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Bertram Gawronski, Jennifer S Beer
The distinction between utilitarianism and deontology has become a prevailing framework for conceptualizing moral judgment. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the morality of an action depends on its outcomes. In contrast, the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on its consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, research in psychology and neuroscience has investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e...
October 15, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Keith J Holyoak, Derek Powell
We review a broad range of work, primarily in cognitive and social psychology, that provides insight into the processes of moral judgment. In particular, we consider research on pragmatic reasoning about regulations and on coherence in decision making, both areas in which psychological theories have been guided by work in legal philosophy. Armed with these essential prerequisites, we sketch a psychological framework for how ordinary people make judgments about moral issues. Based on a literature review, we show how the framework of deontological coherence unifies findings in moral psychology that have often been explained in terms of a grab-bag of heuristics and biases...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
Julio García-Guerrero, Ernesto Tarazona López, Blanca Martínez Calduch, Enrique Jesús Vera-Remartínez, María Antonia Jiménez de Aldasoro, Vicente Boix Rajadell, Mario Ventura López
AIM: to describe the expedient's features those settle the medical ethics commissions of the provincial colleges (PMEC). MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY: descriptive study, retrospective from the typology of the received claims to the PMEC between 01-06-2013 and 31-05-2014. The colleges were selected by simple stratified random sample. Variables related with the origin of the claim, chapter of the Medical Ethics Code affected, resolution timescales, judgement and others; were gathered...
May 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Jian Hao, Yanchun Liu
The rationalistic theories of morality emphasize that reasoning plays an important role in moral judgments and prosocial behavior. Theory of mind as a reasoning ability in the mental domain has been considered a facilitator of moral development. The present study examined whether theory of mind was consistently positively associated with morality from middle childhood to late adulthood. Two hundred and four participants, including 48 elementary school children, 45 adolescents, 62 younger adults, and 49 older adults, completed theory of mind, moral judgment and prosocial behavior tasks...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Marion Kaufmann
The nursing management of a refractory circulatory death donor is a new procedure which forms an integral part of patient care. It comprises technical and organisational aspects, and requires a conceptual, ethical and deontological effort.
September 2016: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
Michael Laakasuo, Jukka Sundvall
Utilitarian versus deontological inclinations have been studied extensively in the field of moral psychology. However, the field has been lacking a thorough psychometric evaluation of the most commonly used measures. In this paper, we examine the factorial structure of an often used set of 12 moral dilemmas purportedly measuring utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations. We ran three different studies (and a pilot) to investigate the issue. In Study 1, we used standard Exploratory Factor Analysis and Schmid-Leimann (g factor) analysis; results of which informed the a priori single-factor model for our second study...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
J M Mellado
Legal recognition of patient's rights aspired to change clinical relationship and medical lex artis. However, its implementation has been hampered by the scarcity of resources and the abundance of regulations. For several years, autonomy, consent, and responsibility have formed one of the backbones of the medical profession. However, they have sparked controversy and professional discomfort. In the first part of this article, we examine the conceptual and regulatory limitations of the principle of autonomy as the basis of informed consent...
August 20, 2016: Radiología
J M Mellado
Legal recognition of patient's rights aspired to change clinical relationship and medical lex artis. However, its implementation has been hampered by the scarcity of resources and the abundance of regulations. For several years, autonomy, consent, and responsibility have formed one of the backbones of the medical profession. However, they have sparked controversy and professional discomfort. In the first part of this article, we examine the conceptual and regulatory limitations of the principle of autonomy as the basis of informed consent...
September 2016: Radiología
Regan M Bernhard, Jonathan Chaponis, Richie Siburian, Patience Gallagher, Katherine Ransohoff, Daniel Wikler, Roy H Perlis, Joshua D Greene
Moral judgments are produced through the coordinated interaction of multiple neural systems, each of which relies on a characteristic set of neurotransmitters. Genes that produce or regulate these neurotransmitters may have distinctive influences on moral judgment. Two studies examined potential genetic influences on moral judgment using dilemmas that reliably elicit competing automatic and controlled responses, generated by dissociable neural systems. Study 1 (N = 228) examined 49 common variants (SNPs) within 10 candidate genes and identified a nominal association between a polymorphism (rs237889) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and variation in deontological vs...
August 6, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
O Garraud, J-D Tissot
Blood transfusion and plasma derived-drugs significantly differ from other medicines in that their availability strictly depends on blood and plasma collected from healthy donors. Blood collection must comply with a double objective: to maintain donor heath safety, and to avoid any transmitted infections in recipients. This raises several ethical concerns that appear to be different from usual ethical and deontological issues linked to other pharmaceutical and industrial processes. The main concern is the non-commercialization of the human body...
