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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278733/correlations-of-trait-and-state-emotions-with-utilitarian-moral-judgements
#1
Jonathan Baron, Burcu Gürçay, Mary Frances Luce
In four experiments, we asked subjects for judgements about scenarios that pit utilitarian outcomes against deontological moral rules, for example, saving more lives vs. a rule against active killing. We measured trait emotions of anger, disgust, sympathy and empathy (the last two in both specific and general forms, the latter referring to large groups of people), asked about the same emotions after each scenario (state emotions). We found that utilitarian responding to the scenarios, and higher scores on a utilitarianism scale, were correlated negatively with disgust, positively (but weakly and inconsistently) with anger, positively with specific sympathy and state sympathy, and less so with general sympathy or empathy...
March 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237958/study-protocol-for-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-efficacy-of-a-smoking-cessation-e-tabac-info-service-ee-tis-trial
#2
L Cambon, P Bergman, Al Le Faou, I Vincent, B Le Maitre, A Pasquereau, P Arwidson, D Thomas, F Alla
INTRODUCTION: A French national smoking cessation service, Tabac Info Service, has been developed to provide an adapted quitline and a web and mobile application involving personalised contacts (eg, questionnaires, advice, activities, messages) to support smoking cessation. This paper presents the study protocol of the evaluation of the application (e-intervention Tabac Info Service (e-TIS)). The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of e-TIS. The secondary objectives are to (1) describe efficacy variations with regard to users' characteristics, (2) analyse mechanisms and contextual conditions of e-TIS efficacy...
February 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168820/counter-intuitive-moral-judgement-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Dane A Rowley, Miles Rogish, Timothy Alexander, Kevin J Riggs
Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155775/-oral-health-and-the-nurse-8217-s-role-in-qu-233-bec
#4
Hermina Harnagea
<ce:para>Various international health care organizations strongly recommend the implication of non-dental health care professionals in oral health. Consequently, nurses are currently often required to question their ability to manage patients’ oral health-related problems, as well as the very meaning of their management of patients in such situations. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the role of the nurse in the management of oral health. Professional associations and academic institutions involved in the development of nursing professional skills, and health policymakers involved in decisions concerning the geographical distribution of nursing personnel and adoption of laws in Quebec, act in a disconnected manner, independently from dental professionals and without taking into account the actual oral health care needs of the various categories of beneficiaries...
December 19, 2016: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150265/-ethical-debates-related-to-the-allocation-of-medical-resources-during-the-response-to-the-mass-casualty-incident-at-formosa-fun-coast-water-park
#5
Jing-Shia Tang, Chia-Jung Chen, Mei-Chih Huang
Disasters are unpredictable and often result in mass casualties. Limited medical resources often affect the response to mass casualty incidents, undermining the ability of responders to adequately protect all of the casualties. Thus, the injuries of casualties are classified in hopes of fully utilizing medical resources efficiently in order to save the maximum possible number of people. However, as opinions on casualty prioritization are subjective, disagreements and disputes often arise regarding allocating medical resources...
February 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138000/is-medically-assisted-death-a-special-obligation
#6
Eduardo Rivera-López
Several distinct arguments conclude that terminally ill patients have a right to a medically assisted death; two are especially influential: the autonomy argument and the non-harm argument. Both have proven convincing to many, but not to those who view the duty not to kill as an (almost) absolute constraint. Some philosophers see the source of such a constraint in general (deontological) moral principles, other in the nature of the medical profession. My aim in this paper is not to add one further argument in favour of medically assisted death...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131555/-communication-information-and-roles-of-parents-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-a-review-article
#7
A Béranger, C Pierron, L de Saint Blanquat, S Jean, H Chappuy
Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), whose accessibility to parents raises controversy, often operate under their own rules. Patients are under critical and unstable conditions, often in a life-threatening situation. In this context, the communication with the parents and their participation in the unit may be difficult. Information is a legal, deontological, and moral duty for caregivers, confirmed by the parents' needs. But the ability to enforce them is a challenge, and there is a gap between the theory and the reality...
January 25, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028781/a-meta-analysis-of-response-time-tests-of-the-sequential-two-systems-model-of-moral-judgment
#8
Jonathan Baron, Burcu Gürçay
The (generalized) sequential two-system ("default interventionist") model of utilitarian moral judgment predicts that utilitarian responses often arise from a system-two correction of system-one deontological intuitions. Response-time (RT) results that seem to support this model are usually explained by the fact that low-probability responses have longer RTs. Following earlier results, we predicted response probability from each subject's tendency to make utilitarian responses (A, "Ability") and each dilemma's tendency to elicit deontological responses (D, "Difficulty"), estimated from a Rasch model...
