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Yong-Cheol Lee, Jiwon Lee, Je-Do Son, Jae-Yoon Lee, Hyun-Chang Kim
Objective The GlideScope® videolaryngoscope provides a good view of the glottis. However, directing and inserting an endotracheal tube is sometimes difficult during intubation with the GlideScope®. In this study, we compared two GlideScope® stylet angulations (90° vs. 70°) in terms of the time to intubation. Methods In total, 162 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the 90 group ( n = 79), a 90° stylet was used. In the 70 group ( n = 78), a 70° stylet was used...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Bianca L Barrantes-Infante, Brenda K Schroeder, Sergei A Subbotin, Timothy D Murray
The dropseed gall-forming nematode, Afrina sporoboliae sp. n., is described from seed galls of Sporobolus cryptandrus (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Sporobolinae) collected in Idaho, USA. This is the third report of an Afrina species in North America and the first report of this genus in a natural plant population on this continent. Morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses placed this nematode in genus Afrina and demonstrated that it differs from Af. hyparrheniae and Af. spermophaga by having longer body and stylet lengths for females and males, and from Af...
January 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Elaine A Backus, Felix A Cervantes, Larry Godfrey, Waseem Akbar, Thomas L Clark, Maria G Rojas
This study is the first to fully evaluate whether electrical signals applied to large insects during electropenetrography (EPG; also called electrical penetration graph) negatively affect insect behavior. During EPG, electrical signals are applied to plants, and thus to the gold-wire-tethered insects feeding on them. The insect completes an electrical circuit whose changes in voltage reflect the insect's stylet probing/penetration behaviors, recorded as waveform output. For nearly 50 years of EPG science, evidence has supported that there are no or negligible effects on tiny insects from applied electricity during EPG...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
T Lucini, A R Panizzi
In this article, we review and discuss the potential use of EPG (electropenetrography) as a powerful tool to unveil the feeding process of phytophagous stink bugs (pentatomids). These bugs are relatively big and vigorous, which presents a problem during wiring (i.e., attachment of the gold wire on the bug's pronotum) for use in EPG. Once this challenge was overcome, using the sand paper-and-wire technique, several species have been studied using EPG, yielding waveforms that, coupled with histological studies, revealed the ingestion sites on different host plants...
December 27, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
Geert Smant, Johannes Helder, Aska Goverse
Parallel adaptations enabling the use of plant cells as the primary food source have occurred multiple times in distinct nematode clades. The hallmark of all extant obligate and facultative plant feeding nematodes is the presence of an oral stylet, which is required for penetration of plant cell walls, delivery of pharyngeal gland secretions into host cells, and selective uptake of plant assimilates. Plant parasites from different clades, and even within a single clade, display a large diversity in feeding behaviours ranging from short feeding cycles on single cells to prolonged feeding on highly sophisticated host cell complexes...
December 26, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Wenjun Shen, Hasan R Syed, Gurpreet Gandhoke, Roxanna Garcia, Tatiana Pundy, Tadanori Tomita
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) provides a shunt-free treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus children. With rapidly evolving technology, the semi-rigid fiber optic neuroendoscopy shows a potential application in ETV by blunt fenestration. A retrospective analysis of our experience is reviewed. METHODS: The authors review infants and children who underwent ETV using this technique from June 2004 to June 2016 with radiological and clinical follow-up done by a single surgeon...
December 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Niels W L Van Steenkiste, Elizabeth R Herbert, Brian S Leander
Increasing evidence suggests that many widespread species of meiofauna are in fact regional complexes of (pseudo-)cryptic species. This knowledge has challenged the 'Everything is Everywhere' hypothesis and also partly explains the meiofauna paradox of widespread nominal species with limited dispersal abilities. Here, we investigated species diversity within the marine microturbellarian Astrotorhynchus bifidus sensu lato in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. We used a multiple-evidence approach combing multi-gene (18S, 28S, COI) phylogenetic analyses, several single-gene and multi-gene species delimitation methods, haplotype networks and conventional taxonomy to designate Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs)...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Yi-Tao Lin, Wei-Tao Feng, Jie-Yi Zhuang, Y U Zhang, An-Tai Wang
Two new species of Kalyptorhynchia (Rhabdocoela), namely Itaipusa sinensis n. sp. (Koinocystididae) and Prognathorhynchus sinensis n. sp. (Gnathorhynchidae) were described from brackish water near Shenzhen Bay, representing the first records of Koinocystididae and Gnathorhynchidae in China. For I. sinensis n. sp., the U-shaped cirrus contains 50 triangular lamellar spines, with two cuticular (pseudocuticular) hooks situated at both sides of its anterior part. The hook I (right side) is funnel-shaped, while the hook II (left side) is triangular lamellar in shape...
