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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340451/the-role-of-drug-drug-interactions-in-prostate-cancer-treatment-focus-on-abiraterone-acetate-prednisone-and-enzalutamide
#1
REVIEW
Marzia Del Re, Stefano Fogli, Lisa Derosa, Francesco Massari, Paul De Souza, Stefania Crucitta, Sergio Bracarda, Daniele Santini, Romano Danesi
Elderly patients with cancer may have comorbidities, each requiring additional pharmacologic treatment. Therefore, the occurrence of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions is very likely, and the risk of adverse reactions (ADRs), due to the narrow therapeutic window of anticancer drugs, is increased. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may occur in prostate cancer patients due to inhibition by abiraterone of liver cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent enzymes CYP2C8 and 2D6, which are involved in the metabolism of approximately 25% of all drugs, and induction by enzalutamide of CYP3A4, 2C9 and 2C19, which metabolize up to 50% of medications...
March 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276631/antithrombotic-medications-in-dialysis-patients-a-double-edged-sword
#2
Georgios Vlachopanos, Farid Girgis Ghalli
In the clinical context of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), thrombosis and bleeding risks are simultaneously increased and may have devastating consequences. While anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs are indispensable for the prevention of thromboembolic events, the significantly higher bleeding risk makes their handling extremely complicated. In ESRD, they are frequently administered for a wide array of conditions. For example, atrial fibrillation is quite common in ESRD and warrants the use of anticoagulants like warfarin...
February 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229894/mobile-stroke-units-for-prehospital-thrombolysis-triage-and-beyond-benefits-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Klaus Fassbender, James C Grotta, Silke Walter, Iris Q Grunwald, Andreas Ragoschke-Schumm, Jeffrey L Saver
In acute stroke management, time is brain. Bringing swift treatment to the patient, instead of the conventional approach of awaiting the patient's arrival at the hospital for treatment, is a potential strategy to improve clinical outcomes after stroke. This strategy is based on the use of an ambulance (mobile stroke unit) equipped with an imaging system, a point-of-care laboratory, a telemedicine connection to the hospital, and appropriate medication. Studies of prehospital stroke treatment consistently report a reduction in delays before thrombolysis and cause-based triage in regard to the appropriate target hospital (eg, primary vs comprehensive stroke centre)...
March 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125180/a-direct-oral-anticoagulant-as-a-cost-effective-alternative-to-warfarin-for-treatment-of-provoked-venous-thrombosis
#4
W Courtney, E Groarke, J Conway, E Conway, D Bourke, J Saunders, M Watts, D O'Keefe
In Ireland, Warfarin is the primary anticoagulant prescribed in the secondary prevention of provoked DVT. We completed a comprehensive cost analysis of a trial group of 24 patients treated with Rivaroxaban (between November 2013 and December 2014), versus a control group treated with Warfarin (between January 2008 and November 2013). The groups were matched for gender (3/7 M/F ratio), DVT type (5 proximal, 19 distal DVTs), provoking factor (20 traumatic, 4 atraumatc), and age. We calculated the cost for each group based on drug administration and clinic costs (labour, sample analysis, and additional costs)...
October 12, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079798/clinical-and-genetic-factors-associated-with-warfarin-maintenance-dose-in-northern-chinese-patients-with-mechanical-heart-valve-replacement
#5
Rui Liu, Jian Cao, Qian Zhang, Xin-Miao Shi, Xiao-Dong Pan, Ran Dong
The effects of genetic variants on warfarin dosing vary among different ethnic groups, especially in the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to recruit patients through a rigorous experimental design and to perform a comprehensive screen to identify gene polymorphisms that may influence warfarin dosing in northern Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Consenting patients (n = 183) with a stable warfarin dose were included in this study. Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 30 genes involved in warfarin pharmacological pathways were genotyped using the Illumina SNP GoldenGate Assay, and their associations with warfarin dosing were assessed using univariate regression analysis with post hoc comparison using least significant difference analysis...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070883/pilot-of-a-computerised-antithrombotic-risk-assessment-tool-version-2-caratv2-0-for-stroke-prevention-in-atrial-fibrillation
#6
Yishen Wang, Beata Bajorek
BACKGROUND: The decision-making process for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) requires a comprehensive assessment of risk vs. benefit and an appropriate selection of antithrombotic agents (e.g., warfarin, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants [NOACs]). The aim of this pilot-test was to examine the impact of a customised decision support tool - the Computerised Antithrombotic Risk Assessment Tool (CARATV2.0) using antithrombotic therapy on a cohort of patients with AF...
