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Trimethylamine-N-oxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776435/fecal-aliquot-straw-technique-fast-allows-for-easy-and-reproducible-subsampling-assessing-interpersonal-variation-in-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-accumulation
#1
Kymberleigh A Romano, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Kazuyuki Kasahara, Robert L Kerby, Eugenio I Vivas, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Pamela Herd, Federico E Rey
BACKGROUND: Convenient, reproducible, and rapid preservation of unique biological specimens is pivotal to their use in microbiome analyses. As an increasing number of human studies incorporate the gut microbiome in their design, there is a high demand for streamlined sample collection and storage methods that are amenable to different settings and experimental needs. While several commercial kits address collection/shipping needs for sequence-based studies, these methods do not preserve samples properly for studies that require viable microbes...
May 18, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764315/effects-of-egg-consumption-and-choline-supplementation-on-plasma-choline-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-a-young-population
#2
Bruno S Lemos, Isabel Medina-Vera, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Maria Luz Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) concentrations have been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Eggs are a rich source of choline, which is a precursor of TMAO. OBJECTIVE: The effects of egg intake versus daily choline supplementation were evaluated on plasma choline and TMAO in a young, healthy population. METHODS: Thirty participants (14 males, 16 females; 25.6 ± 2.3 years; body mass index = 24.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2 ) were enrolled in this 13-week crossover intervention...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751643/the-effect-of-lean-seafood-and-non-seafood-diets-on-fasting-and-postprandial-serum-metabolites-and-lipid-species-results-from-a-randomized-crossover-intervention-study-in-healthy-adults
#3
Mette Schmedes, Claudia Balderas, Eli Kristin Aadland, Hélène Jacques, Charles Lavigne, Ingvild Eide Graff, Øyvin Eng, Asle Holthe, Gunnar Mellgren, Jette Feveile Young, Ulrik Kræmer Sundekilde, Bjørn Liaset, Hanne Christine Bertram
The metabolic effects associated with intake of different dietary protein sources are not well characterized. We aimed to elucidate how two diets that varied in main protein sources affected the fasting and postprandial serum metabolites and lipid species. In a randomized controlled trial with crossover design, healthy adults ( n = 20) underwent a 4-week intervention with two balanced diets that varied mainly in protein source (lean-seafood versus non-seafood proteins). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were applied to examine the effects of the two diets on serum metabolites...
May 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749694/trimethylamine-n-oxide-promotes-brain-aging-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#4
Dang Li, Yilang Ke, Rui Zhan, Changjie Liu, Mingming Zhao, Aiping Zeng, Xiaoyun Shi, Liang Ji, Si Cheng, Bing Pan, Lemin Zheng, Huashan Hong
Gut microbiota can influence the aging process and may modulate aging-related changes in cognitive function. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite of intestinal flora, has been shown to be closely associated with cardiovascular disease and other diseases. However, the relationship between TMAO and aging, especially brain aging, has not been fully elucidated. To explore the relationship between TMAO and brain aging, we analysed the plasma levels of TMAO in both humans and mice and administered exogenous TMAO to 24-week-old senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) and age-matched senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice for 16 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729869/plasma-trimethylamine-n-oxide-is-associated-with-vulnerable-plaque-characteristics-in-cad-patients-as-assessed-by-optical-coherence-tomography
#5
Xinxin Liu, Zulong Xie, Meng Sun, Xuedong Wang, Ji Li, Jinjin Cui, Fengyun Zhang, Li Yin, Dan Huang, Jingbo Hou, Jinwei Tian, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Plaque vulnerability indicates the risk of a cardiovascular event. In the present study, we sought to analyze the relationship between trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota metabolite from dietary phosphatidylcholine, and vulnerable plaque characteristics in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: One hundred eighty non-culprit plaques from 90 patients with ACS or with stable angina were assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725935/gut-microbiota-derived-metabolites-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Zeneng Wang, Yongzhong Zhao
Trillions of microbes inhabit the human gut, not only providing nutrients and energy to the host from the ingested food, but also producing metabolic bioactive signaling molecules to maintain health and elicit disease, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. In this review, we presented gut microbiota derived metabolites involved in cardiovascular health and disease, including trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), uremic toxins, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), phytoestrogens, anthocyanins, bile acids and lipopolysaccharide...
