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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707631/-in-our-own-words-defining-medical-professionalism-from-a-latin-american-perspective
#1
Klaus Puschel, Paula Repetto, Margarita Bernales, Jorge Barros, Ivan Perez, Linda Snell
BACKGROUND: Latin America has experienced a tremendous growth in a number of medical schools, and there are concerns about their quality of training in critical areas such as professionalism. Medical professionalism is a cultural construct. The aim of the study was to compare published definitions of medical professionalism from Latin American and non-Latin American regions and to design an original and culturally sound definition. METHODS: A mixed methods approach was used with three phases...
January 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690572/utilitarian-moral-judgment-exclusively-coheres-with-inference-from-is-to-ought
#2
Shira Elqayam, Meredith R Wilkinson, Valerie A Thompson, David E Over, Jonathan St B T Evans
Faced with moral choice, people either judge according to pre-existing obligations (deontological judgment), or by taking into account the consequences of their actions (utilitarian judgment). We propose that the latter coheres with a more general cognitive mechanism - deontic introduction, the tendency to infer normative ('deontic') conclusions from descriptive premises (is-ought inference). Participants were presented with vignettes that allowed either deontological or utilitarian choice, and asked to draw a range of deontic conclusions, as well as judge the overall moral rightness of each choice separately...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643812/-conscience-clause-in-end-of-life-care
#3
Ludovica De Panfilis, Daniela Cattaneo, Luisanna Cola, Maddalena Gasparini, Corinna Porteri, Daniela Tarquini, Alessandro Tiezzi, Simone Veronese, Silvia Zullo, Eugenio Pucci
The article proposes a critical reflection on issues that appeal to the conscience clause as part of end of life care can produce and what can guarantee freedom of conscience, self-determination of those involved and respect for the dignity of the sick person. After a philosophical and normative analysis, the article is organized on the basis of two important documents for discussion: a position paper of Società Italiana di Anestesia Analgesia Rianimazione e Terapia Intensiva (SIAARTI) signed by several scientific societies "Grandi insufficienze d'organo end stage: cure intensive o cure palliative?" and the Design of Law currently being debated "Norme in materia di consenso informato e di disposizioni anticipate di trattamento"...
May 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597324/gender-differences-in-moral-judgment-and-the-evaluation-of-gender-specified-moral-agents
#4
Valerio Capraro, Jonathan Sippel
Whether, and if so, how exactly gender differences are manifested in moral judgment has recently been at the center of much research on moral decision making. Previous research suggests that women are more deontological than men in personal, but not impersonal, moral dilemmas. However, typical personal and impersonal moral dilemmas differ along two dimensions: Personal dilemmas are more emotionally salient than impersonal ones and involve a violation of Kant's practical imperative that humans must never be used as a mere means, but only as ends...
June 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556919/ethical-living-relinking-ethics-and-consumption-through-care-in-chile-and-brazil
#5
Tomas Ariztia, Nurjk Agloni, Léna Pellandini-Simányi
Mainstream conceptualizations of 'ethical consumption' equate the notion with conscious, individual, market-mediated choices motivated by ethical or political aims that transcend ordinary concerns. Drawing on recent sociology and anthropology of consumption literature on the links between ordinary ethics and ethical consumption, this article discusses some of the limitations of this conceptualization. Using data from 32 focus groups conducted in Chile and Brazil, we propose a conceptualization of ethical consumption that does not centre on individual, market-mediated choices but understands it at the level of practical outcomes, which we refer to as different forms of 'ethical living'...
May 30, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556200/difficulties-and-practices-regarding-information-provision-among-korean-and-italian-nurses
#6
F Ingravallo, K H Kim, Y H Han, A Volta, P Chiari, P Taddia, J S Kim
AIM: To investigate nurses' opinions and practices of providing information in a global context through cultural comparison. BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION: Providing sufficient information to patients about nursing interventions and plans is essential for patient-centred care. While many countries have specific legislation making information delivery to patients a legal duty of nurses, no such legislation exists in both the Republic of Korea and Italy; nurses' only guidance is the deontological code...
