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Trimethylamine-N-oxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905491/changes-in-urinary-metabolomic-profile-during-relapsing-renal-vasculitis
#1
Bahjat Al-Ani, Martin Fitzpatrick, Hamad Al-Nuaimi, Alice M Coughlan, Fionnuala B Hickey, Charles D Pusey, Caroline Savage, Christopher M Benton, Eóin C O'Brien, Declan O'Toole, Ken H Mok, Stephen P Young, Mark A Little
Current biomarkers of renal disease in systemic vasculitis lack predictive value and are insensitive to early damage. To identify novel biomarkers of renal vasculitis flare, we analysed the longitudinal urinary metabolomic profile of a rat model of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were immunised with human myeloperoxidase (MPO). Urine was obtained at regular intervals for 181 days, after which relapse was induced by re-challenge with MPO. Urinary metabolites were assessed in an unbiased fashion using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and analysed using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares regression (PLS-R)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905479/role-of-gut-microbiota-in-atherosclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Annika Lindskog Jonsson, Fredrik Bäckhed
Infections have been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Findings from the past decade have identified microbial ecosystems residing in different habitats of the human body that contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular-related disorders. In this Review, we describe three pathways by which microbiota might affect atherogenesis. First, local or distant infections might cause a harmful inflammatory response that aggravates plaque development or triggers plaque rupture. Second, metabolism of cholesterol and lipids by gut microbiota can affect the development of atherosclerotic plaques...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896396/metabolic-profiling-of-ob-ob-mouse-fatty-liver-using-hr-mas-1-h-nmr-combined-with-gene-expression-analysis-reveals-alterations-in-betaine-metabolism-and-the-transsulfuration-pathway
#3
Mikheil Gogiashvili, Karolina Edlund, Kathrin Gianmoena, Rosemarie Marchan, Alexander Brik, Jan T Andersson, Jörg Lambert, Katrin Madjar, Birte Hellwig, Jörg Rahnenführer, Jan G Hengstler, Roland Hergenröder, Cristina Cadenas
Metabolic perturbations resulting from excessive hepatic fat accumulation are poorly understood. Thus, in this study, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, a mouse model of fatty liver disease, were used to investigate metabolic alterations in more detail. Metabolites were quantified in intact liver tissues of ob/ob (n = 8) and control (n = 8) mice using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) (1)H-NMR. In addition, after demonstrating that HR-MAS (1)H-NMR does not affect RNA integrity, transcriptional changes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR on RNA extracted from the same specimens after HR-MAS (1)H-NMR measurements...
November 28, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891771/simultaneous-determination-of-trimethylamine-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-mouse-plasma-samples-by-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Si Mi, Yuan-Yuan Zhao, René L Jacobs, Jonathan M Curtis
A method was developed that applies hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode to separate and accurately quantify trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide in a single chromatographic run. This was achieved by converting trimethylamine to ethyl betaine, which is less volatile and hence results in greatly improved quantitation. Ethyl betaine also gives a similar response to trimethylamine N-oxide using positive ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864387/increased-trimethylamine-n-oxide-portends-high-mortality-risk-independent-of-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
W H Wilson Tang, Zeneng Wang, Xinmin S Li, Yiying Fan, Daniel S Li, Yuping Wu, Stanley L Hazen
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and coronary artery disease pathogenesis. Concentrations of a proatherogenic gut microbe-generated metabolite, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), predict increased incident cardiovascular disease risks in multiple cohorts. TMAO concentrations are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but their prognostic value and relation to glycemic control are unclear...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855528/dietary-anthropometric-and-biochemical-factors-influencing-plasma-choline-carnitine-trimethylamine-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide-concentrations
#6
Anna M Malinowska, Artur Szwengiel, Agata Chmurzynska
The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritional, anthropometric, and biochemical factors that influence choline, l-carnitine, trimethylamine (TMA), and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism in elderly women. The volunteers' diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were estimated using a self-established score method. Body mass index (BMI), serum glucose, total, HDL, LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, homocysteine (tHcy), free choline (fchol), L-carnitine, TMA, and TMAO were assessed...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848096/the-gut-kidney-axis
#7
REVIEW
Pieter Evenepoel, Ruben Poesen, Björn Meijers
The host-gut microbiota interaction has been the focus of increasing interest in recent years. It has been determined that this complex interaction is not only essential to many aspects of normal "mammalian" physiology but that it may also contribute to a multitude of ailments, from the obvious case of inflammatory bowel disease to (complex) diseases residing in organs outside the gut. An increasing body of evidence indicates that crosstalk between host and microbiota is pathophysiologically relevant in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834801/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-good-the-bad-and-the-unknown
#8
REVIEW
Manuel T Velasquez, Ali Ramezani, Alotaibi Manal, Dominic S Raj
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a small colorless amine oxide generated from choline, betaine, and carnitine by gut microbial metabolism. It accumulates in the tissue of marine animals in high concentrations and protects against the protein-destabilizing effects of urea. Plasma level of TMAO is determined by a number of factors including diet, gut microbial flora and liver flavin monooxygenase activity. In humans, a positive correlation between elevated plasma levels of TMAO and an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events and death is reported...