May 3, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724268/validation-of-a-plasma-metabolomics-model-that-allows-anticipation-of-the-occurrence-of-cytomegalovirus-dnaaemia-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#7
Daniel Monleón, Alberto Talaya, Estela Giménez, Víctor Vinuesa, José Manuel Morales, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Ariadna Pérez, José Luis Piñana, Carlos Solano, David Navarro
A plasma metabolomic model obtained by means of untargeted 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, to which taurine, choline, methylamine, total glutathione, trimethylamine N-oxide, lactate, lysine, isoleucine, total fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids contributed, was validated for the prediction of first episodes of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAaemia in a cohort of 79 allogeneic stem haematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients. The predictive success rate was nearly 65 % for patients at both low and high risk of CMV-related complications according to their baseline characteristics...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705499/high-salt-intake-increases-plasma-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-concentration-and-produces-gut-dysbiosis-in-rats
#8
Klaudia Bielinska, Marek Radkowski, Marta Grochowska, Karol Perlejewski, Tomasz Huc, Kinga Jaworska, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Marcin Ufnal
OBJECTIVE: A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk...
March 22, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704007/contribution-of-multidrug-and-toxin-extrusion-protein-1-mate1-to-renal-secretion-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao
#9
A Gessner, J König, M F Fromm
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) gained considerable attention because of its role as a cardiovascular risk biomarker. Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) mediates TMAO uptake into renal proximal tubular cells. Here we investigated the potential role of multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) for translocation of TMAO across the luminal membrane of proximal tubular cells. HEK293 cells stably expressing OCT2 (HEK-OCT2) or MATE1 (HEK-MATE1) were used for uptake studies. Transcellular transport of TMAO was investigated using monolayers of MDCK control cells (MDCK-Co) as well as single- (MDCK-OCT2, MDCK-MATE1) and double-transfected cells (MDCK-OCT2-MATE1)...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702430/metabolic-products-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-extremes-of-atherosclerosis
#10
Chrysi Bogiatzi, Gregory Gloor, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Gregor Reid, Ruth G Wong, Bradley L Urquhart, Vincent Dinculescu, Kelsey N Ruetz, Thomas J Velenosi, Michael Pignanelli, J David Spence
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is increasing awareness that the intestinal microbiome plays an important role in human health. We investigated its role in the burden of carotid atherosclerosis, measured by ultrasound as total plaque area. METHODS: Multiple regression with traditional risk factors was used to identify three phenotypes among 316/3056 patients attending vascular prevention clinics. Residual score (RES; i.e. the distance off the regression line, similar to standard deviation) was used to identify the 5% of patients with much less plaque than predicted by their risk factors (Protected, RES <-2), the 90% with about as much plaque as predicted (Explained, RES -2 to 2), and the 5% with much more plaque than predicted (Unexplained RES >2)...
June 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699662/ruminant-meat-and-milk-contain-%C3%AE-valerobetaine-another-precursor-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-like-%C3%AE-butyrobetaine
#11
Luigi Servillo, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Alfonso Giovane, Rosario Casale, Domenico Cautela, Domenico Castaldo, Francesco Iannaccone, Gianluca Neglia, Giuseppe Campanile, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
Quaternary ammonium compounds containing N-trimethylamino moiety, such as choline derivatives and carnitine, abundant in meat and dairy products, are metabolic precursors of trimethylamine (TMA). A similar fate is reported for Nε -trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. With the aim at investigating the metabolic profile of such metabolites in most employed animal dietary sources, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses on ruminant and non-ruminant milk and meat were performed. Results demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of δ-valerobetaine, occurring at levels higher than γ-butyrobetaine in all ruminant samples compared to non-ruminants...
September 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694015/ultrasonic-preparation-of-porous-silica-dye-microspheres-sensors-for-quantification-of-urinary-trimethylamine-n-oxide
#12
Zheng Li, Kenneth S Suslick
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), the N-oxide metabolite of trimethylamine (TMA), is a key index in the determination of a wide variety of human cardiac or kidney diseases. A colorimetric sensor array comprising ultrasonically prepared silica-dye microspheres was developed for rapid, portable, and sensitive detection of urinary TMAO. To prepare the sensor array, 13 different organically modified silica (ormosil)-dye composites were synthesized from the hydrolysis/pyrolysis of ultrasonically sprayed organosiloxane precursors under optimized reaction conditions; the resulting products are uniformly sized nanoporous microspheres that are effective colorimetric sensors for various volatile analytes...
