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Julia K Bird, Daniel Raederstorff, Peter Weber, Robert E Steinert
Encouraging scientific research into the health effects of dietary bioactive resveratrol has been confounded by its rapid first-pass metabolism, which leads to low in vivo bioavailability. Preliminary studies have shown that resveratrol can modulate gut microbiota composition, undergo biotransformation to active metabolites via the intestinal microbiota, or affect gut barrier function. In rodents, resveratrol can modify the relative Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and reverse the gut microbial dysbiosis caused by a high-fat diet...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
Jin Geng, Chenchen Yang, Bingjian Wang, Xiwen Zhang, Tingting Hu, Yang Gu, Ju Li
BACKGROUND: Many studies have identified trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as a new risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. It has been suggested that TMAO promotes atherosclerosis development. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: Apoe-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet and given water with or without TMAO for 8-week. Histological and immunohistological analyses were used to evaluate the atherogenic effect of TMAO in vivo. We also employed peritoneal elicited macrophages and RAW264...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Marcin Ufnal, Artur Nowiński
Accumulating evidence suggests that gut bacteria-derived compounds enter the bloodstream and affect the circulatory system functions. For example, hydrogen sulfide, a product of gut sulfate-reducing bacteria, was found to exert significant hemodynamic effects. Furthermore, trimethylamine N-oxide, a gut bacteria derivative metabolite of L-carnitine and choline, has recently emerged as a new marker of increased cardiovascular risk. To enter the circulation, gut bacteria metabolites need to pass the gut-blood barrier...
November 13, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
Krishna M Boini, Tahir Hussain, Pin-Lan Li, Sai S Koka
BACKGROUND/AIM: Plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a product of intestinal microbial metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine has been recently associated with atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in rodents and humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of how TMAO induces atherosclerosis and CVD progression are still unclear. The present study tested whether TMAO induces NLRP3 inflammasome formation and activation and thereby contributes to endothelial injury initiating atherogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Pedro Mena, Michele Tassotti, Daniela Martini, Alice Rosi, Furio Brighenti, Daniele Del Rio
BACKGROUND: Coffee is an important source of bioactive compounds, including caffeine, phenolic compounds (mainly chlorogenic acids), trigonelline, and diterpenes. Several studies have highlighted the preventive effects of coffee consumption on major cardiometabolic diseases, but the impact of coffee dosage on markers of cardiometabolic risk is not well understood. Moreover, the pool of coffee-derived circulating metabolites and the contribution of each metabolite to disease prevention still need to be evaluated in real-life settings...
November 9, 2017: Trials
Leandro Martinez, Seishi Shimizu
Preferential solvation is a fundamental parameter for the interpretation of solubility and solute structural stability. The molecular basis for solute-solvent interactions can be obtained through distribution functions, and the thermodynamic connection to experimental data depends on the computation of distribution integrals, specifically Kirkwood-Buff integrals for the determination of preferential interactions. Standard radial distribution functions, however, are not convenient for the study of the solvation of complex, non-spherical solutes, as proteins...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Shahar Sukenik, Shaked Dunsky, Avishai Barnoy, Ilan Shumilin, Daniel Harries
Under environmental duress, many organisms accumulate large amounts of osmolytes - molecularly small organic solutes. Osmolytes are known to counteract stress, driving proteins to their compact native states by their exclusion from protein surfaces. In contrast, the effect of osmolytes on lipid membranes is poorly understood and widely debated. Many fully membrane-permeable osmolytes exert an apparent attractive force between lipid membranes, yet all proposed models fail to fully account for the origin of this force...
November 7, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lora L Iannotti, Chessa K Lutter, William F Waters, Carlos Andres Gallegos Riofrío, Carla Malo, Gregory Reinhart, Ana Palacios, Celia Karp, Melissa Chapnick, Katherine Cox, Santiago Aguirre, Luis Narvaez, Fernando López, Rohini Sidhu, Pamela Kell, Xuntian Jiang, Hideji Fujiwara, Daniel S Ory, Rebecca Young, Christine P Stewart
Background: Choline status has been associated with stunting among young children. Findings from this study showed that an egg intervention improved linear growth by a length-for-age z score of 0.63.Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of eggs introduced early in complementary feeding on plasma concentrations of biomarkers in choline pathways, vitamins B-12 and A, and essential fatty acids.Design: A randomized controlled trial, the Lulun ("egg" in Kichwa) Project, was conducted in a rural indigenous population of Ecuador...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Daniel Markthaler, Johannes Zeman, Jörg Baz, Jens Smiatek, Niels Hansen
Five molecular models for trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) to be used in conjunction with compatible models for liquid water are evaluated by comparison of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results to experimental data as functions of TMAO molality. The experimental data comprise thermodynamic properties (density, apparent molar volume and partial molar volume at infinite dilution), transport properties (self-diffusion and shear viscosity), structural properties (radial distribution functions and degree of hydrogen bonding) and dielectric properties (dielectric spectra and static permittivity)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Yusuke S Kato, Masaru Tanokura, Takashi Kuzuhara
The influenza A virus, which has an RNA genome, requires RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for transcription and replication. The polymerase is comprised of the subunits PA, PB1, and PB2. The C-terminal RNA-binding domain in PB2 contains lysine 627 (PB2 627), which is associated with pathogenicity and host range. However, the structure and molecular mechanism of PB2 627 in solution remain obscure. Here, we investigated PB2 627 in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and detected inhomogeneity in the intensities of backbone amide proton signals due to local fluctuations in structure...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Frank B Hu, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Mònica Bulló, Estefanía Toledo, Dong D Wang, Dolores Corella, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Miquel Fiol, Ramon Estruch, José Lapetra, Montserrat Fitó, Fernando Arós, Lluís Serra-Majem, Emilio Ros, Courtney Dennis, Liming Liang, Clary B Clish, Miguel A Martínez-González, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND: The relationship between plasma concentrations of betaine and choline metabolism and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) end points remains unclear. We have evaluated the association between metabolites from the choline pathway and risk of incident CVD and the potential modifying effect of Mediterranean diet interventions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We designed a case-cohort study nested within the PREDIMED (Prevention With Mediterranean Diet) trial, including 229 incident CVD cases and 751 randomly selected participants at baseline, followed up for 4...
