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Trimethylamine-N-oxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884952/soluble-dietary-fiber-reduces-trimethylamine-metabolism-via-gut-microbiota-and-co-regulates-host-ampk-pathways
#1
Qian Li, Tao Wu, Rui Liu, Min Zhang, Ruijun Wang
SCOPE: Evidence from animal experiments and clinical medicine suggest that high dietary fiber intake, followed by gut microbiota-mediated fermentation, decreases trimethylamine (TMA) metabolism, the mechanism of which, however, remains unclear. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate, using mice fed with red meat, the effects of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) intervention on TMA metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Low- or high-dose soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from natural wheat bran (LN and HN, low- and high-dose natural SDF), fermented wheat bran (LF and HF, low- and high-dose fermented SDF), and steam-exploded wheat bran (LE and HE, low- and high-dose exploded SDF groups) were used to examine whether SDF interventions in mice fed with red meat can alter TMA and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism by gut microbial communities in a diet-specific manner...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872093/-research-progress-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#2
Huahua He, Xinfu Lian, Zhiqun Tang
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), metabolites of the intestinal microflora, is a newly discovered risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The intestinal flora converted choline and L-carnitine into trimethylamine in the food. Trimethylamine is oxidized to TMAO in liver enzymes. Lowering TMA can stimulate macrophages to reverse cholesterol transport and inhibit atherogenesis. TMAO poietin-monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is a tool for cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transpor, lowering FMO3 can slow the gallbladder's secretion of bile, delay intestinal absorption of cholesterol, and limit the synthesis of oxidized cholesterol and cholesterol esters...
August 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871042/trimethylamine-n-oxide-induces-vascular-inflammation-by-activating-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-through-the-sirt3-sod2-mtros-signaling-pathway
#3
Ming-Liang Chen, Xiao-Hui Zhu, Li Ran, He-Dong Lang, Long Yi, Man-Tian Mi
BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has recently been identified as a novel and independent risk factor for promoting atherosclerosis through inducing vascular inflammation. However, the exact mechanism is currently unclear. Studies have established a central role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the pathogenesis of vascular inflammation. Here, we examined the potential role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in TMAO-induced vascular inflammation in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanisms...
September 4, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870405/gut-microbiota-dependent-trimethylamine-n-oxide-is-associated-with-long-term-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-exacerbated-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Manuel Ottiger, Manuela Nickler, Christian Steuer, Luca Bernasconi, Andreas Huber, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Christoph Henzen, Claus Hoess, Robert Thomann, Werner Zimmerli, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
OBJECTIVES: The gut, microflora-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has emerged as a dietary-associated risk factor for incident cardiovascular events. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent disease worldwide with a high associated risk for cardiovascular disease and death due to an infectious cause. AIMS: To study whether TMAO is predictive for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with exacerbated COPD. METHODS: A total of 189 patients with COPD exacerbation were prospectively followed for a median of 6...
July 6, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844670/goose-fmo3-gene-cloning-tissue-expression-profiling-polymorphism-detection-and-association-analysis-with-trimethylamine-level-in-the-egg-yolk
#5
Hang Zhong, Yi Luo, Jing Sun, Chao Wang, Qi-Gui Wang, Guang-Liang Gao, Ke-Shan Zhang, Qin Li, Hai-Wei Wang, Jing Li, Ming-Jun Chen, Yang-Ming Wang, Xian-Zhi Zhao
Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) plays a critical role in catalyzing the conversion of trimethylamine (TMA) to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in vivo. Despite the well-documented association between FMO3 mutations and a 'fishy' off-flavor eggs in chicken and quail, little information is available regarding the molecular characteristic of goose (Anser cygnoides) FMO3 and its relationship with the yolk TMA content. To fill these gaps, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of goose FMO3, which comprised 1851bp encoding 531 amino acids...
October 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842845/gut-microbiota-and-atherosclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Daniel Y Li, W H Wilson Tang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies in microbiota-mediated health risks have gained traction in recent years since the compilation of the Human Microbiome Project. No longer do we believe that our gut microbiota is an inert set of microorganisms that reside in the body without consequence. In this review, we discuss the recent findings which further our understanding of the connection between the gut microbiota and the atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: We evaluate studies which illustrate the current understanding of the relationship between infection, immunity, altered metabolism, and bacterial products such as immune activators or dietary metabolites and their contributions to the development of atherosclerosis...