April 25, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693387/effects-of-urea-and-tmao-on-lipid-self-assembly-under-osmotic-stress-conditions
#13
Quoc Dat Pham, Amanuel Wolde-Kidan, Anirudh Gupta, Alexander Schlaich, Emanuel Schneck, Roland R Netz, Emma Sparr
Most land-living organisms regularly experience dehydration. In nature, one commonly applied strategy to protect against this osmotic stress is to introduce small polar molecules with low vapor pressure, commonly called osmolytes. Two examples of naturally occurring small polar compounds are urea and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which are known to have counteracting effects on protein stability. In this work, we investigate the effects of urea and TMAO on lipid self-assembly at varying water contents, focusing on dehydrated conditions...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689727/vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-the-gut-microbiota
#14
Sinian Li, Yiming Shao, Kanglan Li, Changmei HuangFu, Wenjie Wang, Zhou Liu, Zhiyou Cai, Bin Zhao
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), the second most common cause of dementia in elderly people, is a term that refers to all forms of cognitive disorders that can be attributed to cerebrovascular disease such as manifestations of discrete infarctions, brain hemorrhages, and white matter lesions. The gut microbiota (GM) has emerged recently as an essential player in the development of VCI. The GM may affect the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions through the brain-gut axis via neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689154/inhibition-of-microtubule-depolymerization-by-osmolytes
#15
George D Bachand, Rishi Jain, Randy Ko, Nathan F Bouxsein, Virginia VanDelinder
Microtubule dynamics play a critical role in the normal physiology of eukaryotic cells, as well as a number of cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The polymerization/depolymerization of microtubules is regulated by a variety of stabilizing and destabilizing factors, including microtubule-associated proteins and therapeutic agents (e.g., paclitaxel, nocodazole). Here we describe the ability of the osmolytes polyethylene glycol (PEG) and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) to inhibit the depolymerization of individual microtubule filaments for extended periods of time (up to 30 days)...
April 24, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678198/metabolic-retroconversion-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-the-gut-microbiota
#16
Lesley Hoyles, Maria L Jiménez-Pranteda, Julien Chilloux, Francois Brial, Antonis Myridakis, Thomas Aranias, Christophe Magnan, Glenn R Gibson, Jeremy D Sanderson, Jeremy K Nicholson, Dominique Gauguier, Anne L McCartney, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas
BACKGROUND: The dietary methylamines choline, carnitine, and phosphatidylcholine are used by the gut microbiota to produce a range of metabolites, including trimethylamine (TMA). However, little is known about the use of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) by this consortium of microbes. RESULTS: A feeding study using deuterated TMAO in C57BL6/J mice demonstrated microbial conversion of TMAO to TMA, with uptake of TMA into the bloodstream and its conversion to TMAO. Microbial activity necessary to convert TMAO to TMA was suppressed in antibiotic-treated mice, with deuterated TMAO being taken up directly into the bloodstream...
April 20, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668463/changes-to-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-its-precursors-in-nascent-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Daniella Lent-Schochet, Ryan Silva, Matthew McLaughlin, Beverley Huet, Ishwarlal Jialal
Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cardio-metabolic cluster afflicting 35% of American adults, increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type-2 diabetes (T2DM) risk. Increased levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite derived from choline and L-carnitine, correlates with CVD and T2DM. However, the precise role of TMAO and its precursors in MetS remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that choline, L-carnitine and TMAO in MetS patients without CVD or T2DM would be altered and correlate with inflammatory markers...
April 18, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657971/genome-reduction-in-psychromonas-species-within-the-gut-of-an-amphipod-from-the-ocean-s-deepest-point
#18
Weipeng Zhang, Ren-Mao Tian, Jin Sun, Salim Bougouffa, Wei Ding, Lin Cai, Yi Lan, Haoya Tong, Yongxin Li, Alan J Jamieson, Vladimir B Bajic, Jeffrey C Drazen, Douglas Bartlett, Pei-Yuan Qian
Amphipods are the dominant scavenging metazoan species in the Mariana Trench, the deepest known point in Earth's oceans. Here the gut microbiota of the amphipod Hirondellea gigas collected from the Challenger and Sirena Deeps of the Mariana Trench were investigated. The 11 amphipod individuals included for analyses were dominated by Psychromonas , of which a nearly complete genome was successfully recovered (designated CDP1). Compared with previously reported free-living Psychromonas strains, CDP1 has a highly reduced genome...
May 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651635/effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-trimethylamine-n-oxide-plasma-levels-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-pilot-study
#19
Natália A Borges, P Stenvinkel, P Bergman, A R Qureshi, B Lindholm, C Moraes, M B Stockler-Pinto, D Mafra
Components present in the diet, L-carnitine, choline, and betaine are metabolized by gut microbiota to produce metabolites such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) that appear to promote cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation for 3 months on plasma TMAO levels in CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD). A randomized, double-blind trial was performed in 21 patients [54.8 ± 10.4 years, nine men, BMI 26...
April 12, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611033/aqueous-ionic-liquids-in-comparison-with-standard-co-solutes-differences-and-common-principles-in-their-interaction-with-protein-and-dna-structures
#20
REVIEW
Ewa Anna Oprzeska-Zingrebe, Jens Smiatek
Ionic liquids (ILs) are versatile solvents for a broad range of biotechnological applications. Recent experimental and simulation results highlight the potential benefits of dilute ILs in aqueous solution (aqueous ILs) in order to modify protein and DNA structures systematically. In contrast to a limited number of standard co-solutes like urea, ectoine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), or guanidinium chloride, the large amount of possible cation and anion combinations in aqueous ILs can be used to develop tailor-made stabilizers or destabilizers for specific purposes...
April 2, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
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