November 8, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833015/trimethylamine-n-oxide-induces-inflammation-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-via-activating-ros-txnip-nlrp3-inflammasome
#9
Xiaolei Sun, Xuefei Jiao, Yarong Ma, Yong Liu, Lei Zhang, Yanzheng He, Yunhui Chen
Recent research demonstrates that the choline-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels are strongly associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risks. The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to exogenous and endogenous danger signals involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Moreover, thioredoxin-interactive protein (TXNIP) activation is a key event linked to NLRP3 inflammasome via reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whether TMAO prime NLRP3 inflammasome via ROS-TXNIP pathway remains unclear...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827475/stabilizing-effect-of-tmao-on-globular-pnipam-states-preferential-attraction-induces-preferential-hydration
#10
Martin A Schroer, Julian Michalowsky, Birgit Fischer, Jens Smiatek, Gerhard Grübel
We study the effect of the organic co-solute trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) on the volume phase transition of microgel particles made from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The DLS measurements reveal a continuous TMAO-induced shrinking process from a coil to a globular state of PNIPAM microgel particles. Analyzing the DLS data by the phenomenological Flory-Rehner theory verifies the stabilization of the globular state of the particles in the presence of TMAO...
November 9, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825547/trimethylamine-n-oxide-friend-foe-or-simply-caught-in-the-cross-fire
#11
REVIEW
Clara E Cho, Marie A Caudill
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut-derived metabolite, has recently emerged as a candidate risk factor for cardiovascular disease and other adverse health outcomes. However, the relation between TMAO and chronic disease can be confounded by several factors, including kidney function, the gut microbiome, and flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) genotype. Thus, whether TMAO is a causative agent in human disease development and progression, or simply a marker of an underlying pathology, remains inconclusive...
November 4, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817938/metabolomic-analysis-of-urine-with-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-idiopathic-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-a-preliminary-study
#12
Filippo Carta, Milena Lussu, Fabrizio Bandino, Noto Antonio, Marcello Peppi, Natalia Chuchueva, Atzori Luigi, Vassilios Fanos, Roberto Puxeddu
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a frequent emergency, with unknown aetiology and usually treated with empiric therapy. Steroids represent the only validated treatment but prognosis is unpredictable and the possibility to select the patients who will not respond to steroids could avoid unnecessary treatments. Metabolomic profiling of the biofluids target the analysis of the final product of genic expression and enzymatic activity, defining the biochemical phenotype of a whole biologic system...
November 3, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813294/modulation-of-the-polymerization-kinetics-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-tubulin-by-osmolytes-and-macromolecular-crowding
#13
Paul Hendrik Schummel, Mimi Gao, Roland Winter
Tubulin is one of the main components of the cytoskeleton and can be found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we explored the effects of kosmotropic and chaotropic osmolytes, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and the metabolic waste product urea, as well as the crowding agents Ficoll and sucrose on the polymerization reaction of α/β-tubulin. Time-dependent turbidimetry and fluorescence anisotropy experiments were performed to explore the kinetics of the polymerization reaction. Under different solvent conditions, diverse changes in the lag time, the half-life of the polymerization reaction, and the critical concentration of the polymerization reaction were observed...