December 27, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925131/-social-and-ethical-criteria-for-prioritizing-patients-a-survey-of-students-and-health-professionals-in-portugal
#9
Micaela Moreira Pinho
This qualitative/quantitative study examines the ethical dilemma of microallocation of health resources. It seeks to identify and compare the opinion of two groups in Portuguese society - students and health professionals - on the importance of personal characteristics of patients at the moment of prioritizing them and if the choices can be explained by bioethical references of a utilitarian or deontological nature. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to a sample of 180 students and 60 health professionals...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903725/hippocampal-damage-increases-deontological-responses-during-moral-decision-making
#10
Cornelia McCormick, Clive R Rosenthal, Thomas D Miller, Eleanor A Maguire
Complex moral decision making is associated with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in humans, and damage to this region significantly increases the frequency of utilitarian judgments. Since the vmPFC has strong anatomical and functional links with the hippocampus, here we asked how patients with selective bilateral hippocampal damage would derive moral decisions on a classic moral dilemmas paradigm. We found that the patients approved of the utilitarian options significantly less often than control participants, favoring instead deontological responses-rejecting actions that harm even one person...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883056/authenticity-screening-of-stained-glass-windows-using-optical-spectroscopy
#11
Wendy Meulebroeck, Hilde Wouters, Karin Nys, Hugo Thienpont
Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815940/ethics-competences-in-the-undergraduate-medical-education-curriculum-the-spanish-experience
#12
Guillermo Ferreira-Padilla, Teresa Ferrández-Antón, Fernando Lolas-Stepke, Rut Almeida-Cabrera, Joan Brunet, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera
Aim .To investigate if there are differences in medical ethics education between different schools of medicine in Spain, specifically between private and public schools and between recently founded schools and older ones. METHOD: The curricula of medical degrees from all Spanish faculties were reviewed for the 2014/2015 academic year, identifying subjects concerning bioethics, deontology, and ethics. We identified the type of teaching, format and method of the course, the number of credits and hours, and the school year of each subject...
October 31, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745112/what-makes-moral-dilemma-judgments-utilitarian-or-deontological
#13
Bertram Gawronski, Jennifer S Beer
The distinction between utilitarianism and deontology has become a prevailing framework for conceptualizing moral judgment. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the morality of an action depends on its outcomes. In contrast, the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on its consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, research in psychology and neuroscience has investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e...
October 15, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709981/deontological-coherence-a-framework-for-commonsense-moral-reasoning
#14
Keith J Holyoak, Derek Powell
We review a broad range of work, primarily in cognitive and social psychology, that provides insight into the processes of moral judgment. In particular, we consider research on pragmatic reasoning about regulations and on coherence in decision making, both areas in which psychological theories have been guided by work in legal philosophy. Armed with these essential prerequisites, we sketch a psychological framework for how ordinary people make judgments about moral issues. Based on a literature review, we show how the framework of deontological coherence unifies findings in moral psychology that have often been explained in terms of a grab-bag of heuristics and biases...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637193/-descriptive-study-of-the-activities-performed-by-the-provincial-medical-deontology-commissions
#15
Julio García-Guerrero, Ernesto Tarazona López, Blanca Martínez Calduch, Enrique Jesús Vera-Remartínez, María Antonia Jiménez de Aldasoro, Vicente Boix Rajadell, Mario Ventura López
AIM: to describe the expedient's features those settle the medical ethics commissions of the provincial colleges (PMEC). MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY: descriptive study, retrospective from the typology of the received claims to the PMEC between 01-06-2013 and 31-05-2014. The colleges were selected by simple stratified random sample. Variables related with the origin of the claim, chapter of the Medical Ethics Code affected, resolution timescales, judgement and others; were gathered...
May 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602011/a-mind-reader-does-not-always-have-deontological-moral-judgments-and-prosocial-behavior-a-developmental-perspective
#16
Jian Hao, Yanchun Liu
The rationalistic theories of morality emphasize that reasoning plays an important role in moral judgments and prosocial behavior. Theory of mind as a reasoning ability in the mental domain has been considered a facilitator of moral development. The present study examined whether theory of mind was consistently positively associated with morality from middle childhood to late adulthood. Two hundred and four participants, including 48 elementary school children, 45 adolescents, 62 younger adults, and 49 older adults, completed theory of mind, moral judgment and prosocial behavior tasks...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596504/-nursing-management-of-a-refractory-cardiac-death-donor
#17
Marion Kaufmann
The nursing management of a refractory circulatory death donor is a new procedure which forms an integral part of patient care. It comprises technical and organisational aspects, and requires a conceptual, ethical and deontological effort.
September 2016: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582721/are-utilitarian-deontological-preferences-unidimensional
#18
Michael Laakasuo, Jukka Sundvall
Utilitarian versus deontological inclinations have been studied extensively in the field of moral psychology. However, the field has been lacking a thorough psychometric evaluation of the most commonly used measures. In this paper, we examine the factorial structure of an often used set of 12 moral dilemmas purportedly measuring utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations. We ran three different studies (and a pilot) to investigate the issue. In Study 1, we used standard Exploratory Factor Analysis and Schmid-Leimann (g factor) analysis; results of which informed the a priori single-factor model for our second study...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554038/autonomy-consent-and-responsibility-part-ii-informed-consent-in-medical-care-and-in-the-law
#19
J M Mellado
Legal recognition of patient's rights aspired to change clinical relationship and medical lex artis. However, its implementation has been hampered by the scarcity of resources and the abundance of regulations. For several years, autonomy, consent, and responsibility have formed one of the backbones of the medical profession. However, they have sparked controversy and professional discomfort. In the first part of this article, we examine the conceptual and regulatory limitations of the principle of autonomy as the basis of informed consent...
November 2016: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523956/autonomy-consent-and-responsability-part-1-limitations-of-the-principle-of-autonomy-as-a-foundation-of-informed-consent
#20
J M Mellado
Legal recognition of patient's rights aspired to change clinical relationship and medical lex artis. However, its implementation has been hampered by the scarcity of resources and the abundance of regulations. For several years, autonomy, consent, and responsibility have formed one of the backbones of the medical profession. However, they have sparked controversy and professional discomfort. In the first part of this article, we examine the conceptual and regulatory limitations of the principle of autonomy as the basis of informed consent...
September 2016: Radiología
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