October 20, 2017: Zootaxa
Jhoe Reyes, Francisco Brusa
Species of Macrostomum are present in almost all regions of the world. These flatworms occur in different kinds of environments, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. Although Peru is considered one of the megadiverse countries in South America, little is known about freshwater microturbellarians in this country. Here we report the presence of M. rostratum Papi, 1951 for the first time in Peru, in a coastal brackish water wetland, and that of M. quiritium Beklemischev, 1951 and M. tuba Graff, 1882 in an inland portion of a river near the city of Lima...
December 5, 2017: Zootaxa
Camila C Borges, Elizabeth G Neves, Rodrigo Johnsson
Recent surveys of the copepod fauna associated with the sponge Ircinia felix (Porifera, Dictyoceratida) in Brazil resulted in the discovery of a new siphonostomatoid species belonging to a recently erected genus of Asterocheridae. Setacheres portobarrensis sp. nov. possesses a 21-segmented antennule, with 3 free distal segments, after the aesthetasc. The third exopodal segment of leg 3 shows a distal seta instead of a spine as in some other congeners. The new species shows several unique features on the third endopodal segment of the antenna, the mandibular stylet, the inner lobe of the maxillule, and setules and spinules located in specific regions of legs 1 to 4...
December 8, 2017: Zootaxa
Yitao Lin, Weiwei Zhou, Peng Xiao, Yihong Zheng, Jun Lu, Jiancheng Li, Antai Wang
There is limited information about the ecology of freshwater flatworms in China, in particular, the members of the genus Macrostomum. Surveying freshwater bodies to explore the species diversity is the first step to obtain more ecological information about those flatworms. We hereby report the discovery of two new species of freshwater flatworms in Macrostomum. Macrostomum chongqingensis Lin and Wang, n. sp. was discovered from stones in the shallow water of Jialing River bed near Chongqing. Macrostomum zhaoqingensis Lin and Wang, n...
October 4, 2017: Zootaxa
Yi-Tao Lin, Wei-Tao Feng, Fan Xin, L V Zhang, Y U Zhang, An-Tai Wang
Two new species of Macrostomum (Platyhelminthes: Macrostomorpha), M. shiyanensis n. sp. and M. lankouensis n. sp. are described from Shiyan Reservoir and Lankou Town. Morphological characteristics of the penis stylets and sperm, as well as the phylogenetic analysis using concatenated sequences of 18S and 28S rDNA genes support the establishment of these two new species and indicate that they are closely related to M. sinensis and M. heyuanensis described from different regions of Guangdong province. Finally, the progress of molecular phylogenetics of Macrostomum worldwide is also discussed...
October 19, 2017: Zootaxa
WeiYu Lu, Justin K Hwang, Fangfang Zeng, Walter S Leal
The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), is a multimodal compound that acts as a spatial repellent as well as an irritant (contact repellent), thus being perceived by the insect's olfactory and gustatory systems as an odorant and a tastant, respectively. Soon after DEET was developed, almost 6 decades ago, it was reported that it reduced mosquito feeding on blood mixed with this repellent. It is now known that the mosquito proboscis senses contact repellents with the tips (labella) of the labium, which remain in direct contact with the outer layers of the skin, while the stylets, including the feeding deterrent sensor (labrum), penetrate the skin...
