne flavivirus. The disease is typically seasonal, linked to the host-seeking activity of Ixodes ricinus (predominantly nymphs), the principal European tick vector species. To address the need for accurate risk predictions of contracting TBE, data on 4,044 TBE cases reported in the Czech Republic during 2001-2006 were compared with questing activity of I. ricinus nymphs monitored weekly at a defined location for the same 6-year period...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jian Chen, Zijun Zhao, Yangyijun Chen, Jie Zhang, Lifu Yan, Xiaocui Zheng, Ming Liao, Weisheng Cao
Avian leukosis virus subgroup K (ALV-K) is an emerging ALV tumor virus of chickens. We developed a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the rapid and economical detection of ALV-K in chicken flocks. The assay was specific for ALV-K and did not cross-react with other ALV subgroup or avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, or Marek's Disease virus. The method was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR and 10 times more sensitive than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the P27 antigen...
March 28, 2018: Poultry Science
Xue Lian, Xin Ming, Jiarong Xu, Wangkun Cheng, Xunhai Zhang, Hongjun Chen, Chan Ding, Yong-Sam Jung, Yingjuan Qian
BACKGROUND: Marek's disease virus (MDV) resides in the genus Mardivirus in the family Herpesviridae. MDV is a highly contagious virus that can cause neurological lesions, lymphocytic proliferation, immune suppression, and death in avian species, including Galliformes (chickens, quails, partridges, and pheasants), Strigiformes (owls), Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans), and Falconiformes (kestrels). CASE PRESENTATION: In 2015, two red-crowned cranes died in Nanjing (Jiangsu, China)...
April 3, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
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