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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507524/changing-what-you-see-by-changing-what-you-know-the-role-of-attention
#1
Gary Lupyan
Attending is a cognitive process that incorporates a person's knowledge, goals, and expectations. What we perceive when we attend to one thing is different from what we perceive when we attend to something else. Yet, it is often argued that attentional effects do not count as evidence that perception is influenced by cognition. I investigate two arguments often given to justify excluding attention. The first is arguing that attention is a post-perceptual process reflecting selection between fully constructed perceptual representations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498347/wireless-sensor-network-based-service-provisioning-by-a-brokering-platform
#2
Luis Guijarro, Vicent Pla, Jose R Vidal, Maurizio Naldi, Toktam Mahmoodi
This paper proposes a business model for providing services based on the Internet of Things through a platform that intermediates between human users and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The platform seeks to maximize its profit through posting both the price charged to each user and the price paid to each WSN. A complete analysis of the profit maximization problem is performed in this paper. We show that the service provider maximizes its profit by incentivizing all users and all Wireless Sensor Infrastructure Providers (WSIPs) to join the platform...
May 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492008/physician-industry-collaboration-organizational-considerations-for-the-future-of-innovation-and-growth-in-dermatology
#3
EDITORIAL
Wendy E Roberts, Neil S Sadick, Wilma F Bergfeld, Amy S Paller, Valerie D Callender, Lynn A Drake
The U.S. medical environment continues to evolve with issues from Privacy to EMR, Insurance regulations, Physician Access and Healthcare Reform, and MACRA (Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act) on the discussion table. Not since the advent of Medicare and Medicaid in the mid 1960's, have we seen such widespread changes in the medical healthcare environment (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). Physicians, industry, patients and consumers are affected by the changes. These four groups have historically worked as separate entities, but are now key stakeholders in the future of dermatology...
June 2016: International Journal of Women's Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483744/etest-developing-a-smart-home-hiv-testing-kit-that-enables-active-real-time-follow-up-and-referral-after-testing
#4
Tyler Wray, Philip A Chan, Erik Simpanen, Don Operario
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group at highest risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States, but many do not test as frequently as recommended. Home-based self-testing (HBST) for HIV holds promise for promoting regular testing among these individuals, but currently available HBSTs have limited follow-up options, providing only a 1-800 number that participants can call. Failure to actively conduct follow-up counseling and referrals after HBST use could result in delays in seeking confirmatory testing and care among users receiving reactive (preliminary positive) test results...
May 8, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479984/convergent-minds-some-questions-about-mental-evolution
#5
Matt Cartmill
In investigating convergent minds, we need to be sure that the things we are looking at are both minds and convergent. In determining whether a shared character state represents a convergence between two organisms, we must know the wider distribution and primitive state of that character so that we can map that character and its state transitions onto a phylogenetic tree. When we do this, some apparently primitive shared traits may prove to represent convergent losses of cognitive capacities. To avoid having to talk about the minds of plants and paramecia, we need to go beyond assessments of behaviourally defined cognition to ask questions about mind in the primary sense of the word, defined by the presence of mental events and consciousness...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479982/logic-passion-and-the-problem-of-convergence
#6
Daniel W McShea
Our estimate of the likelihood of convergence on human-style intelligence depends on how we understand our various mental capacities. Here I revive David Hume's theory of motivation and action to argue that the most common understanding of the two conventionally recognized components of intelligence-reason and emotion-is confused. We say things like, 'Reason can overcome emotion', but to make this statement meaningful, we are forced to treat reason as a compound notion, as a forced and unhappy mixture of concepts that are incommensurate...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478692/do-i-really-want-to-be-going-on-a-bloody-diet-gendered-narratives-in-older-men-with-painful-knee-osteoarthritis
#7
Francine Toye, Jonathan Room, Karen L Barker
PURPOSE: Small reductions in body weight can decrease osteoarthritic knee pain. Intuitively this should provide a strong incentive for weight-loss. However many people undergoing knee joint replacement (KJR) are categorised as obese. Gender theories can help us to understand differential responses to illness and therefore make an important contribution to rehabilitation. We aimed to explore barriers to weight loss in a group of older men with osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted 12 in-depth interviews, before and 1 year after surgery, with six obese men listed for KJR...
