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death penalty

Murat Akbaba, Vedat Davutoğlu
The relationship between patients and physicians has maintained its importance throughout human history because of special features of the medical profession. This relationship engendered true loyalty of patients to their physicians as well as serious legal conflicts. Medical malpractice has gained importance among physicians and ignited discussion because of new articles added to the Turkish Penal Code in 2005. In a very short time, the penalties mandated had a chilling, negative effect on doctors, resulting in loss of affection for the profession, hesitation to intervene, and burnout syndrome...
October 2016: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Toby Handfield, Michael J Selgelid
Mass vaccination has been a successful public health strategy for many contagious diseases. The immunity of the vaccinated also protects others who cannot be safely or effectively vaccinated-including infants and the immunosuppressed. When vaccination rates fall, diseases like measles can rapidly resurge in a population. Those who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons are at the highest risk of severe disease and death. They thus may bear the burden of others' freedom to opt out of vaccination. It is often asked whether it is legitimate for states to adopt and enforce mandatory universal vaccination...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Miguel Araujo, Eduardo Illanes, Evelina Chapman, Eugênia Rodrigues
Globally, 49% of deaths from traffic crashes occur among vulnerable road users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists. Approximately, a quarter of those killed are motorcyclists. The authors carried out a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent motorcycle crashes and the associated morbidity and mortality. The studies included in this review provide evidence for the effectiveness of helmet use, protective clothing, training, and penalties for alcohol consumption and speeding in preventing injury and death to motorcyclists...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Liuyi Zhang, Teresa E Stone, Jingping Zhang
Yinao (healthcare disturbance) refers to violent incidents directed against healthcare staff and facilities for financial benefit. In China, incidences of Yinao are widespread and increasing, but little is known of this phenomenon in the wider global community. This commentary investigates the factors behind Yinao to achieve a deeper understanding. Causes include a lack of trust in medical staff, fueled by costly medical expenses; difficulties in accessing treatment; poor treatment outcomes; high patient expectations; a misunderstanding or rejection of medical ethics; misleading media reports; and a complex appeals process...
September 30, 2016: Nursing & Health Sciences
Fellon J Gaida, James E Gaida
Drowning is a leading cause of death among infants and toddlers. Unique physiological and behavioural factors contribute to high mortality rates. Drowning incidents predominantly occur during warmer months and holidays. Recent studies link high socio-economic status and drowning, in contrast to earlier studies. Cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy and autism are strong risk factors for drowning incidents. Prevention strategies have substantially lowered drowning rates. While legislation-compliant pool fencing substantially reduces drowning risk, compliance levels are low, and penalties are minor...
October 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Richard F Averill, John S Hughes, Richard L Fuller, Norbert I Goldfield
The Partnership for Patients (PfP) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) have reported a 23.5% decline in hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) over 4 years resulting in a cumulative cost savings of more than $10 billion and 49 000 averted deaths, claiming that this significant decline may have been spurred in part by Medicare payment incentives associated with severe (stage 3 or 4) HAPUs. Hospitals with a high rate of severe HAPUs have a payment penalty imposed, creating a financial disincentive to report severe HAPUs, possibly contributing to the magnitude of the reported decline...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
Christos Kissoudis, Sri Sunarti, Clemens van de Wiel, Richard G F Visser, C Gerard van der Linden, Yuling Bai
Stress conditions in agricultural ecosystems can occur at variable intensities. Different resistance mechanisms against abiotic stress and pathogens are deployed by plants. Thus, it is important to examine plant responses to stress combinations under different scenarios. Here, we evaluated the effect of different levels of salt stress ranging from mild to severe (50, 100, and 150mM NaCl) on powdery mildew resistance and overall performance of tomato introgression lines with contrasting levels of partial resistance, as well as near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying the resistance gene Ol-1 (associated with a slow hypersensitivity response; HR), ol-2 (an mlo mutant associated with papilla formation), and Ol-4 (an R gene associated with a fast HR)...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Francisco López-Muñoz, Esther Cuerda-Galindo
Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL), Soviet special camps, and gulags, providing some preliminary data for our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty), while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Irena S Cenzer, Victoria Tang, W John Boscardin, Alexander K Smith, Christine Ritchie, Margaret I Wallhagen, Roxanne Espaldon, Kenneth E Covinsky
OBJECTIVES: To develop a prediction index for 1-year mortality after hip fracture in older adults that includes predictors from a wide range of domains. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS: Health and Retirement Study (HRS). PARTICIPANTS: HRS participants who experienced hip fracture between 1992 and 2010 as identified according to Medicare claims data (N = 857). MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measure was death within 1 year of hip fracture...
September 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Dena M Gromet, Geoffrey P Goodwin, Rebecca A Goodman
Can people's feelings about harm (i.e., their hedonic reactions) lead them to be morally condemned, even if they do not cause the harm themselves? We show that individuals who experience pleasure at serious harm that has befallen another person are judged both immoral and evil. This effect occurs for harm-causing actors, and for observers who play no role in causing the harm; actors can also be judged as immoral and evil when they experience mere indifference (Study 1). Observers are more likely to be similarly judged when they experience direct rather than indirect pleasure from harm caused to another (Study 2)...