January 10, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989309/comparative-efficacy-of-clinical-events-prevention-of-five-anticoagulants-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-a%C3%A2-network-meta-analysis
#7
Lin Guo, Shuangzhan Li, Pin Wang, Xiaoming Zhong, Yan Hong
Atrial fibrillation (AF) ranks the most prevailing type of cardiac rhythm disorder and AF patients are associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke compared to others. This study is designed to assess the relative efficacy of several clinical events prevention anticoagulants in patients with AF. Conventional pairwise meta-analysis was performed with fixed-effect model initially, then network meta-analysis was performed with random-effects model within results illustrated by cumulative odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% credible interval (CrI)...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914497/acute-management-of-stroke-patients-taking-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-addressing-real-world-anticoagulant-management-issues-in-stroke-aramis-registry-design-and-rationale
#8
Ying Xian, Adrian F Hernandez, Tina Harding, Gregg C Fonarow, Deepak L Bhatt, Robert E Suter, Yosef Khan, Lee H Schwamm, Eric D Peterson
BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) have been increasingly used as alternatives to warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation. Yet there is substantial lack of information on how patients on NOACs are currently treated when they have an acute ischemic stroke and the best strategies for treating intracerebral hemorrhage for those on chronic anticoagulation with warfarin or a NOAC. These are critical unmet needs for real world clinical decision making in these emergent patients...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785526/efficacy-and-safety-of-aspirin-combined-with-warfarin-after-acute-coronary-syndrome-a-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
P Zhang, J Li, C Wu, X Huang, L Li, W Zhang, C Shen
A comprehensive meta-analysis was performed to investigate whether the combination of high-/low-dose of aspirin and various intensities of warfarin (W) offer greater benefit than aspirin (ASA) alone. A total of 14 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) having 26,916 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) met inclusion criteria. The efficacy and safety of all outcomes which included myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause death, stroke, and bleeding were calculated. The overall outcomes analysis showed there was no significant difference in the risk of MI (relative ratio [RR] 0...
October 26, 2016: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769175/warfarin-use-and-stroke-bleeding-and-mortality-risk-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-and-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Jingwen Tan, Shuiqing Liu, Jodi B Segal, G Caleb Alexander, Mara McAdams-DeMarco
BACKGROUND: Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD), including stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD), hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD), are at high risk for stroke-related morbidity, mortality and bleeding. The overall risk/benefit balance of warfarin treatment among patients with ESRD and AF remains unclear. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the associations of warfarin use and stroke outcome, bleeding outcome or mortality in patients with ESRD and AF...
October 21, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767380/landscape-of-warfarin-and-clopidogrel-pharmacogenetic-variants-in-qatari-population-from-whole-exome-datasets
#11
Ambily Sivadas, Parul Sharma, Vinod Scaria
AIM: Pharmacogenetic landscapes of commonly used antiplatelet drugs, warfarin and clopidogrel have been studied in-depth in many countries. However, there is a paucity of data to understand their patterns in the Arab populations. MATERIALS & METHODS: We analyzed the whole exome sequencing datasets of 100 Qatar individuals available in public domain with this perspective. RESULTS: We characterized the allelic distribution of variants routinely tested for warfarin and clopidogrel...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713852/delayed-cerebral-infarct-following-anterior-cervical-diskectomy-and-fusion
#12
Christopher S Graffeo, Ross C Puffer, Eelco F M Wijdicks, William E Krauss
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke following anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) is an exceedingly rare complication. There are only three previous cases focusing on this problem in the literature; here, we present the fourth case. CASE DESCRIPTION: A patient, cared for at an outside institution, developed a delayed ischemic stroke 3 days following an ACDF. This complication was attributed to carotid manipulation precipitating vascular injury in the setting of multiple comorbid vascular and coagulopathic risk factors, including previously undiagnosed carotid atherosclerosis, a prior history of pulmonary embolus requiring Warfarin anticoagulation (held perioperatively), acute dehydration, and atrial fibrillation...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639441/human-teratogens-and-genetic-phenocopies-understanding-pathogenesis-through-human-genes-mutation
#13
Matteo Cassina, Giulia A Cagnoli, Daniela Zuccarello, Elena Di Gianantonio, Maurizio Clementi
Exposure to teratogenic drugs during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of embryo-fetal anomalies and sometimes results in recurrent and recognizable patterns of malformations; however, the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of drug-induced birth defects is difficult, since teratogenesis is a multifactorial process which is always the result of a complex interaction between several environmental factors and the genetic background of both the mother and the fetus. Animal models have been extensively used to assess the teratogenic potential of pharmacological agents and to study their teratogenic mechanisms; however, a still open issue concerns how the information gained through animal models can be translated to humans...
January 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637676/stroke
#14
REVIEW
Graeme J Hankey
In the past decade, the definition of stroke has been revised and major advances have been made for its treatment and prevention. For acute ischaemic stroke, the addition of endovascular thrombectomy of proximal large artery occlusion to intravenous alteplase increases functional independence for a further fifth of patients. The benefits of aspirin in preventing early recurrent ischaemic stroke are greater than previously recognised. Other strategies to prevent recurrent stroke now include direct oral anticoagulants as an alternative to warfarin for atrial fibrillation, and carotid stenting as an alternative to endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis...