May 29, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551773/should-physicians-tell-the-truth-without-taking-social-complications-into-account-a-striking-case
#7
Ercan Avci
The principle of respect for autonomy requires informing patients adequately and appropriately about diagnoses, treatments, and prognoses. However, some clinical cases may cause ethical dilemmas regarding telling the truth. Under the existence especially of certain cultural, social, and religious circumstances, disclosing all the relevant information to all pertinent parties might create harmful effects. Even though the virtue of telling the truth is unquestionable, sometimes de facto conditions compel physicians to act paternalistically to protect the patient/patients from imminent dangers...
May 27, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523437/using-participatory-action-research-to-develop-a-working-model-that-enhances-psychiatric-nurses-professionalism-the-architecture-of-stability
#8
Martin Salzmann-Erikson
Ward rules in psychiatric care aim to promote safety for both patients and staff. Simultaneously, ward rules are associated with increased patient violence, leading to neither a safe work environment nor a safe caring environment. Although ward rules are routinely used, few studies have explicitly accounted for their impact. To describe the process of a team development project considering ward rule issues, and to develop a working model to empower staff in their daily in-patient psychiatric nursing practices...
May 18, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497720/neuroscience-and-ethics
#9
S Matthew Liao
A number of people believe that results from neuroscience have the potential to settle seemingly intractable debates concerning the nature, practice, and reliability of moral judgments. In particular, Joshua Greene has argued that evidence from neuroscience can be used to advance the long-standing debate between consequentialism and deontology. This paper first argues that charitably interpreted, Greene's neuroscientific evidence can contribute to substantive ethical discussions by being part of an epistemic debunking argument...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497719/moral-hindsight
#10
Nadine Fleischhut, Björn Meder, Gerd Gigerenzer
How are judgments in moral dilemmas affected by uncertainty, as opposed to certainty? We tested the predictions of a consequentialist and deontological account using a hindsight paradigm. The key result is a hindsight effect in moral judgment. Participants in foresight, for whom the occurrence of negative side effects was uncertain, judged actions to be morally more permissible than participants in hindsight, who knew that negative side effects occurred. Conversely, when hindsight participants knew that no negative side effects occurred, they judged actions to be more permissible than participants in foresight...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467331/an-analysis-of-the-changes-in-communication-techniques-in-the-italian-codes-of-medical-deontology
#11
Andrea Alberto Conti
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: The code of deontology of the Italian National Federation of the Colleges of Physicians, Surgeons and Dentists (FNOMCeO) contains the principles and rules to which the professional medical practitioner must adhere. This work identifies and analyzes the medical-linguistic choices and the expressive techniques present in the different editions of the code, and evaluates their purpose and function, focusing on the first appearance and the subsequent frequency of key terms...
April 28, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464757/nurses-contributions-to-the-resolution-of-ethical-dilemmas-in-practice
#12
Nichola Ann Barlow, Janet Hargreaves, Warren P Gillibrand
BACKGROUND: Complex and expensive treatment options have increased the frequency and emphasis of ethical decision-making in healthcare. In order to meet these challenges effectively, we need to identify how nurses contribute the resolution of these dilemmas. AIMS: To identify the values, beliefs and contextual influences that inform decision-making. To identify the contribution made by nurses in achieving the resolution of ethical dilemmas in practice. DESIGN: An interpretive exploratory study was undertaken, 11 registered acute care nurses working in a district general hospital in England were interviewed, using semi-structured interviews...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459355/toward-a-bioethical-framework-for-antibiotic-use-antimicrobial-resistance-and-for-empirically-designing-ethically-robust-strategies-to-protect-human-health-a-research-protocol
#13
Pablo Hernández-Marrero, Sandra Martins Pereira, Patrícia Joana de Sá Brandão, Joana Araújo, Ana Sofia Carvalho
Introduction Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a challenging global and public health issue, raising bioethical challenges, considerations and strategies. Objectives This research protocol presents a conceptual model leading to formulating an empirically based bioethics framework for antibiotic use, AMR and designing ethically robust strategies to protect human health. Methods Mixed methods research will be used and operationalized into five substudies. The bioethical framework will encompass and integrate two theoretical models: global bioethics and ethical decision-making...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429964/global-mental-health-autonomy-and-medical-paternalism-reconstructing-the-french-ethical-tradition-in-psychiatry