May 8, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475734/biological-criteria-of-disease-four-ways-of-going-wrong
#8
John Matthewson, Paul E Griffiths
We defend a view of the distinction between the normal and the pathological according to which that distinction has an objective, biological component. We accept that there is a normative component to the concept of disease, especially as applied to human beings. Nevertheless, an organism cannot be in a pathological state unless something has gone wrong for that organism from a purely biological point of view. Biology, we argue, recognises two sources of biological normativity, which jointly generate four "ways of going wrong" from a biological perspective...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474050/a-systems-approach-to-suicide-prevention-radical-change-or-doing-the-same-things-better
#9
Scott J Fitzpatrick, Claire Hooker
Suicide is a significant public health concern. Continued high suicide rates, coupled with emerging international evidence, have led to the development of a 'systems' approach to suicide prevention, which is now being trialled as part of a proposed Suicide Prevention Framework for NSW (New South Wales, Australia). The Framework replicates successful international approaches. It is organised around nine components, ranging from individual to population-level approaches, to improve coordination and integration of existing services...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468291/canoe-an-autonomous-infrastructure-free-indoor-navigation-system
#10
Kai Dong, Wenjia Wu, Haibo Ye, Ming Yang, Zhen Ling, Wei Yu
The development of the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated research in indoor navigation systems, a majority of which rely on adequate wireless signals and sources. Nonetheless, deploying such a system requires periodic site-survey, which is time consuming and labor intensive. To address this issue, in this paper we present Canoe, an indoor navigation system that considers shopping mall scenarios. In our system, we do not assume any prior knowledge, such as floor-plan or the shop locations, access point placement or power settings, historical RSS measurements or fingerprints, etc...
April 30, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462770/review-deciphering-animal-robustness-a-synthesis-to-facilitate-its-use-in-livestock-breeding-and-management
#11
N C Friggens, F Blanc, D P Berry, L Puillet
As the environments in which livestock are reared become more variable, animal robustness becomes an increasingly valuable attribute. Consequently, there is increasing focus on managing and breeding for it. However, robustness is a difficult phenotype to properly characterise because it is a complex trait composed of multiple components, including dynamic elements such as the rates of response to, and recovery from, environmental perturbations. In this review, the following definition of robustness is used: the ability, in the face of environmental constraints, to carry on doing the various things that the animal needs to do to favour its future ability to reproduce...
May 2, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452937/an-authentication-protocol-for-future-sensor-networks
#12
Muhammad Bilal, Shin-Gak Kang
Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions...
April 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413842/-i-do-not-have-time-is-there-a-handout-i-can-use-combining-physicians-needs-and-behavior-change-theory-to-put-physical-activity-evidence-into-practice
#13
R E Clark, C McArthur, A Papaioannou, A M Cheung, J Laprade, L Lee, R Jain, L M Giangregorio
Guidelines for physical activity exist and following them would improve health. Physicians can advise patients on physical activity. We found barriers related to physicians' knowledge, a lack of tools and of physician incentives, and competing demands for limited time with a patient. We discuss interventions that could reduce these barriers. INTRODUCTION: Uptake of physical activity (PA) guidelines would improve health and reduce mortality in older adults. However, physicians face barriers in guideline implementation, particularly when faced with needing to tailor recommendations in the presence of chronic disease...
April 17, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412890/three-problems-with-current-digital-mental-health-research-and-three-things-we-can-do-about-them
#14
David C Mohr, Ken R Weingardt, Madhu Reddy, Stephen M Schueller
An increasingly large body of randomized controlled trials has demonstrated the efficacy of mental health technologies, such as Web-based and mobile interventions, to prevent and treat mental disorders and increase psychological well-being. However, there is little evidence that these tools can be successfully implemented in clinical settings. The authors highlight three widely held misconceptions that they believe are holding back the field, and they reconceptualize the issues to strengthen the path toward implementation and accelerate innovation...
