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Dev Gurera, Bharat Bhushan, Navin Kumar
Arthropods are the largest group of the living organisms. They attack other organisms by biting, stinging, or piercing and sucking. Among various medically important arthropods, which feed on living hosts, mosquitoes' piercing spread viruses which have been reported to cause the highest number of deaths annually. The primary cause of the deaths is malaria, which is spread by infected mosquitoes' piercing. This study aims at elucidating lessons from mosquitoes' painless piercing. Mosquitoes pierce using their fascicle, which is a bundle of coherently functioning six stylets...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Craig G Webster, Elodie Pichon, Manuella van Munster, Baptiste Monsion, Maëlle Deshoux, Daniel Gargani, Federica Calevro, Jaime Jimenez, Aranzazu Moreno, Björn Krenz, Jeremy R Thompson, Keith L Perry, Alberto Fereres, Stéphane Blanc, Marilyne Uzest
Plant viruses transmitted by insects cause tremendous losses in most important crops around the world. The identification of receptors of plant viruses within their insect vectors is a key challenge to understanding the mechanisms of transmission, and offers an avenue for future alternative control strategies to limit viral spread. We here report the identification of two cuticular proteins within aphid mouthparts, and we provide experimental support for the role of one of them in the transmission of a non-circulative virus...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
Chandrasekar Palaniswamy, Jacob S Koruth, Alexander J Mittnacht, Marc A Miller, Subbarao Choudry, Rahul Bhardwaj, Dinesh Sharma, Jonathan M Willner, Sujata S Balulad, Elizabeth Verghese, Georgios Syros, Anurag Singh, Srinivas R Dukkipati, Vivek Y Reddy
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the extent of lateral esophageal displacement required during mechanical esophageal deviation (MED) and to eliminate luminal esophageal temperature elevation (LETElev ) during pulmonary vein (PV) isolation. BACKGROUND: MED is a conceptually attractive strategy of minimizing esophageal injury while allowing uninterrupted energy delivery along the posterior left atrium during PV isolation. METHODS: MED was performed using a malleable metal stylet within a plastic tube placed within the esophagus...
October 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
Alejandro Granados, Vejay Vakharia, Roman Rodionov, Martin Schweiger, Sjoerd B Vos, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Kuo Li, Chengyuan Wu, Anna Miserocchi, Andrew W McEvoy, Matthew J Clarkson, John S Duncan, Rachel Sparks, Sébastien Ourselin
PURPOSE: The accurate and automatic localisation of SEEG electrodes is crucial for determining the location of epileptic seizure onset. We propose an algorithm for the automatic segmentation of electrode bolts and contacts that accounts for electrode bending in relation to regional brain anatomy. METHODS: Co-registered post-implantation CT, pre-implantation MRI, and brain parcellation images are used to create regions of interest to automatically segment bolts and contacts...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Julian Feulner, Stefan Lang, Thomas Buder, Tobias Struffert, Michael Buchfelder, Sebastian Brandner
BACKGROUND: The standard freehand method for the insertion of external ventricular drains (EVD) is associated with high rates of incorrect placement. The use of neuronavigation has been shown to reduce the rates of inaccurately positioned EVDs. We present a novel neuronavigation-based approach for EVD placement using flat panel detector computed tomography (FDCT) imaging. METHODS: Four cadaveric heads were used for neuronavigated placement of EVDs using the BrainLAB® reference Headband in combination with laser surface registration and the precalibrated disposable Stylet...
May 4, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Timothy A Ebert, Elaine A Backus, Michael E Rogers
Electropenetrography a.k.a. electrical penetration graph or EPG is a rigorous technique for studying arthropod behavior. Essentially, the arthropod and host are part of an electrical circuit that generates patterns of voltage (waveforms), whose biological meanings are defined by correlation with histology and behavior. EPG is used for studying stylet probing behavior of hemipterans, and blood-feeding arthropods. These results are applied to understanding pesticide action, host plant resistance, and vector-pathogen-host interactions...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
J Duelund-Jakobsen, S Laurberg, L Lundby
AIM: Sacral nerve stimulation has been recognized as an effective treatment option for faecal incontinence when conservative therapy has failed. Refinement of the procedural technique and the use of a curved stylet may improve the functional outcome. Our aim was to explore the relationship between lead model, functional outcome, stimulation amplitude and the need for extra visits during the first year of follow-up. METHOD: Patient data from May 2009 to February 2017, which were prospectively collected in a local database, were extracted and analysed for differences between lead model and improvement in incontinence scores, stimulation amplitude and the need for additional visits during the first year of follow-up...