#14
Tiago Pires Marques
In the last few decades, the definition of deontological ethics, a well-identified ethical territory in psychiatry, has been the object of increasing concerns. This has been the case in France, where claims of a specific ethical tradition in psychiatry have accompanied the institutionalization of psychiatric ethics and the perceived globalization of an Anglo-American model of mental health care. This study traces the history of the 'French ethical tradition in psychiatry' and its relationship with establishing institutional spaces for ethical decision-making...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426839/medical-history-in-the-hellenic-journal-of-nuclear-medicine
#15
EDITORIAL
Andreas Otte
The Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine is about to celebrate its 20th anniversary end of 2017. On board of the editorial team since 2003, this journal has influenced me like a good friend over the many past years. From time to time, the journal has published interesting and valuable historical notes. They show that nuclear medicine has a history and that medicine is its basis. They also teach us today, and some of the ancient perspectives and approaches are still valid. The reader of HJNM may be interested in these historical contributions, as they are timeless...
January 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417921/bioethics-of-clinical-applications-of-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Carlo Petrini
The clinical applications of stem cells pose a multitude of problems, including safety, efficacy, information and consent, the right to unproven treatments, the "right to try", costs, access, sustainability, scientific scrupulousness, patents and regulatory aspects, to name but a few. This article does not address individual issues, but rather introduces and discusses some of the possible approaches to solving the problems. The first part compares the consequentialist and deontological approaches, offering an overview of "top-down" and "bottom-up" models and proposing the principles of personalism as applied in clinical settings...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361986/individual-differences-in-moral-disgust-do-not-predict-utilitarian-judgments-sexual-and-pathogen-disgust-do
#17
Michael Laakasuo, Jukka Sundvall, Marianna Drosinou
The role of emotional disgust and disgust sensitivity in moral judgment and decision-making has been debated intensively for over 20 years. Until very recently, there were two main evolutionary narratives for this rather puzzling association. One of the models suggest that it was developed through some form of group selection mechanism, where the internal norms of the groups were acting as pathogen safety mechanisms. Another model suggested that these mechanisms were developed through hygiene norms, which were piggybacking on pathogen disgust mechanisms...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278733/correlations-of-trait-and-state-emotions-with-utilitarian-moral-judgements
#18
Jonathan Baron, Burcu Gürçay, Mary Frances Luce
In four experiments, we asked subjects for judgements about scenarios that pit utilitarian outcomes against deontological moral rules, for example, saving more lives vs. a rule against active killing. We measured trait emotions of anger, disgust, sympathy and empathy (the last two in both specific and general forms, the latter referring to large groups of people), asked about the same emotions after each scenario (state emotions). We found that utilitarian responding to the scenarios, and higher scores on a utilitarianism scale, were correlated negatively with disgust, positively (but weakly and inconsistently) with anger, positively with specific sympathy and state sympathy, and less so with general sympathy or empathy...
March 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237958/study-protocol-for-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-efficacy-of-a-smoking-cessation-e-tabac-info-service-ee-tis-trial
#19
L Cambon, P Bergman, Al Le Faou, I Vincent, B Le Maitre, A Pasquereau, P Arwidson, D Thomas, F Alla
INTRODUCTION: A French national smoking cessation service, Tabac Info Service, has been developed to provide an adapted quitline and a web and mobile application involving personalised contacts (eg, questionnaires, advice, activities, messages) to support smoking cessation. This paper presents the study protocol of the evaluation of the application (e-intervention Tabac Info Service (e-TIS)). The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of e-TIS. The secondary objectives are to (1) describe efficacy variations with regard to users' characteristics, (2) analyse mechanisms and contextual conditions of e-TIS efficacy...
February 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168820/counter-intuitive-moral-judgement-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Dane A Rowley, Miles Rogish, Timothy Alexander, Kevin J Riggs
Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
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