November 3, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806989/correction-to-trimethylamine-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide-a-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-fmo3-mediated-host-microbiome-metabolic-axis-implicated-in-health-and-disease
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806268/tmao-protein-preferential-interaction-profile-determines-tmao-s-conditional-in%C3%A2-vivo-compatibility
#15
Jiang Hong, Shangqin Xiong
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) exemplifies how Nature uses the solute effect as a simple chemical strategy to cope with hydrodynamic pressure or urea stress to maintain proteostasis. It is a gut-microbe-generated metabolite that strongly promotes the development of atherosclerosis. It remains unclear how TMAO exerts its effects. In this study, we experimentally characterized the profile of the preferential interaction potential of TMAO with proteins, a thermodynamic key to understanding the effects of TMAO on protein processes and the distinction of TMAO among osmolytes...
November 1, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792658/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-coronary-artery-calcium-in-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-study-cardia
#16
Katie A Meyer, Thomas Z Benton, Brian J Bennett, David R Jacobs, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Myron D Gross, J Jeffrey Carr, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Steven H Zeisel
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies implicate trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO; a gut microbiota-dependent nutrient metabolite) in cardiovascular disease risk. There is a lack of population-based data on the role of TMAO in advancing early atherosclerotic disease. We tested the prospective associations between TMAO and coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA), a biracial cohort of US adults recruited in 1985-1986 (n=5115)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792653/trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-mortality-risk-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease
#17
Vichai Senthong, Zeneng Wang, Yiying Fan, Yuping Wu, Stanley L Hazen, W H Wilson Tang
BACKGROUND: Production of the proatherogenic metabolite, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), from dietary nutrients by intestinal microbiota enhances atherosclerosis development in animal models and is associated with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in humans. The utility of studying plasma levels of TMAO to risk stratify in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) has not been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the relationship between fasting plasma TMAO and all-cause mortality (5-year), stratified by subtypes of PAD and presence of coronary artery disease in 935 patients with PAD who underwent elective angiography for cardiac evaluation at a tertiary care hospital...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776328/determination-of-trimethylamine-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-taurine-in-human-plasma-and-urine-by-uhplc-ms-ms-technique
#18
Hussain Mohamad Awwad, Juergen Geisel, Rima Obeid
BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced in the liver from trimethylamine (TMA) and is an important cellular osmolyte and potential atherogenic factor. Taurine is involved in cholesterol metabolism and also serves as a cellular osmolyte. Given their significant biological functions, the development of reliable measurement techniques is crucial to further study their role in health and disease METHODS: A new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMA, TMAO, and taurine in plasma and urine...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775560/foodpro-a-web-based-tool-for-evaluating-covariance-and-correlation-nmr-spectra-associated-with-food-processes
#19
Eisuke Chikayama, Ryo Yamashina, Keiko Komatsu, Yuuri Tsuboi, Kenji Sakata, Jun Kikuchi, Yasuyo Sekiyama
Foods from agriculture and fishery products are processed using various technologies. Molecular mixture analysis during food processing has the potential to help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved, thus enabling better cooking of the analyzed foods. To date, there has been no web-based tool focusing on accumulating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra from various types of food processing. Therefore, we have developed a novel web-based tool, FoodPro, that includes a food NMR spectrum database and computes covariance and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness...
October 19, 2016: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757235/pass-the-salt-physiological-consequences-of-ecologically-relevant-hyposmotic-exposure-in-juvenile-gummy-sharks-mustelus-antarcticus-and-school-sharks-galeorhinus-galeus
#20
Andrea J Morash, Sara R C Mackellar, Louise Tunnah, David A Barnett, Kilian M Stehfest, Jayson M Semmens, Suzanne Currie
Estuarine habitats are frequently used as nurseries by elasmobranch species for their protection and abundant resources; however, global climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of environmental challenges in these estuaries that may negatively affect elasmobranch physiology. Hyposmotic events are particularly challenging for marine sharks that osmoconform, and species-specific tolerances are not well known. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of an acute (48 h) ecologically relevant hyposmotic event (25...
2016: Conservation Physiology
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