2017: PloS One
Alejandro Tena, Eliana Nieves, Julieta Herrero, Alberto Urbaneja
Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that has become a citrus pest in Europe. This mealybug species causes serious damage because it deforms the fruits. Here, we studied the defensive behavior of D. aberiae when it was attacked by three parasitoid species: Acerophagus angustifrons (Gahan), Anagyrus sp. near pseudoccoci (Girault), and Leptomastix algirica Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Anagyrus sp. near pseudoccoci and L. algirica detected and accepted nymphs and adult females of D...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Juan E Palomares-Rius, Carolina Escobar, Javier Cabrera, Alessio Vovlas, Pablo Castillo
Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) interact with plants in different ways, for example, through subtle feeding behavior, migrating destructively through infected tissues, or acting as virus-vectors for nepoviruses. They are all obligate biotrophic parasites as they derive their nutrients from living cells which they modify using pharyngeal gland secretions prior to food ingestion. Some of them can also shield themselves against plant defenses to sustain a relatively long lasting interaction while feeding. This paper is centered on cell types or organs that are newly induced in plants during PPN parasitism, including recent approaches to their study based on molecular biology combined with cell biology-histopathology...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Diann S Achor, Carl C Childers, Michael E Rogers
Tuckerella japonica Ehara (Acari: Tuckerellidae) feeds on predigested plant cells beneath exposed periderm tissue of 1- to 3+-year-old stems of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theaceae) where longitudinal bark splitting occurs. Control samples from these tissues were compared with areas fed upon by T. japonica adults and immatures to characterize types of cellular injury. Stylet diameters ranged from 1.6 to 2.3 µm and were consistent with observed stylet punctures in the stems. Mite saliva was injected along tracts within the cortical tissue and resulted in cell wall disruption, collapsed cells and, in older tissue, hyperplasia...
November 29, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Asit Das, Dhiman Kahali, Shibananda Dutta
BACKGROUND: Sinus node disease is associated with widespread structural and electrophysiological changes in the atria in addition to abnormalities at the sinus node. The atrial conduction disorder in patients with atrial pacing results in higher incidence of atrial fibrillation. Studies have shown that low interatrial septal pacing is superior to right atrial appendage pacing in preventing persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation in these patients. However, implantation of active fixation lead in low interatrial septal position is difficult and time consuming with conventional stylet, inhibiting application of this method in routine practice...
November 2017: Indian Heart Journal
C G Melo, A C Tomaz, B O Soares, K N Kuki, L A Peternelli, M H Pereira Barbosa
The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare root morpho-anatomical traits and physiological responses of susceptible (SP81-3250) and resistant (H. Kawandang) sugarcane genotypes exposed to the attack by nymphs of spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae). Two experiments were conducted to compare the damage caused by spittlebug nymphs on fresh and dry biomass weight; lignin content in stalks; root anatomy; chlorophyll content; photosynthetic rate (A); carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci); stomatal conductance (g S ) and transpiration rate (E) of these genotypes...
November 23, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Martina Pecharová, Jakub Prokop
Megasecoptera is an extinct group of insects with specialized rostrum-like mouthparts, which is a synapomorphy shared with all members of the Late Paleozoic Palaeodictyopterida, and markedly slender wings that are unable to flex backwards. Here we describe the close up morphology of Protohymenidae and Scytohymenidae and uncover new aspects of the endoskeleton (tentorium) of the head, structure of the mouthparts with discernable proximal part of stylets controlled by muscles, surface of compound eyes that consist of a hexagonal pattern of large facets, structure and microstructures on the wings and reconstruct male and female external genitalia using ESEM and light stereomicroscopy...
November 18, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
Pi-Ying Chang, Pin-Yang Hu, Yi-Chu Lin, Hsiu-Ya Chen, Feng-Yu Chiang, Che-Wei Wu, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, I-Cheng Lu
Background: Endotracheal tube-based surface electrodes are now commonly applied to measure evoked electromyographic (EMG) response of the vocal cord during monitored thyroidectomy. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of difficult intubation and to assess the effectiveness of using video-assisted intubating stylet (Trachway) for EMG tube placement in patients undergoing monitored thyroidectomy. Methods: Medical records were collected from consecutive patients undergoing thyroid surgery before and after implementation of the protocol...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
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