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Marek's disease virus

Husnain Ahmed, Jody Mays, Matti Kiupel, John R Dunn
A variety of techniques have been developed as diagnostic tools for the differential diagnosis of tumours produced by Marek's disease virus (MDV) from those induced by avian leukosis virus (ALV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). However, most current techniques are unreliable when used in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues, which many times is the only sample type available for definitive diagnosis. A collection of tumours was generated by the inoculation of different strains of MDV, REV or ALV singularly or in combination...
March 13, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
HyeSoon Song, YouChan Bae, SeokChan Park, HyukMan Kwon, HeeSoo Lee, SeongJoon Joh
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods to detect chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and Marek's disease virus (MDV), and a reverse transcription (RT)-LAMP assay to detect infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), were developed. The CIAV-LAMP, REV-LAMP, MDV-LAMP, and IBDV-RT-LAMP methods were performed using four sets of six primers targeting the VP1 gene of CIAV, the gp90 gene of REV, the Meq gene of MDV, and the VP2 gene of IBDV. The results (a change in color) were observed visually...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Efstathios S Giotis, Alistair Scott, Lisa Rothwell, Tuanjun Hu, Richard Talbot, Daniel Todd, David W Burt, Elizabeth J Glass, Pete Kaiser
Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) is a lymphotropic virus that causes anaemia and immunosuppression in chickens. Previously, we proposed that CAV evades host antiviral responses in vivo by disrupting T-cell signalling, but the precise cellular targets and modes of action remain elusive. In this study, we examined gene expression in Marek's disease virus-transformed chicken T-cell line MSB-1 after infection with CAV using both a custom 5K immune-focused microarray and quantitative real-time PCR at 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection...
February 6, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Perrine Rasschaert, Isabelle Gennart, Imane Boumart, Ginette Dambrine, Benoit Muylkens, Denis Rasschaert, Sylvie Laurent
Transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are involved in the switch between the lytic, latent and reactivation phases of the viral cycle in herpesviruses. During the productive phases, herpesvirus gene expression is characterized by a temporally regulated cascade of immediate early (IE), early (E) and late (L) genes. In alphaherpesviruses, the major product of the IE ICP4 gene is a transcriptional regulator that initiates the cascade of gene expression that is essential for viral replication. In this study, we redefine the infected cell protein 4 (ICP4) gene of the oncogenic Marek's disease virus (MDV or gallid herpesvirus 2) as a 9438 nt gene ended with four alternative poly(A) signals and controlled by two alternative promoters containing essentially ubiquitous functional response elements (GC, TATA and CCAAT boxes)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Yuan Fang, Yuqi Zhou, Yun Zhang, Liangliang He, Chunyi Xue, Yongchang Cao
Lymphomas are solid-type tumors containing lymphoid cells. Some of latent herpesvirus infections established in B and/or T-lymphocytes could result in the formation of lymphomas. Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) is an avian herpes virus causing to lymphoproliferative tumors in birds, known as Marek's disease (MD). MD has often been used as an ideal biological model for studying the pathogenesis of lymphoma diseases caused by viruses. Therefore, we used it as a research subject to study the effect of miRNA sponges on its tumorigenicity, and to develop the theoretical basis for a new anti-tumor small molecule...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Steven J Conrad, Robert F Silva, Cari J Hearn, Megan Climans, John R Dunn
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus of Gallus gallus, the domesticated chicken. Control strategies rely upon vaccination with live attenuated viruses of antigenically similar avian herpesviruses or attenuated strains of MDV. Recent studies in other viruses have shown that recoding certain viral genes to employ synonymous but rarely-used codon pairs resulted in viral attenuation. We deoptimized two MDV proteins, UL54/ICP27 and UL49/VP22, and demonstrate that the more severely deoptimized variant of UL54 accumulates significantly less gene product in vitro...
February 1, 2018: Virology
Liangliang He, Jie Li, Yun Zhang, Jun Luo, Yongchang Cao, Chunyi Xue
Marek's disease has brought enormous loss in chicken production worldwide and the increasing virulence of Marek's disease virus (MDV) became a severe problem. To better understand the genetic basis underlying, a Chinese MDV strain HNGS101 isolated from immunized chickens was sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis implied that HNGS101 showed more relatedness to Eurasian strains than GaHV-2 circulating in North America. Recombination networks analysis showed the evidence of recombination among MDV strains, and several recombination events in the UL and US region were found...
