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Trimethylamine-N-oxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816059/atherothrombosis-and-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-and-management-in-elderly
#1
Francesco Violi, Lorenzo Loffredo, Roberto Carnevale, Pasquale Pignatelli, Daniele Pastori
SIGNIFICANCE The incidence of cardiovascular events increases by aging, representing the main cause of death in old population. Aging is associated with over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may affect clotting and platelet activation, and impair endothelial function so predisposing elderly patients to thrombotic complications. RECENT ADVANCES There are increasing evidences to suggest that aging is associated with an imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Thus, up-regulation of ROS-producing enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and myeloperoxidase, along with down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, occur during aging...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807612/the-role-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-as-a-mediator-of-cardiovascular-complications-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
James A P Tomlinson, David C Wheeler
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an enhanced risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality when compared with age- and gender-matched individuals with normal kidney function. Trimethlyamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut-derived amine oxide that has been implicated in the causation of CV diseases. Plasma TMAO is cleared by the kidney, and TMAO levels are elevated in CKD. Experimental studies have identified pathogenic mechanisms by which TMAO may contribute to CV disease through dysregulation of lipid metabolism, enhanced macrophage foam cell formation, and platelet dysfunction...
August 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782886/circulating-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-11-prospective-cohort-studies
#3
Jiaqian Qi, Tao You, Jing Li, Tingting Pan, Li Xiang, Yue Han, Li Zhu
Circulating trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a canonical metabolite from gut flora, has been related to the risk of cardiovascular disorders. However, the association between circulating TMAO and the risk of cardiovascular events has not been quantitatively evaluated. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all available cohort studies regarding the association between baseline circulating TMAO and subsequent cardiovascular events. Embase and PubMed databases were searched for relevant cohort studies...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747709/trimethylamine-n-oxide-abolishes-the-chaperone-activity-of-%C3%AE-casein-an-intrinsically-disordered-protein
#4
Mohd Younus Bhat, Laishram Rajendrakumar Singh, Tanveer Ali Dar
Osmolytes (small molecules that help in circumventing stresses) are known to promote protein folding and prevent aggregation in the case of globular proteins. However, the effect of such osmolytes on the structure and function of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) has not been clearly understood. Here we have investigated the effect of methylamine osmolytes on α-casein (an IDP present in mammalian milk) and discovered that TMAO (Trimethylamine-N-oxide) but not other methylamines renders α-casein functionless...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745401/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-breathe-new-life
#5
REVIEW
Saravanan Subramaniam, Craig Fletcher
Associations between an elevated level of systemic trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and an increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events have been proposed in recent years. Increasing experimental studies suggest a possible impact of TMAO in cardiovascular diseases. TMAO, the oxygenated product of TMA, is belonging to the class of amine oxides. Most of TMA derived from the bacterial metabolism of choline and L-carnitine is absorbed into the bloodstream, and then TMA is rapidly oxidized to TMAO by flavin-containing monooxygenase-3 (FMO3), a hepatic enzyme...
July 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728374/analysis-of-metabolomic-patterns-in-thoroughbreds-before-and-after-exercise
#6
Hyun-Jun Jang, Duk-Moon Kim, Kyu-Bong Kim, Jeong-Woong Park, Jae-Young Choi, Jin Hyeog Oh, Ki-Duk Song, Suhkmann Kim, Byung-Wook Cho
Objective: Evaluation of exercise effects in racehorse is important in horseracing industry and animal health care. In this study, we compared metabolic patterns between before and after exercise to screen metabolic biomarkers for exercise effects in thoroughbreds. Methods: The concentration of metabolites in muscle, plasma, and urine was measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis and the relative metabolite levels in the three samples were compared between before and after exercise...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724646/association-between-microbiota-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-type-2-diabetes
#7