August 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Praveena Penmetsa, Srinivas S Pulugurtha
OBJECTIVE: Violation of traffic rules is a major contributing factor of both crashes and fatalities in the United States. This study aims at quantifying risk drivers pose to themselves and other drivers by violating traffic rules. METHOD: The crash data from 2010 to 2013 was gathered for the state of North Carolina. Descriptive analysis was carried out to identify frequent traffic violations and who were committing the traffic violations that resulted in crashes...
June 3, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Felice Carabellese, Alan R Felthous
Originally a hedge against the death penalty, the insanity defense came to offer hospitalization as an alternative to imprisonment. In the late 19th century Italy opened inpatient services first for mentally ill prisoners and then for offenders found not guilty by reason of insanity. Within the past decade, a series of decrees has resulted in transferring the responsibility for treating NGRI acquittees and "dangerous" mentally ill prisoners from the Department of Justice to the Department of Health, and their treatment from Italy's high security forensic psychiatric hospitals (OPGs) to community regional facilities (REMSs, Residences for the Execution of Security Measures), community mental health facilities, one of which is located in each region of Italy...
March 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Poya Ghorbani, Kjetil Gorseth Ringdal, Morten Hestnes, Nils Oddvar Skaga, Torsten Eken, Anders Ekbom, Lovisa Strömmer
BACKGROUND: Assessment of trauma-system performance is important for improving the care of injured patients. The aim of the study was to compare risk-adjusted survival in two Scandinavian Level-I trauma centres. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective study of prospectively-collected trauma registry data for patients >14 years from Karolinska University Hospital - Solna (KUH), Sweden, and Oslo University Hospital - Ullevål (OUH), Norway, from 2009-2011...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Francisco López-Muñoz, Esther Cuerda-Galindo, Matthis Krischel
After World War II, Sachsenhausen Nazi concentration camp (Oranienburg) was administered until the spring of 1950 by Soviet occupation forces (Special Camp Number 7) and used mainly for political prisoners. Our study analyzes suicides in this camp during the Soviet period. Data was collected from the archives of Sachsenhausen Memorial, Special Camp Collection. Original documents containing certificates or autopsy reports of prisoners who committing suicide were reviewed. In this period, authorities registered 17 suicides...
May 9, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
Melissa M Sherrod, Dennis J Cheek, Ashlie Seale
Hospitals are under immense pressure to reduce heart failure readmissions that occur within 30 days of discharge, and to improve the quality of care for these patients. Penalties mandated by the Affordable Care Act decrease hospital reimbursement and ultimately the overall cost of caring for these patients increases if they are not well managed. Approximately 25% of patients hospitalized for heart failure are at high risk for readmission and these rates have not changed over the past decade. As a result of an aging population, the incidence of heart failure is expected to increase to one in five Americans over the age of 65...
May 2016: Home Healthcare Now
Tess M S Neal
This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the "filtering" effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source...
2016: PloS One
J Michael Bailey, Paul L Vasey, Lisa M Diamond, S Marc Breedlove, Eric Vilain, Marc Epprecht
SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies...
September 2016: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
Mensah Adinkrah, William M Clemens
The U.S. state of Michigan abolished the death penalty in 1846. Since then, several abortive efforts have been made by state legislators to re-establish the death sentence to deal with convicted murderers. Concurrently, some support exists among Michigan residents for the restoration of capital punishment in the state. This article presents the results of the analysis of an attitudinal survey of 116 college students enrolled in three criminal justice courses in a Michigan public university concerning the reinstatement of the death sentence in the state...
April 15, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Yudu Li, Dennis Longmire, Hong Lu
In theory, sentencing decisions should be driven by legal factors, not extra-legal factors. However, some empirical research on the death penalty in the United States shows significant relationships between offender and victim characteristics and death sentence decisions. Despite the fact that China frequently imposes death sentences, few studies have examined these sanctions to see if similar correlations occur in China's capital cases. Using data from published court cases in China involving three violent crimes-homicide, robbery, and intentional assault-this study examines the net impact of offender's gender, race, and victim-offender relationship on death sentence decisions in China...
April 7, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Leigh D Hagan, Eric Y Drogin, Thomas J Guilmette
DSM-5 and Hall v. Florida (2014) have dramatically refocused attention on the assessment of adaptive functioning in death penalty cases. In this article, we address strategies for assessing the adaptive functioning of defendants who seek exemption from capital punishment pursuant to Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In particular, we assert that evaluations of adaptive functioning should address assets as well as deficits; seek to identify credible and reliable evidence concerning the developmental period and across the lifespan; distinguish incapacity from the mere absence of adaptive behavior; adhere faithfully to test manual instructions for using standardized measures of adaptive functioning; and account for potential bias on the part of informants...
March 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
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