January 31, 2018: Virology
Paulina Rusek, Mateusz Wala, Magdalena Druszczyńska, Marek Fol
The discoveries made over the past few years have modified the current immunological paradigm. It turns out that innate immunity cells can mount some kind of immunological memory, similar to that observed in the acquired immunity and corresponding to the defense mechanisms of lower organisms, which increases their resistance to reinfection. This phenomenon is termed trained innate immunity. It is based on epigenetic changes in innate immune cells (monocytes/macrophages, NK cells) after their stimulation with various infectious or non-infectious agents...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jeffrey Pernica, Stuart Harman, April Kam, Jacob Bailey, Redjana Carciumaru, Sarah Khan, Martha Fulford, Lehana Thabane, Robert Slinger, Cheryl Main, Marek Smieja, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is commonly diagnosed in children. The Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines recommend 10 days of high-dose amoxicillin for the treatment of non-severe CAP but 5-day "short course" therapy may be just as effective. Randomized trials in adults have already demonstrated non-inferiority of 5-day short-course treatment for adults hospitalized with severe CAP and for adults with mild CAP treated as outpatients. Minimizing exposure to antimicrobials is desirable to avoid harms including diarrhoea, rashes, severe allergic reactions, increased circulating antimicrobial resistance, and microbiome disruption...
February 1, 2018: Trials
Kathrin Eschke, Jakob Trimpert, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Dusan Kunec
Codon pair bias deoptimization (CPBD) has enabled highly efficient and rapid attenuation of RNA viruses. The technique relies on recoding of viral genes by increasing the number of codon pairs that are statistically underrepresented in protein coding genes of the viral host without changing the amino acid sequence of the encoded proteins. Utilization of naturally underrepresented codon pairs reduces protein production of recoded genes and directly causes virus attenuation. As a result, the mutant virus is antigenically identical with the parental virus, but virulence is reduced or absent...
January 29, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
David A Kennedy, Patricia A Dunn, Andrew F Read
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a pathogen of chickens whose control has twice been undermined by pathogen evolution. Disease ecology is believed to be the main driver of this evolution, yet mathematical models of MDV disease ecology have never been confronted with data to test their reliability. Here, we develop a suite of MDV models that differ in the ecological mechanisms they include. We fit these models with maximum likelihood using iterated filtering in 'pomp' to data on MDV concentration in dust collected from two commercial broiler farms...
January 10, 2018: Epidemics
Ahmed Kheimar, Benedikt B Kaufer
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes fatal lymphomas in chickens and is used as a natural virus-host model for herpesvirus-induced tumorigenesis. MDV encodes a telomerase RNA subunit (vTR) that is crucial for efficient MDV-induced lymphoma formation; however, the mechanism is not completely understood. Similarly, Epstein Barr-virus (EBV) encodes two RNAs (EBER-1 and EBER-2) that are highly expressed in EBV-induced tumor cells, however their role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Intriguingly, vTR and EBER-1 have interaction partners in common that are highly conserved in humans and chickens...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Irit Davidson, Amira Natour-Altory, Israel Raibstein, Eitan Kin, Yaad Dahan, Haim Krispin, Nati Elkin
Protection against diseases caused by the avian viruses, Marek's disease, Infectious laryngotracheitis, chicken anemia and turkey meningoencephalitis is achieved by live vaccines. The application quality is important to assure proper uptake in commercial flocks. We describe a novel evaluation method for the vaccination process by sequential monitoring the vaccine viruses in feathers. Feather collection is easy, non-invasive and non-lethal for the birds, therefore advantageous for monitoring purposes. To demonstrate the vaccine virus presence, an innovative assay of nested real-time amplification was approached because vaccine viruses presence in vivo is less abundant comparing to virulent wild-type isolates...
December 26, 2017: Vaccine
Nicole Theodoropoulos, Marek J Nowicki, Claudia Chinchilla-Reyes, Sara Dionne, Andrés Jaramillo, Tom Mone, Richard Hasz, Martin D Jendrisak, Daniela P Ladner, Michael G Ison
BACKGROUND: Before the 2014 policy change pertaining to infectious disease screening, many organ procurement organizations (OPOs) were supplementing serologic screening of deceased organ donors with nucleic acid testing (NAT) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The number of seronegative, NAT-positive donors has not been directly measured. METHODS: HIV, HBV, and HCV screening results of 11 229 donor referrals evaluated from 2010 to 2013 were obtained from 3 OPO-affiliated laboratories, capturing 35% of all donors in the United States...