February 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570089/rivaroxaban-versus-warfarin-to-treat-patients-with-thrombotic-antiphospholipid-syndrome-with-or-without-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-raps-a-randomised-controlled-open-label-phase-2-3-non-inferiority-trial
#15
Hannah Cohen, Beverley J Hunt, Maria Efthymiou, Deepa R J Arachchillage, Ian J Mackie, Simon Clawson, Yvonne Sylvestre, Samuel J Machin, Maria L Bertolaccini, Maria Ruiz-Castellano, Nicola Muirhead, Caroline J Doré, Munther Khamashta, David A Isenberg
BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban is established for the treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism, but whether it is useful in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome is uncertain. METHODS: This randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 2/3, non-inferiority trial, done in two UK hospitals, included patients with antiphospholipid syndrome who were taking warfarin for previous venous thromboembolism, with a target international normalised ratio of 2·5. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to continue with warfarin or receive 20 mg oral rivaroxaban daily...
September 2016: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537590/silent-pulmonary-thromboembolism-in-neurosurgery-patients-report-of-2-cases-and-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Rui Tian, Jun Gao, Alof Chen, Xinjie Bao, Jian Guan, Ming Feng, Yongning Li, Wenbin Ma, Zuyuan Ren, Renzhi Wang, Junji Wei
BACKGROUND: The requirement of postoperative bedridden and immobilization renders neurosurgical patients with higher risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), then more vulnerable for pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). But silent pulmonary thromboembolism (SPTE) can be the very early stage of any typical form of PTE, its diagnosis and management is therefore critical in neurosurgical departments. However, to date, perioperative SPTE has not been attached with enough attention. METHODS: Here, we report 2 cases of perioperative SPTE in the Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432042/a-comprehensive-overview-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-for-the-management-of-venous-thromboembolism
#17
REVIEW
Anthony J Comerota, Eduardo Ramacciotti
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a prevalent, potentially fatal health problem. Although standard anticoagulant therapy is effective when compared with the newer direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), it has disadvantages. Heparin and its derivatives must be administered parenterally, whereas use of oral vitamin K antagonists is complicated by unpredictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, drug-food and drug-drug interactions and the requirement for frequent laboratory monitoring. Randomized phase 3 trials have demonstrated that patients receive similarly effective anticoagulation with the DOACs dabigatran, edoxaban, rivaroxaban and apixaban when compared with warfarin, with similar or reduced risk of bleeding...
July 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388221/development-and-validation-of-a-decision-aid-for-choosing-among-antithrombotic-agents-for-atrial-fibrillation
#18
Safoora Fatima, Anne Holbrook, Sam Schulman, Steve Park, Sue Troyan, Greg Curnew
BACKGROUND: Multiple antithrombotic agents are available for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). A decision aid can assist patients in making informed decisions that best serves their needs. OBJECTIVE: To validate a decision aid to assist patients in choosing between antithrombotic agents (antiplatelets, warfarin, direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs)) for AF. METHODS: Patients (60years or older) were recruited for this prospective study...
September 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334984/effect-of-cyp2c9-vkorc1-and-cyp4f2-polymorphisms-on-warfarin-maintenance-dose-in-children-aged-less-than-18%C3%A2-years-a-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Masanobu Takeuchi, Tohru Kobayashi, Leonardo R Brandão, Shinya Ito
BACKGROUND: Despite its shortcomings, warfarin is still the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant to prevent thromboembolism in children. In adults, numerous studies confirmed the robust relationship between warfarin maintenance doses and single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1), and cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2). However, their effect in children still remains to be determined. The primary objective of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the effect of genotypes of CYP2C9, VKORC1, and CYP4F2 on warfarin maintenance dose in children...
2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317014/impact-of-a-guideline-for-the-management-of-antimicrobial-warfarin-interactions-in-the-inpatient-setting-and-across-transition-of-care
#20
Nghi B Ha, Katherine Yang, Sarah Hanigan, Brian Kurtz, Michael P Dorsch, Hannah Mak, Jerod Nagel
BACKGROUND: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with warfarin and antimicrobial agents are a common cause of international normalized ratio (INR) instability, which can affect the risk for bleeding and thrombotic events. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a comprehensive guideline for the management of warfarin-antimicrobial DDIs across transitions of care. The guideline emphasizes improving identification of significant antimicrobial-warfarin DDIs during hospitalization, empirical warfarin dose modification based on DDI and baseline INR, patient education, documentation of the DDI, communication with outpatient providers regarding the DDI and anticipated antimicrobial stop date, and warfarin dose adjustment on discontinuation of antimicrobial...
September 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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