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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042022/state-of-the-field-paper-tools
#1
REVIEW
Boris Jardine
Paper occupies a special place in histories of knowledge. It is the substrate of communication, the stuff of archives, the bearer of marks that make worlds. For the early-modern period in particular we now have a wealth of studies of 'paper tools', of the ways in which archives were assembled and put to use, of the making of lists and transcribing of observations, and so on. In other fields, too, attention has turned to the materiality of information. How far is it possible to draw a stable methodology out of the insights of literary and book historians, bibliographers, anthropologists, and those working in media studies? Do these diverse fields in fact refer to the same thing when they talk of paper, its qualities, affordances and limitations? In attempting to answer these questions, the present essay begins in the rich territory of early-modern natural philosophy - but from there opens out to take in recent works in a range of disciplines...
August 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034806/exploring-the-east-west-divide-in-prevalence-of-affective-disorder-a-case-for-cultural-differences-in-coping-with-negative-emotion
#2
June De Vaus, Matthew J Hornsey, Peter Kuppens, Brock Bastian
Lifetime rates of clinical depression and anxiety in the West tend to be approximately 4 to 10 times greater than rates in Asia. In this review, we explore one possible reason for this cross-cultural difference, that Asian cultures think differently about emotion than do Western cultures and that these different systems of thought help explain why negative affect does not escalate into clinical disorder at the same rate. We review research from multiple disciplines-including cross-cultural psychology, social cognition, clinical psychology, and psychiatry-to make the case that the Eastern holistic principles of contradiction (each experience is associated with its opposite), change (the world exists in a state of constant flux), and context (the interconnectedness of all things) fundamentally shape people's experience of emotions in different cultures...
October 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030309/hearing-the-voice-of-the-resident-in-long-term-care-facilities-an-internationally-based-approach-to-assessing-quality-of-life
#3
John N Morris, Anja Declercq, John P Hirdes, Harriet Finne-Soveri, Brant E Fries, Mary L James, Leon Geffen, Vahe Kehyayan, Kai Saks, Katarzyna Szczerbińska, Eva Topinkova
OBJECTIVES: interRAI launched this study to introduce a set of standardized self-report measures through which residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) could describe their quality of life and services. This article reports on the international development effort, describing measures relative to privacy, food, security, comfort, autonomy, respect, staff responsiveness, relationships with staff, friendships, and activities. First, we evaluated these items individually and then combined them in summary scales...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992277/advances-in-abscission-signaling
#4
O Rahul Patharkar, John C Walker
Abscission is a process in plants for shedding unwanted organs such as leaves, flowers, fruits, or floral organs. Shedding of leaves in the fall is the most visually obvious display of abscission in nature. The very shape plants take is forged by the processes of growth and abscission. Mankind manipulates abscission in modern agriculture to do things such as prevent pre-harvest fruit drop prior to mechanical harvesting in orchards. Abscission occurs specifically at abscission zones that are laid down as the organ that will one day abscise is developed...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961118/advanced-boundary-electrode-modeling-for-tes-and-parallel-tes-eeg
#5
S Pursiainen, B Agsten, S Wagner, C H Wolters
This paper explores advanced electrode modeling in the context of separate and parallel transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) and electroencephalography (EEG) measurements.We focus on boundary condition based approaches that do not necessitate adding auxiliary elements, e.g. sponges, to the computational domain. In particular, we investigate the complete electrode model (CEM) which incorporates a detailed description of the skin-electrode interface including its contact surface, impedance and normal current distribution...
September 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952508/so-you-think-you-have-an-idea-a-practical-risk-reduction-conceptual-model-for-academic-translational-research
#6
REVIEW
John Schwartz, Christopher Macomber
Translational research for new drugs, medical devices, and diagnostics encompasses aspects of both basic science and clinical research, requiring multidisciplinary skills and resources that are not all readily available in either a basic laboratory or clinical setting alone. We propose that, to be successful, "translational" research ought to be understood as a defined process from basic science through manufacturing, regulatory, clinical testing all the way to market. The authors outline a process which has worked well for them to identify and commercialize academic innovation...