February 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Emily Adland, Matilda Hill, Nora Lavandier, Anna Csala, Anne Edwards, Fabian Chen, Marek Radkowski, Justyna D Kowalska, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Angelos Hatzakis, Humberto Valenzuela-Ponce, Katja Pfafferott, Ian Williams, Pierre Pellegrino, Persephone Borrow, Masahiko Mori, Jürgen Rockstroh, Julia G Prado, Beatriz Mothe, Judith Dalmau, Javier Martinez-Picado, Gareth Tudor-Williams, John Frater, Anette Stryhn, Soren Buus, Gustavo Reyes Teran, Simon Mallal, Mina John, Susan Buchbinder, Gregory Kirk, Jeffrey Martin, Nelson Michael, Jacques Fellay, Steve Deeks, Bruce Walker, Santiago Avila-Rios, David Cole, Christian Brander, Mary Carrington, Philip Goulder
The well-characterised association between HLA-B*27:05 and protection against HIV disease progression has been linked to immunodominant HLA-B*27:05-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses towards the conserved Gag 263-272 ('KK10') and Pol 901-909 'KY9' epitopes. We here studied the impact of the 3 amino acid differences between HLA-B*27:05 and the closely-related HLA-B*27:02 on the HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell response hierarchy and on immune control of HIV. Genetic epidemiological data indicate that both HLA-B*27:02 and HLA-B*27:05 associate with slower disease progression and lower viral loads...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
Jakob Trimpert, Nicole Groenke, Maria Jenckel, Shulin He, Dusan Kunec, Moriah L Szpara, Stephen J Spatz, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Dino P McMahon
Virulence determines the impact a pathogen has on the fitness of its host, yet current understanding of the evolutionary origins and causes of virulence of many pathogens is surprisingly incomplete. Here, we explore the evolution of Marek's disease virus (MDV), a herpesvirus commonly afflicting chickens and rarely other avian species. The history of MDV in the 20th century represents an important case study in the evolution of virulence. The severity of MDV infection in chickens has been rising steadily since the adoption of intensive farming techniques and vaccination programs in the 1950s and 1970s, respectively...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
Hainan Zheng, Mengyun Wang, Chengcheng Zhao, Shanli Wu, Peifeng Yu, Yan Lü, Tiedong Wang, Yongxing Ai
Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are essential regulators of intracellular processes involving ubiquitin (Ub) modification. The human DUB ubiquitin-specific protease 1 (hUSP1) interacts with human USP-associated factor 1 (hUAF1), and helps to regulate processes such as DNA damage repair. Previously, we identified a chicken USP1 homologue (chUSP1) during an investigation into the properties of Marek's disease virus (MDV). However, chUSP1's deubiquitination activity, interaction with chUAF1, and substrate specificity remained unknown...
2017: PloS One
Audrey L French, Jonathan W Martin, Charlesnika T Evans, Marion Peters, Seble G Kessaye, Marek Nowicki, Mark Kuniholm, Elizabeth Golub, Michael Augenbraun, Seema N Desai
BACKGROUND: HIV/hepatitis C-coinfected persons experience more rapid liver disease progression than hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfected persons, even in the setting of potent antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: We sought to articulate the role of macrophage activation and inflammation in liver disease progression by measuring serial soluble markers in HIV/HCV-coinfected women. We compared markers measured during retrospectively defined periods of rapid liver disease progression to periods where little or no liver disease progression occurred...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Emir Ahmed Sajjad, Marek Radkowski, Agnieszka Perkowska-Ptasińska, Marek Pacholczyk, Magdalena Durlik, Mikołaj Fedorowicz, Renata Pietrzak, Bogna Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, Paweł Włodarski, Jacek Malejczyk
BACKGROUND Genetic alterations of TGF-β pathway members, including its transmembrane receptor, TGFBR1, may influence the course of HCV infection. Rs868 is a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the 3'UTR region of TGFBR1, located in a binding site for the conserved let-7/miR98 microRNA family. Previously, we demonstrated a favorable course of hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation in rs868 AG genotype of the transplanted liver when compared to rs868 AA. The aim of the present study was to confirm the biological effect of rs868...
October 24, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Mikolaj Adamek, Dennis Hazerli, Marek Matras, Felix Teitge, Michal Reichert, Dieter Steinhagen
In response to the constant challenge by potential pathogens, external surfaces of fish, their skin, gills and intestinal tract, are coated with mucus, a gel like substance which largely prevents the entry of pathogens. This mucus gel consists mainly of water and mucins, large O-glycosylated proteins, which are responsible for forming a gel like mixture. A modulation of the mRNA expression of mucins, was described in viral diseases in mammals however there is a knowledge gap about the regulation of mucins during viral infection in fish...
October 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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