April 25, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Deshika Kohli, Parameswaran Chidambaranathan, J Prasanth Tej Kumar, Ashish Kumar Singh, Anil Kumar, Anil Sirohi, K Subramaniam, Ramamurthy Srinivasan, Navneeta Bharadvaja, Pradeep K Jain
GLP-1 (abnormal germline proliferation) is a Notch-like receptor protein that plays an essential role in pharyngeal development. In this study, an orthologue of Caenorhabditis elegans glp-1 was identified in Meloidogyne incognita. A computational analysis revealed that the orthologue contained almost all the domains present in the C. elegans gene: specifically, the LIN-12/Notch repeat, the ankyrin repeat, a transmembrane domain and different ligand-binding motifs were present in orthologue, but the epidermal growth factor-like motif was not observed...
April 25, 2018: Parasitology
Yong Qing Lu, Yang Dai, Xiu Ying Yu, Fu-Lan Yu, Shou Lin Jiang, Zong Yuan Zhou, Fa Jun Chen
In recent years, the two issues of climate change including elevated CO2 etc., and resistance of transgenic Bt crops against non-target insect pests have received widespread attention. Elevated CO2 can affect the herbivorous insects. To date, there is no consensus about the effect of elevated CO2 on the suck-feeding insect pests (non-target insect pests of transgenic Bt crops). Its effects on the suck-feeding behavior have rarely been reported. In this study, CO2 levels were set up in artificial climate chamber to examined the effects of ambient (400 μL·L-1 ) and double-ambient (800 μL·L-1 ) CO2 levels on the suck-feeding behavior, growth, development, and reproduction of the non-target insect pest of transgenic Bt rice, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Kerrie A Davies, Weimin Ye, Gary S Taylor, Sonja Scheffer, F Bartholomaeus, Robin M Giblin-Davis
Five new species of Fergusobia are described. Fergusobia janetae Davies n. sp. is characterized by the combination of an arcuate to straight, spindle-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively small oesophageal gland, an extensile uterus and a conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with a bluntly rounded tail tip, and a C-shaped male with an arcuate to angular spicule and bursa arising at more than 90% of body length. Fergusobia robustae Davies n. sp. is characterized by the combination of a small, C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short cylindroid tail with a broadly rounded tip; an arcuate to C-shaped, relatively broad, infective female with a tail tip that is almost hemispherical; and an arcuate male with a strong angular spicule and a bursa arising at 30-40% of body length...
March 20, 2018: Zootaxa
Ehsan Konani, Yousef Panahandeh, Ebrahim Pourjam, Sergio Álvarez-Ortega, Majid Pedram
Two rare species of the family Tylenchidae are described and illustrated based on morphological and morphometric characters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies provided details of anterior end structures, helpful in generic identification of the studied populations. Discotylenchus biannulatus n. sp. is characterized by its dorso-ventrally flattened smooth cephalic region having two proximal annuli and a rectangular perioral disc, short longitudinal amphidial slits, lateral field with four incisures, stylet 9-10 μm long, with the conus shorter than half the total stylet length and with posteriorly directed knobs, well-developed median bulb, mono-prodelphic reproductive system with rounded empty spermatheca and short postvulval uterine sac (PUS), and filiform tail with pointed end...
April 23, 2018: Zootaxa
Rodrigo Ponce De leÓn, Odile Volonterio
Three species of Temnocephala have been reported on Aegla from Uruguay: Temnocephala axenos, Temnocephala mertoni and Temnocephala talicei. As part of a systematic review of the Uruguayan species of Temnocephala, a fourth species was found on Aegla platensis and Aegla uruguayana. This species, new for the genus, has the following diagnostic characters: Large temnocephalan; slightly curved penial stylet (225 µm in length) with a symmetrical introvert (27 long by 18 µm in diameter) that has at least 44 spine-like projections, each bearing 7 rows of internal spines; a seminal vesicle that opens sub-polarly into the contractile vesicle; a muscular vagina with a strong asymmetrical sphincter; preequatorial nephridiopores close to the internal borders of the elongate-oval excretory syncytia; a large pharynx with anterior and posterior sphincters of about the same diameter and a narrow pharyngeal lumen with nearly uniform width...