April 4, 2017: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946659/secure-utilization-of-beacons-and-uavs-in-emergency-response-systems-for-building-fire-hazard
#7
Seung-Hyun Seo, Jung-In Choi, Jinseok Song
An intelligent emergency system for hazard monitoring and building evacuation is a very important application area in Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Through the use of smart sensors, such a system can provide more vital and reliable information to first-responders and also reduce the incidents of false alarms. Several smart monitoring and warning systems do already exist, though they exhibit key weaknesses such as a limited monitoring coverage and security, which have not yet been sufficiently addressed...
September 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940346/the-pluralism-of-coherent-approaches-to-global-health
#8
Alex John London
Stakeholders in global health, including governments, international and nongovernmental organizations, and corporations, face complex decisions about how to help improve the lives of those most burdened by sickness and disease while upholding their rights and facilitating the transition to a more just social and political order. In "The Case for Resource-Sensitivity: Why It Is Ethical to Provide Cheaper, Less Effective Treatments in Global Health," Govind Persad and Ezekiel Emanuel argue that "[t]he provision of health care in developing countries should reflect what best balances utility, equality, and priority to the least advantaged in those countries...
September 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933912/more-is-less-learning-but-not-relaxing-buffers-deviance-under-job-stressors
#9
Chen Zhang, David M Mayer, Eunbit Hwang
Workplace deviance harms the well-being of an organization and its members. Unfortunately, theory and prior research suggest that deviance is associated with job stressors, which are endemic to work organizations and often cannot be easily eliminated. To address this conundrum, we explore actions individuals can take at work that serve as buffering conditions for the positive relationship between job stressors and deviant behavior. Drawing upon conservation of resources theory, we examine a resource-building activity (i...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924060/the-dilemma-of-predicting-violent-radicalization
#10
Cécile Rousseau, B Heidi Ellis, John D Lantos
Parents, educators, law enforcement officials, and health professionals are all concerned about the violent radicalization of adolescents. Health professionals may be called on to assess teenagers regarding the risk that they will become dangerous. We present a case in which a psychiatrist is asked to do a forensic evaluation of a young adolescent who said troubling things and had some concerning posts on his Facebook page. The evaluation reveals things about both the young boy and his community.
October 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916853/ironic-capture-top-down-expectations-exacerbate-distraction-in-visual-search
#11
Greg Huffman, Jason Rajsic, Jay Pratt
Ironic processing refers to the phenomenon where attempting to resist doing something results in a person doing that very thing. Here, we report three experiments investigating the role of ironic processing in visual search. In Experiment 1, we informed observers that they could predict the location of a salient color singleton in a visual search task and found that response times were slower in that condition than in a condition where the singleton's location was random. Experiment 2 used the same experimental design but did not inform participants of the color singleton's behavior...
September 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912619/what-moral-character-is-and-is-not
#12
Marie I George
Louise Mitchell discusses character in "Integrity and virtue: The forming of good character" (The Linacre Quarterly 82, no. 2: 149-169). I argue that she is mistaken in identifying character as a potency and that it is rather the sum of one's moral habits and dispositions. I establish this by showing that if one correctly applies the division Aristotle presents in the text that Mitchell relies on, it follows that character belongs in the category of habit. I further support this conclusion by considering how people commonly speak of moral character...