August 25, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836619/beyond-gut-feelings-how-the-gut-microbiota-regulates-blood-pressure
#7
REVIEW
Francine Z Marques, Charles R Mackay, David M Kaye
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke, and is estimated to cause 9.4 million deaths globally every year. The pathogenesis of hypertension is complex, but lifestyle factors such as diet are important contributors to the disease. High dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced blood pressure and lower cardiovascular mortality. A critical relationship between dietary intake and the composition of the gut microbiota has been described in the literature, and a growing body of evidence supports the role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of blood pressure...
August 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822264/trimethylamine-n-oxide-as-a-risk-factor-for-atherosclerosis-induces-stress-in-j774a-1-murine-macrophages
#8
Abbas Mohammadi, Zakaria Vahabzadeh, Soran Jamalzadeh, Tahereh Khalili
PURPOSE: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biomarker for kidney problems. It has also been introduced as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis trigger cellular and humeral immunoreaction in macrophages through induction of heat shock protein expressions and increased levels of GRP94 and HSP70 are associated with increased atherosclerosis risk. The present study evaluated the possible effect(s) of TMAO on the expression of GRP94 and HSP70 at protein levels...
August 16, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816059/atherothrombosis-and-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-and-management-in-elderly
#9
Francesco Violi, Lorenzo Loffredo, Roberto Carnevale, Pasquale Pignatelli, Daniele Pastori
SIGNIFICANCE The incidence of cardiovascular events increases by aging, representing the main cause of death in old population. Aging is associated with over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may affect clotting and platelet activation, and impair endothelial function so predisposing elderly patients to thrombotic complications. RECENT ADVANCES There are increasing evidences to suggest that aging is associated with an imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Thus, up-regulation of ROS-producing enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and myeloperoxidase, along with down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, occur during aging...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807612/the-role-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-as-a-mediator-of-cardiovascular-complications-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
James A P Tomlinson, David C Wheeler
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an enhanced risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality when compared with age- and gender-matched individuals with normal kidney function. Trimethlyamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut-derived amine oxide that has been implicated in the causation of CV diseases. Plasma TMAO is cleared by the kidney, and TMAO levels are elevated in CKD. Experimental studies have identified pathogenic mechanisms by which TMAO may contribute to CV disease through dysregulation of lipid metabolism, enhanced macrophage foam cell formation, and platelet dysfunction...
August 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782886/circulating-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-11-prospective-cohort-studies
#11
Jiaqian Qi, Tao You, Jing Li, Tingting Pan, Li Xiang, Yue Han, Li Zhu
Circulating trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a canonical metabolite from gut flora, has been related to the risk of cardiovascular disorders. However, the association between circulating TMAO and the risk of cardiovascular events has not been quantitatively evaluated. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all available cohort studies regarding the association between baseline circulating TMAO and subsequent cardiovascular events. Embase and PubMed databases were searched for relevant cohort studies...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747709/trimethylamine-n-oxide-abolishes-the-chaperone-activity-of-%C3%AE-casein-an-intrinsically-disordered-protein
#12
Mohd Younus Bhat, Laishram Rajendrakumar Singh, Tanveer Ali Dar
Osmolytes (small molecules that help in circumventing stresses) are known to promote protein folding and prevent aggregation in the case of globular proteins. However, the effect of such osmolytes on the structure and function of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) has not been clearly understood. Here we have investigated the effect of methylamine osmolytes on α-casein (an IDP present in mammalian milk) and discovered that TMAO (Trimethylamine-N-oxide) but not other methylamines renders α-casein functionless...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745401/trimethylamine-n-oxide-breathe-new-life
#13
REVIEW
Saravanan Subramaniam, Craig Fletcher
Association between elevated levels of systemic trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events have been proposed in recent years. Increasing experimental and clinical evidence in the last decade has implicated TMAO as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. TMAO, the oxygenated product of trimethylamine (TMA), belongs to the class of amine oxides. Most of the TMA derived from the metabolism of choline and L-carnitine by gut bacteria is absorbed into the bloodstream and gets rapidly oxidized to TMAO by the hepatic enzyme, flavin-containing monooxgenase-3...