Zhilei Shan, Taoping Sun, Hao Huang, Sijing Chen, Liangkai Chen, Cheng Luo, Wei Yang, Xuefeng Yang, Ping Yao, Jinquan Cheng, Frank B Hu, Liegang Liu
Background: The association of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbiota-dependent metabolite from dietary choline and carnitine, with type 2 diabetes was inconsistent.Objective: We evaluated the association of plasma TMAO with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and the potential modification of TMAO-generating enzyme flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) polymorphisms.Design: This was an age- and sex-matched case-control study of 2694 participants: 1346 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes and 1348 controls. Concentrations of plasma TMAO were measured, and FMO3 E158K polymorphisms (rs2266782) were genotyped...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717107/human-plasma-and-urinary-metabolic-profiles-of-trimethylamine-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide-extrapolated-using-a-simple-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model
#8
Makiko Shimizu, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Trimethylamine, a dietary- and medicinal carnitine-derived amine, is extensively metabolized by liver to non-malodorous trimethylamine N-oxide. Although trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide under daily dietary consumption or carnitine treatment are generally regarded as nontoxic, they have been, and remain, of toxicological and clinical interest because of their potential association with atherosclerosis. The aim of the current study was to model the pharmacokinetics of trimethylamine after oral administration of trimethylamine in humans and compare the results with reported measured values...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715991/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-microbiome-and-heart-and-kidney-disease
#9
Steven H Zeisel, Manya Warrier
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biologically active molecule and is a putative promoter of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis in humans. Host intestinal bacteria produce its precursor trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, choline, or choline-containing compounds. Most of the TMA produced is passively absorbed into portal circulation, and hepatic flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) efficiently oxidize TMA to TMAO. Both observational and experimental studies suggest a strong positive correlation between increased plasma TMAO concentrations and adverse cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and death...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715746/pfoa-induced-metabolism-disturbance-and-multi-generational-reproductive-toxicity-in-oryzias-latipes
#10
Jin Wuk Lee, Jae-Woo Lee, Kyungtae Kim, Yu-Jin Shin, Jieun Kim, Suhkmann Kim, Heejung Kim, Pilje Kim, Kyunghwa Park
The aims of this study were to examine multi-generational reproductive toxicity and metabolism disturbances in Oryzias latipes exposed to 0.3, 3, and 30mg/L PFOA for 259-day. The highest concentration of PFOA suppressed fecundity over three generations from F0 to F2 and sac-fry survival rate in F2 generation, indicating that PFOA resulted in multi-generational reproductive toxicity (p<0.05). Histologically, in F1 and F2 generations, O. latipes exposed to 30mg/L PFOA revealed accelerated gonad development, and the atrophy and degeneration of thyroid follicular cell...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715006/substitution-reactions-of-iron-ii-carbamoyl-thioether-complexes-related-to-mono-iron-hydrogenase
#11
Zhu-Lin Xie, Gummadi Durgaprasad, Azim K Ali, Michael J Rose
A C,N,S pincer complex has been synthesized for structural modeling of the organometallic active site of mono-[Fe] hydrogenase (HMD). The C,N,S chelate allows for systematic investigation of the substitution reactions of CO and other exogenous X/L-type ligands, as well as examination of the exact roles of the Fe-carbamoyl and {Fe(CO)2}(2+) units in stabilizing the low-spin Fe(ii) center. Reaction of the 'apo-ligand' 6-(2-(methylthio)phenyl)pyridin-2-amine ((H2N)N(py)S(Me)) with [Fe(CO)4(Br)2] affords the organometallic complex [((O[double bond, length as m-dash])C(NH)N(py)S(Me))Fe(CO)2(Br)] (1)...
July 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697427/nmr-based-metabolomic-study-on-the-toxicological-effects-of-pesticide-diazinon-on-adaptation-to-sea-water-by-endangered-persian-sturgeon-acipenser-persicus-fingerlings
#12
Saeed Hajirezaee, Alireza Mirvaghefi, Hamid Farahmand, Naser Agh
NMR-based metabolomics was applied to explore metabolic impacts of diazinon on sea water adaptation of Persian sturgeon fingerlings, Acipenser persicus. Fingerlings were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon in freshwater (FW) for 96 h (short-term trial) and 12 days (long-term trial) and then exposed in brackish water (BW) (12 mg L(-1) salinity) for 24 h. After 96 h and 12 days exposure in FW, identified metabolites (amino acids, osmolytes, energy metabolites) showed different change-patterns compared to control group (P < 0...