September 2016: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Joshua Dempsey, Justin Stamets, Kathleen Eggleson
The Nanosilver Linings role play case offers participants first-person experience with interpersonal interaction in the context of the wicked problems of emerging technology macroethics. In the fictional scenario, diverse societal stakeholders convene at a town hall meeting to consider whether a nanotechnology-enabled food packaging industry should be offered incentives to establish an operation in their economically struggling Midwestern city. This original creative work was built with a combination of elements, selected for their established pedagogical efficacy (e...
July 12, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Melissa A Wheeler, Simon M Laham
Morality is inherently social, yet much extant work in moral psychology ignores the central role of social processes in moral phenomena. To partly address this, this article examined the content of persuasive moral communication-the way people justify their moral attitudes in persuasive contexts. Across two studies, we explored variation in justification content (deontological, consequentialist, or emotive) as a function of moral foundations. Using justification selection techniques (Study 1) and open-ended justification production (Study 2), results demonstrate a preference (a) for deontological appeals in justifications for the sanctity foundation, (b) for consequentialist appeals for the individualizing foundations (care and fairness), and (c) for emotive appeals in justifications for the binding foundations (loyalty, authority and sanctity)...
September 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Meropi K Konstantinidou, Pavlos Pavlides, Aliki Fiska
Medical ethics and deontology are mentioned in Greek myths long before 700 B.C. We collected and present information derived from ancient Greek mythology and related to (how) ancient physicians took care of the sick or injured and how they were rewarded for their services.
May 2016: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Raheleh Heidari, David Martin Shaw, Bernice Simone Elger
Emergence of novel genome engineering technologies such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) has refocused attention on unresolved ethical complications of synthetic biology. Biosecurity concerns, deontological issues and human right aspects of genome editing have been the subject of in-depth debate; however, a lack of transparent regulatory guidelines, outdated governance codes, inefficient time-consuming clinical trial pathways and frequent misunderstanding of the scientific potential of cutting-edge technologies have created substantial obstacles to translational research in this area...
June 20, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Gewnhi Park, Andreas Kappes, Yeojin Rho, Jay J Van Bavel
To not harm others is widely considered the most basic element of human morality. The aversion to harm others can be either rooted in the outcomes of an action (utilitarianism) or reactions to the action itself (deontology). We speculated that the human moral judgments rely on the integration of neural computations of harm and visceral reactions. The present research examined whether utilitarian or deontological aspects of moral judgment are associated with cardiac vagal tone, a physiological proxy for neuro-visceral integration...
October 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Victoria G Law, Diana L Gustafson
This analysis examines the 'girls only' policy for publicly funded human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes. Current funding policy in most Canadian provinces covers 'girls only' with the goal of reducing mortality and morbidity rates of HPV-related cervical cancer. Recent studies indicate increasing rates of other HPV-related cancers among cisgender men and women. The HPV vaccine is proving effective against some of these cancers. Statistics on HPV vaccine uptake among individuals with different gender expressions are scarce...
May 20, 2016: Nursing Inquiry
Tom Shakespeare
In the helpful article "Why Bioethics Needs a Disability Moral Psychology," Joseph Stramondo adds to the critique of actually existing bioethics and explains why disability activists and scholars so often find fault with the arguments of bioethicists. He is careful not to stereotype either community-rightly, given that bioethicists endorse positions as disparate as utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics, and feminist ethics, among others. Although Stramondo never explicitly mentions utilitarians or liberals, it seems probable that these are the main targets of his discontent...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
Arthur W Frank
Narrative ethics holds that if you ask someone what goodness is, as a basis of action, most people will first appeal to various abstractions, each of which can be defined only by other abstractions that in turn require further definition. If you persist in asking what each of these abstractions actually means, eventually that person will have to tell you a story and expect you to recognize goodness in the story. Goodness and badness need stories to make them thinkable and to translate them into individual and collective actions...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
Jim A C Everett, David A Pizarro, M J Crockett
Moral judgments play a critical role in motivating and enforcing human cooperation, and research on the proximate mechanisms of moral judgments highlights the importance of intuitive, automatic processes in forming such judgments. Intuitive moral judgments often share characteristics with deontological theories in normative ethics, which argue that certain acts (such as killing) are absolutely wrong, regardless of their consequences. Why do moral intuitions typically follow deontological prescriptions, as opposed to those of other ethical theories? Here, we test a functional explanation for this phenomenon by investigating whether agents who express deontological moral judgments are more valued as social partners...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
I Ghiga, C Stålsby Lundborg
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a serious global public health problem directly correlated to high antibiotic consumption. Romania is one of the European countries with the highest rates of antibiotic consumption, non-prescription antibiotics use and resistance of several pathogens to antibiotics. Pharmacists are an important stakeholder in respect to antibiotic management and context specific research on this topic is needed. The aim of the research is to increase the understanding of how community pharmacists in Romania perceive their roles in respect to antibiotic consumption and antibiotic resistance...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
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