August 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885258/differences-in-retinal-surgery-innovation-between-the-united-states-and-european-union-why-we-do-things-differently
#13
James A Stefater, Tomasz P Stryjewski, Donald J D'Amico, Dean Eliott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: International Ophthalmology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882283/the-impact-of-impact-contemporary%C3%A2-outcomes-with-balloon%C3%A2-aortic%C3%A2-valvuloplasty-are-we-doing-the-right-thing
#14
EDITORIAL
Ziyad M Hijazi, Damien Kenny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875227/-that-is-why-i-have-trust-unpacking-what-trust-means-to-participants-in-international-genetic-research-in-pakistan-and-denmark
#15
Zainab Sheikh, Klaus Hoeyer
Trust features prominently in a number of policy documents that have been issued in recent years to facilitate data sharing and international collaboration in medical research. However, it often remains unclear what is meant by 'trust'. By exploring a concrete international collaboration between Denmark and Pakistan, we develop a way of unpacking trust that shifts focus from what trust 'is' to what people invest in relationships and what references to trust do for them in these relationships. Based on interviews in both Pakistan and Denmark with people who provide blood samples and health data for the same laboratory, we find that when participants discuss trust they are trying to shape their relationship to researchers while simultaneously communicating important hopes, fears and expectations...
September 5, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857584/even-unpleasant-reminders-that-you-are-an-animal-need-not-disgust-you
#16
Dolichan Kollareth, James A Russell
Three studies (Ns = 200, 400, 400) tested the hypothesis that we humans feel disgust when reminded of our animal nature. Participants verbally rated their disgust reaction to pictures of humans engaged in various unpleasant actions. For pictures of events that present danger or suffering, accompanied by an explicit and vivid reminder that animals face the same situation, participants reported fear and sadness rather than disgust. For pictures of events that present a norm violation, an explicit animal reminder (relative to a human picture alone) did not lead to a consequent increment in disgust...
August 31, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841264/patient-centred-care-is-a-way-of-doing-things-how-healthcare-employees-conceptualize-patient-centred-care
#17
Gemmae M Fix, Carol VanDeusen Lukas, Rendelle E Bolton, Jennifer N Hill, Nora Mueller, Sherri L LaVela, Barbara G Bokhour
BACKGROUND: Patient-centred care is now ubiquitous in health services research, and healthcare systems are moving ahead with patient-centred care implementation. Yet, little is known about how healthcare employees, charged with implementing patient-centred care, conceptualize what they are implementing. OBJECTIVE: To examine how hospital employees conceptualize patient-centred care. RESEARCH DESIGN: We conducted qualitative interviews about patient-centred care during site four visits, from January to April 2013...
August 25, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822880/children-s-developing-metaethical-judgments
#18
Marco F H Schmidt, Ivan Gonzalez-Cabrera, Michael Tomasello
Human adults incline toward moral objectivism but may approach things more relativistically if different cultures are involved. In this study, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children (N=136) witnessed two parties who disagreed about moral matters: a normative judge (e.g., judging that it is wrong to do X) and an antinormative judge (e.g., judging that it is okay to do X). We assessed children's metaethical judgment, that is, whether they judged that only one party (objectivism) or both parties (relativism) could be right...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813973/adaptive-learning-to-speed-up-control-of-prosthetic-hands-a-few-things-everybody-should-know
#19
Valentina Gregori, Arjan Gijsberts, Barbara Caputo
Domain adaptation methods have been proposed to reduce the training efforts needed to control an upper-limb prosthesis by adapting well performing models from previous subjects to the new subject. These studies generally reported impressive reductions in the required number of training samples to achieve a certain level of accuracy for intact subjects. We further investigate two popular methods in this field to verify whether this result also applies to amputees. Our findings show instead that this improvement can largely be attributed to a suboptimal hyperparameter configuration...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812291/technology-games-using-wittgenstein-for-understanding-and-evaluating-technology
#20
Mark Coeckelbergh
In the philosophy of technology after the empirical turn, little attention has been paid to language and its relation to technology. In this programmatic and explorative paper, it is proposed to use the later Wittgenstein, not only to pay more attention to language use in philosophy of technology, but also to rethink technology itself-at least technology in its aspect of tool, technology-in-use. This is done by outlining a working account of Wittgenstein's view of language (as articulated mainly in the Investigations) and by then applying that account to technology-turning around Wittgenstein's metaphor of the toolbox...
August 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
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