July 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694431/key-role-for-the-organic-anion-transporters-oat1-and-oat3-in-the-in-vivo-handling-of-uremic-toxins-and-solutes
#13
Wei Wu, Kevin T Bush, Sanjay K Nigam
In vitro data indicates that the kidney proximal tubule (PT) transporters of uremic toxins and solutes (e.g., indoxyl sulfate, p-cresol sulfate, kynurenine, creatinine, urate) include two "drug" transporters of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family: OAT1 (SLC22A6, originally NKT) and OAT3 (SLC22A8). Here, we have examined new and prior metabolomics data from the Oat1KO and Oat3KO, as well as newly obtained metabolomics data from a "chemical double" knockout (Oat3KO plus probenecid). This gives a picture of the in vivo roles of OAT1 and OAT3 in the regulation of the uremic solutes and supports the centrality of these "drug" transporters in independently and synergistically regulating uremic metabolism...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686188/dietary-choline-and-betaine-and-risk-of-cvd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#14
REVIEW
Katie A Meyer, Jonathan W Shea
Studies implicate choline and betaine metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We conducted a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis to quantify a summary estimated effect of dietary choline and betaine on hard CVD outcomes (incidence and mortality). Eligible studies were prospective studies in adults with comprehensive diet assessment and follow-up for hard CVD endpoints. We identified six studies that met our criteria, comprising 18,076 incident CVD events, 5343 CVD deaths, and 184,010 total participants...
July 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683308/microbial-host-co-metabolites-are-prodromal-markers-predicting-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-behavior-obesity-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#15
Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Alice R Rothwell, Lesley Hoyles, Thomas Aranias, Julien Chilloux, Sophie Calderari, Elisa M Noll, Noémie Péan, Claire L Boulangé, Christine Blancher, Richard H Barton, Quan Gu, Jane F Fearnside, Chloé Deshayes, Christophe Hue, James Scott, Jeremy K Nicholson, Dominique Gauguier
The influence of the gut microbiome on metabolic and behavioral traits is widely accepted, though the microbiome-derived metabolites involved remain unclear. We carried out untargeted urine (1)H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolic phenotyping in an isogenic C57BL/6J mouse population (n = 50) and show that microbial-host co-metabolites are prodromal (i.e., early) markers predicting future divergence in metabolic (obesity and glucose homeostasis) and behavioral (anxiety and activity) outcomes with 94%-100% accuracy...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678423/how-osmolytes-counteract-pressure-denaturation-on-a-molecular-scale
#16
Seishi Shimizu, Paul E Smith
Life in the deep sea exposes enzymes to high hydrostatic pressure, which decreases their stability. For survival, deep sea organisms tend to accumulate various osmolytes, most notably trimethylamine N-oxide used by fish, to counteract pressure denaturation. However, exactly how these osmolytes work remains unclear. Here, a rigorous statistical thermodynamics approach is used to clarify the mechanism of osmoprotection. It is shown that the weak, nonspecific, and dynamic interactions of water and osmolytes with proteins can be characterized only statistically, and that the competition between protein-osmolyte and protein-water interactions is crucial in determining conformational stability...
July 5, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663251/gut-microbiota-metabolites-and-risk-of-major-adverse-cardiovascular-disease-events-and-death-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#17
REVIEW
Yoriko Heianza, Wenjie Ma, JoAnn E Manson, Kathryn M Rexrode, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND: Gut microbial metabolites have been implicated as novel risk factors for cardiovascular events and premature death. The strength and consistency of associations between blood concentrations of the gut microbial metabolites, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and its precursors, with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) or death have not been comprehensively assessed. We quantified associations of blood concentrations of TMAO and its precursors with risks of MACE and mortality...
June 29, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654798/the-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-kidney-function-and-pathogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Fariba Mahmoodpoor, Yalda Rahbar Saadat, Abolfazl Barzegari, Mohammadreza Ardalan, Sepideh Zununi Vahed
Chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) are a global health problem. Besides diverse leading reasons in initiation and progression of CKDs, it is evident that they might largely originate from changes in the gut microbial community (microbiota). Mounting evidence indicates that a bidirectional relationship exists between host and microbiome in humans and animals with CKDs. Changes in the microbiota composition and structure (dysbiosis) produce excessive amounts of uremic toxins (e.g. indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate and trimethylamine-N-oxide) but less reno-protective metabolites that are implicated in oxidative stress, uremia, inflammation, deterioration of kidney function, kidney diseases progression, a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk, and mortality in patients with CKD...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650144/what-are-missing-parts-in-the-research-story-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao
#19
Zouyan He, Zhen-Yu Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645263/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-and-cardiovascular-disease-marker-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-is-associated-with-monocyte-activation-but-not-platelet-function-in-untreated-hiv-infection
#20
Judith M Haissman, Anna K Haugaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Rolf K Berge, Johannes R Hov, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors. Altered gut microbiota, microbial translocation, and immune activation have been proposed as potential triggers. The microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) predicts myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population and has recently been shown to induce platelet hyperreactivity. In the present study, we investigated if TMAO was associated with platelet function, microbial translocation, and immune activation in both untreated and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) HIV infection...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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