July 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728374/analysis-of-metabolomic-patterns-in-thoroughbreds-before-and-after-exercise
#14
Hyun-Jun Jang, Duk-Moon Kim, Kyu-Bong Kim, Jeong-Woong Park, Jae-Young Choi, Jin Hyeog Oh, Ki-Duk Song, Suhkmann Kim, Byung-Wook Cho
Objective: Evaluation of exercise effects in racehorse is important in horseracing industry and animal health care. In this study, we compared metabolic patterns between before and after exercise to screen metabolic biomarkers for exercise effects in thoroughbreds. Methods: The concentration of metabolites in muscle, plasma, and urine was measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis and the relative metabolite levels in the three samples were compared between before and after exercise...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724646/association-between-microbiota-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-type-2-diabetes
#15
Zhilei Shan, Taoping Sun, Hao Huang, Sijing Chen, Liangkai Chen, Cheng Luo, Wei Yang, Xuefeng Yang, Ping Yao, Jinquan Cheng, Frank B Hu, Liegang Liu
Background: The association of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbiota-dependent metabolite from dietary choline and carnitine, with type 2 diabetes was inconsistent.Objective: We evaluated the association of plasma TMAO with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and the potential modification of TMAO-generating enzyme flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) polymorphisms.Design: This was an age- and sex-matched case-control study of 2694 participants: 1346 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes and 1348 controls. Concentrations of plasma TMAO were measured, and FMO3 E158K polymorphisms (rs2266782) were genotyped...
September 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717107/human-plasma-and-urinary-metabolic-profiles-of-trimethylamine-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide-extrapolated-using-a-simple-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model
#16
Makiko Shimizu, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Trimethylamine, a dietary- and medicinal carnitine-derived amine, is extensively metabolized by liver to non-malodorous trimethylamine N-oxide. Although trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide under daily dietary consumption or carnitine treatment are generally regarded as nontoxic, they have been, and remain, of toxicological and clinical interest because of their potential association with atherosclerosis. The aim of the current study was to model the pharmacokinetics of trimethylamine after oral administration of trimethylamine in humans and compare the results with reported measured values...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715991/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-microbiome-and-heart-and-kidney-disease
#17
Steven H Zeisel, Manya Warrier
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biologically active molecule and is a putative promoter of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis in humans. Host intestinal bacteria produce its precursor trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, choline, or choline-containing compounds. Most of the TMA produced is passively absorbed into portal circulation, and hepatic flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) efficiently oxidize TMA to TMAO. Both observational and experimental studies suggest a strong positive correlation between increased plasma TMAO concentrations and adverse cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and death...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715746/pfoa-induced-metabolism-disturbance-and-multi-generational-reproductive-toxicity-in-oryzias-latipes
#18
Jin Wuk Lee, Jae-Woo Lee, Kyungtae Kim, Yu-Jin Shin, Jieun Kim, Suhkmann Kim, Heejung Kim, Pilje Kim, Kyunghwa Park
The aims of this study were to examine multi-generational reproductive toxicity and metabolism disturbances in Oryzias latipes exposed to 0.3, 3, and 30mg/L PFOA for 259-day. The highest concentration of PFOA suppressed fecundity over three generations from F0 to F2 and sac-fry survival rate in F2 generation, indicating that PFOA resulted in multi-generational reproductive toxicity (p<0.05). Histologically, in F1 and F2 generations, O. latipes exposed to 30mg/L PFOA revealed accelerated gonad development, and the atrophy and degeneration of thyroid follicular cell...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715006/substitution-reactions-of-iron-ii-carbamoyl-thioether-complexes-related-to-mono-iron-hydrogenase
#19
Zhu-Lin Xie, Gummadi Durgaprasad, Azim K Ali, Michael J Rose
A C,N,S pincer complex has been synthesized for structural modeling of the organometallic active site of mono-[Fe] hydrogenase (HMD). The C,N,S chelate allows for systematic investigation of the substitution reactions of CO and other exogenous X/L-type ligands, as well as examination of the exact roles of the Fe-carbamoyl and {Fe(CO)2}(2+) units in stabilizing the low-spin Fe(ii) center. Reaction of the 'apo-ligand' 6-(2-(methylthio)phenyl)pyridin-2-amine ((H2N)N(py)S(Me)) with [Fe(CO)4(Br)2] affords the organometallic complex [((O[double bond, length as m-dash])C(NH)N(py)S(Me))Fe(CO)2(Br)] (1)...
August 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697427/nmr-based-metabolomic-study-on-the-toxicological-effects-of-pesticide-diazinon-on-adaptation-to-sea-water-by-endangered-persian-sturgeon-acipenser-persicus-fingerlings
#20
Saeed Hajirezaee, Alireza Mirvaghefi, Hamid Farahmand, Naser Agh
NMR-based metabolomics was applied to explore metabolic impacts of diazinon on sea water adaptation of Persian sturgeon fingerlings, Acipenser persicus. Fingerlings were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon in freshwater (FW) for 96 h (short-term trial) and 12 days (long-term trial) and then exposed in brackish water (BW) (12 mg L(-1) salinity) for 24 h. After 96 h and 12 days exposure in FW, identified metabolites (amino acids, osmolytes, energy metabolites) showed different change-patterns compared to control group (P < 0...
July 4, 2017: Chemosphere
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