April 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405812/estimating-the-prevalence-of-functional-exonic-splice-regulatory-information
#15
REVIEW
Rosina Savisaar, Laurence D Hurst
In addition to coding information, human exons contain sequences necessary for correct splicing. These elements are known to be under purifying selection and their disruption can cause disease. However, the density of functional exonic splicing information remains profoundly uncertain. Several groups have experimentally investigated how mutations at different exonic positions affect splicing. They have found splice information to be distributed widely in exons, with one estimate putting the proportion of splicing-relevant nucleotides at >90%...
April 12, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385299/kick-the-bucket-one-hospital-system-s-journey-to-reduce-clostridium-difficile
#16
Molly Bridget Delaney
PROBLEM: Albert Einstein defines insanity as doing the same thing over again but expecting different results. Although the United States claims to reduce antibiotic abuse, practice strict isolation, and clean meticulously, the burden of Clostridium difficile outpaces goals. Unless innovative approaches are tried, we risk culling elderly, immunosuppressed, and otherwise debilitated populations. Emergency departments are a primary access point for patients who are unable to wait for primary care...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381722/pharmacists-and-regulatory-science
#17
REVIEW
Mikio Masada
 For providing appropriate pharmacotherapy, "Doing the right things, and doing things right" are necessary. Additionally, vigilance is required for the appropriate use of pharmaceuticals. Evidence-based medicine has been a common approach to healthcare, and many guidelines have been published. In addition, risk management plans (RMPs) are developed upon the approval of new drugs. Therefore an environment to provide the best healthcare based on scientific evidence has been developed. When putting RMPs into practice, it is necessary to understand and utilize regulatory science (RS)...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362833/are-health-sciences-students-who-sit-at-the-back-of-the-lecture-hall-not-motivated
#18
Sébastien Uffler, Jean-Claude Bartier, Thierry Pelaccia
OBJECTIVES: Motivation is a crucial determinant in learning and performance. It would therefore be advantageous for teachers to use strategies intended to have a positive effect on their students' motivation. With this in mind, the first thing to do is to identify students with motivation problems, which can be a complex exercise when there are large groups. We wanted to explore whether the place chosen by health sciences students in a classroom or lecture hall showed any correlation with their motivation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339692/decrease-in-unnecessary-vitamin-d-testing-using-clinical-decision-support-tools-making-it-harder-to-do-the-wrong-thing
#19
Andrew H Felcher, Rachel Gold, David M Mosen, Ashley B Stoneburner
Objective: To evaluate the impact of clinical decision support (CDS) tools on rates of vitamin D testing. Screening for vitamin D deficiency has increased in recent years, spurred by studies suggesting vitamin D's clinical benefits. Such screening, however, is often unsupported by evidence and can incur unnecessary costs. Materials and Methods: We evaluated how rates of vitamin D screening changed after we implemented 3 CDS tools in the electronic health record (EHR) of a large health plan: (1) a new vitamin D screening guideline, (2) an alert that requires clinician acknowledgement of current guidelines to continue ordering the test (a "hard stop"), and (3) a modification of laboratory ordering preference lists that eliminates shortcuts...
February 19, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321689/doing-the-right-thing-a-qualitative-investigation-of-retractions-due-to-unintentional-error
#20
Mohammad Hosseini, Medard Hilhorst, Inez de Beaufort, Daniele Fanelli
Retractions solicited by authors following the discovery of an unintentional error-what we henceforth call a "self-retraction"-are a new phenomenon of growing importance, about which very little is known. Here we present results of a small qualitative study aimed at gaining preliminary insights about circumstances, motivations and beliefs that accompanied the experience of a self-retraction. We identified retraction notes that unambiguously reported an honest error and that had been published between the years 2010 and 2015...
March 20, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
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