February 8, 2018: Zootaxa
Mee Young Chung, Byunghoon Park, Jaeho Seo, Chang Jae Kim
Huge goitor can lead to tracheal compression and hence difficulty in intubation. This is compounded by severe obesity. Failed tracheal intubation in difficult intubation is a serious event that may lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality. Current intubation rescue techniques and combination of different rescue techniques may increase the success rate of difficult intubation. In a 47-year-old female patient, with severe obesity and a huge goiter, our attempts at intubation using direct laryngoscope, video laryngoscope, and awake fiberoptic bronchoscope had failed...
April 24, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Afsha Aurshina, Enrico Ascher, Lauren Mount, Amrit Hingorani, Natalie Marks, Anil Hingorani
OBJECTIVE: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is increasingly being employed for treatment of perforator vein insufficiency and venous ulcer healing. Previous studies have shown a closure rate of 60% to 80% in incompetent perforator veins (IPVs) with RFA. The purpose of the study was to determine the utility of a redo RFA for symptomatic recanalized perforators and to predict factors associated with recanalization. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 642 procedures in 256 patients with venous insufficiency due to IPVs from 2009 to 2015 was conducted...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Qianqian Shi, Zhenchuan Mao, Xiaoping Zhang, Jian Ling, Runmao Lin, Xi Zhang, Rui Liu, Yunsheng Wang, Yuhong Yang, Xinyue Cheng, Bingyan Xie
Meloidogyne incognita is highly specialized parasite that interacts with host plants using a range of strategies. The effectors are synthesized in the esophageal glands and secreted into plant cells through a needle-like stylet during parasitism. In this study, based on RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis, we predicted 110 putative Meloidogyne incognita effectors that contain nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Combining the Burkholderia glumae -pEDV based screening system with subcellular localization, from 20 randomly selected NLS effector candidates, we identified an effector MiISE6 that can effectively suppress B...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Timothy A Ebert, Elaine A Backus, Holly J Shugart, Michael E Rogers
Diaphorina citri is a major pest of citrus because it transmits Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, a phloem-limited bacterium that putatively causes Huanglongbing (HLB). The disease moves slowly through a tree, and the vector facilitates further within-tree movement via transmission of the pathogen. However, this only happens when D. citri stylets contact the phloem, to inoculate bacteria during phloem salivation and acquire bacteria during phloem sap ingestion. Behavioral changes in D. citri associated with different plant parts would affect how long it takes to reach phloem and how long the psyllids stays in phloem to ingest, thereby influencing the risk of disease spread...
2018: Journal of Insect Behavior
Pulak Tosh, Sunil Rajan, Lakshmi Kumar
Background: Although videolaryngoscopes improve glottic visualization, their actual usefulness in intubation is not yet established. Aims: The primary objective was to compare the ease of oral intubation with the use of 60° angled styletted endotracheal tube versus that performed over bougie inserted under videolaryngoscopic guidance. The secondary objectives were assessment of incidence of airway loss, hemodynamic changes, and time and number of attempts at intubation...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Q P Trinh, T M L Le, T D Nguyen, H T Nguyen, G Liebanas, T A D Nguyen
The root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne daklakensis n. sp. was discovered on the roots of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. This species is characterized by the females having rounded or oval perineal patterns, smooth, regular, continuous striae, and reduced lateral lines. The dorsal arch is low, rounded and encloses a quite distinct vulva and tail tip. The stylet is normally straight with well-developed and posteriorly sloped knobs. The males have a rounded cap that extends posteriorly into the lip region...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
J F Esquivel, R E Droleskey, L A Ward, R B Harvey
The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a cosmopolitan pest of high-value cash crops, including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.; Malvales: Malvaceae). The pest can ingest and transmit disease-causing bacterial and fungal pathogens of cotton. We hypothesized that the size of the food canal may contribute to selective transmission, as observed in previous reports. The objective of this study was to examine food canal size and other morphometric parameters of the southern green stink bug stylet bundle at two locations (labium and head) to improve our understanding of factors that may contribute to pathogen transmission...
March 29, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
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