October 28, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Wulf Palinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Sunil Veeravalli, Kersti Karu, Flora Scott, Diede Fennema, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
The objectives of the study were to determine the contribution, in mice, of members of the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) family to the production of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a potential proatherogenic molecule, and whether, under normal dietary conditions, differences in TMAO production were associated with changes in plasma cholesterol concentration or with an index of atherosclerosis (Als). Concentrations of urinary trimethylamine (TMA) and TMAO and of plasma cholesterol were measured in 10-week-old male and female C57BL/6J and CD-1 mice and in mouse lines deficient in various Fmo genes (Fmo1(-/-), 2(-/-), 4(-/-) and Fmo5(-/-) )...
October 25, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Sunil Veeravalli, Kersti Karu, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
Our method describes the quantification in mouse urine of trimethylamine (TMA), trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and creatinine. The method combines derivatization of TMA, with ethyl bromoacetate, and LC chromatographic separation on an ACE C18 column. The effluent was continuously electrosprayed into the linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ), which operated in selective ion monitoring (SIM) modes set for targeted analytes and their internal standards (IS). All validation parameters were within acceptable ranges of analytical method validation guidelines...
2017: MethodsX
Eke G Gruppen, Erwin Garcia, Margery A Connelly, Elias J Jeyarajah, James D Otvos, Stephan J L Bakker, Robin P F Dullaart
Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is a microbiome-related metabolite that is cleared by the kidney and linked to renal function. We explored the relationship between TMAO and all-cause mortality, and determined whether this association was modified by renal function. A prospective study was performed among PREVEND participants to examine associations of plasma TMAO with all-cause mortality. After median follow-up of 8.3 years in 5,469 participants, 322 subjects died. TMAO was positively associated with age, body mass index, type 2 diabetes mellitus and inversely with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcreatcysC)(all P < 0...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tatiana B Eronina, Valeriya V Mikhaylova, Natalia A Chebotareva, Vera A Borzova, Igor K Yudin, Boris I Kurganov
To characterize the initial stages of protein aggregation, the kinetics of aggregation of UV-irradiated glycogen phosphorylase b (UV-Phb) was studied under conditions when the aggregation proceeded at a low rate (10°C, 0.03M Hepes buffer, pH6.8, containing 0.1M NaCl). Aggregation of UV-Phb was induced by polyethylene glycol and Ficoll-70, acting as crowders, or a natural osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). It has been shown that the initial rate of the stage of aggregate growth is proportional to the protein concentration squared, suggesting that the order of aggregation with respect to the protein is equal to two...
October 18, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
Lidia Sanchez-Alcoholado, Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Laura Jordán-Martínez, Isabel Moreno-Indias, Pilar Cardila-Cruz, Daniel Elena, Antonio J Muñoz-Garcia, Maria I Queipo-Ortuño, Manuel Jimenez-Navarro
Gut microbiota composition has been reported as a factor linking host metabolism with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and intestinal immunity. Such gut microbiota has been shown to aggravate CVD by contributing to the production of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is a pro-atherogenic compound. Treg cells expressing the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3) play an essential role in the regulation of immune responses to commensal microbiota and have an atheroprotective role...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Felix Lehmkühler, Yury Forov, Mirko Elbers, Ingo Steinke, Christoph J Sahle, Christopher Weis, Naruki Tsuji, Masayoshi Itou, Yoshiharu Sakurai, Agnieszka Poulain, Christian Sternemann
We present an X-ray Compton scattering study on aqueous trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and guanidine hydrochloride solutions (GdnHCl) as a function of temperature. Independent from the concentration of the solvent, Compton profiles almost resemble results for liquid water as a function of temperature. However, the number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule extracted from the Compton profiles suggests a decrease of hydrogen bonds with rising temperature for all studied samples, and the differences between water and the solutions are weak...
October 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yoshitomi Kanemitsu, Kei Asaji, Yotaro Matsumoto, Hiroki Tsukamoto, Daisuke Saigusa, Chikahisa Mukawa, Tatsuki Tachikawa, Takaaki Abe, Yoshihisa Tomioka
Column choice is crucial to the development of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods because analyte selectivity is dependent on the nature of the stationary phase. Recently, mixed-mode chromatography, which employs a combination of two or more stationary phases and solvent systems, has emerged as an alternative to multiple, complementary, single-column systems. This report describes the development and validation of a novel analytical method based on LC-MS/MS employing a reversed-phase/cation-exchange/anion-exchange tri-modal column (Scherzo SS-C18; Imtakt) for the simultaneous quantification of various uremic toxins (UTx), including creatinine, 1-methyladenosine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, phenyl sulfate and 4-ethylphenyl sulfate...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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