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Yashovardhan Agarwal
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization and the World Bank's "World Report on Disability" reported that over 1 billion people have various kinds of disability worldwide while Indian Census 2011 reported about 26 million in India. The United Nations Convention states, "The Rights of Persons with Disabilities (PwD) include accessibility to Information, Transportation, Environment, Communication Technology and Services". OBJECTIVE: This article takes forward the reason of making the "EasenAccess" (EnA) Android-based app to empower PwD with wheelchair-accessibility information, communication sentences and sending SOS signals with location...
June 14, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Kimberley Masson, Angus Bancroft
BACKGROUND: An ethnographic analysis of drug-centred cryptomarket community and exchange, this article explores the embedded values around drug distribution and consumption within this setting. Drawing on our interviews with cryptomarket users, we analyze the ways in which users claim the cryptomarket as a space of morality, empathy, trust, reciprocity, knowledge transfer, harm reduction and self-limitation. The anthropological concept of the morality of exchange is central to our theoretical approach...
June 2, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
L Weißbach, C Roloff
BACKGROUND: Treatment of localized low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is undergoing a paradigm shift: Invasive treatments such as surgery and radiation therapy are being replaced by defensive strategies such as active surveillance (AS) and watchful waiting (WW). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to evaluate the significance of current studies regarding defensive strategies (AS and WW). METHODS: The best-known AS studies are critically evaluated for their significance in terms of input criteria, follow-up criteria, and statistical significance...
June 5, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Joshua M Tybur, Çağla Çınar, Annika K Karinen, Paola Perone
People vary in the degree to which they experience disgust toward-and, consequently, avoid-cues to pathogens. Prodigious work has measured this variation and observed that it relates to, among other things, personality, psychopathological tendencies, and moral and political sentiments. Less work has sought to generate hypotheses aimed at explaining why this variation exists in the first place, and even less work has evaluated how well data support these hypotheses. In this paper, we present and review the evidence supporting three such proposals...
July 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Martine A Gilles, Pascal Wild
Bending down to pick things up off the floor is something that we do every day. This multisegment task can be done in a considerable number of postural configurations because of the large number of degrees of freedom to be controlled when executing it. In this study where volunteers performed a repetitive bending task, multisegment kinematic analysis allowed us to identify seven different bending strategies. Most operators used more than one bending strategy, but no particular strategy-type was found to be specific for a specific age group...
July 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Yusuke Matsuyama, Takeo Fujiwara, Manami Ochi, Aya Isumi, Tsuguhiko Kato
OBJECTIVES: Children's self-control is associated with various behaviour-related health problems in childhood and later in life. However, studies on self-control and dental caries, strongly associated with toothbrushing or drinking and eating behaviour, are limited. We investigated the association between self-control and the number of decayed or filled primary teeth (dft) among first-grade children (6-7 years old) in Japan and evaluated the mediation effect of oral health behaviour on this association...
June 4, 2018: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Heather R Wolfe, Navid Sadeghi, Deepak Agrawal, David H Johnson, Arjun Gupta
For several decades, providers have routinely restricted the diets of neutropenic cancer patients by eliminating foods that might harbor pathogenic microbes to reduce infection rates. These diets, known as neutropenic or low-bacteria diets, are prescribed across the country with little uniformity in the extent or content of prescription. These diets are difficult to follow and force patients to omit fresh fruits and vegetables and limit dairy and meat products from their diet. These dietary omissions compromise nutritional intake in patients who are already at high risk of malnutrition...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Katrien Benhalima, Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Päivi M Paldanius, Chantal Mathieu
Due to the increase of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in young adults, women of childbearing age are frequently treated with newer glucose-lowering therapies and an increase of unintentional exposure to therapies unapproved for use during pregnancy is expected. The clinician is left with the dilemma whether stopping novel agents giving excellent glycemic control is the best thing to do as switching to other agents may cause deterioration of glycemia, while continued use of novel agents may have uncertain effects on the unborn child...
May 28, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Julian J Koplin
In Markets Without Limits and a series of related papers, Jason Brennan and Peter Jaworski argue that it is morally permissible to buy and sell anything that it is morally permissible to possess and exchange outside of the market. Accordingly, we should (Brennan and Jaworski argue) open markets in "contested commodities" including blood, gametes, surrogacy services, and transplantable organs. This paper clarifies some important aspects of the case for market boundaries and in so doing shows why there are in fact moral limits to the market...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Thaddeus Metz
In his article "Prediction, Understanding, and Medicine," Alex Broadbent argues that the nature of medicine is determined by its competences, that is, which things it can do well. He argues that although medicine cannot cure well, it can do a good job of enabling people not only to understand states of the human organism and of what has caused them, but also to predict future states of it. From this, Broadbent concludes that medicine is (at least in part) essentially a practice of understanding and predicting, not curing...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Karl Friston
Is self-consciousness necessary for consciousness? The answer is yes. So there you have it-the answer is yes. This was my response to a question I was asked to address in a recent AEON piece ( What follows is based upon the notes for that essay, with a special focus on self-organization, self-evidencing and self-modeling. I will try to substantiate my (polemic) answer from the perspective of a physicist. In brief, the argument goes as follows: if we want to talk about creatures, like ourselves, then we have to identify the characteristic behaviors they must exhibit...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sarala M Wimalaratne, Nick Juty, John Kunze, Greg Janée, Julie A McMurry, Niall Beard, Rafael Jimenez, Jeffrey S Grethe, Henning Hermjakob, Maryann E Martone, Tim Clark
Most biomedical data repositories issue locally-unique accessions numbers, but do not provide globally unique, machine-resolvable, persistent identifiers for their datasets, as required by publishers wishing to implement data citation in accordance with widely accepted principles. Local accessions may however be prefixed with a namespace identifier, providing global uniqueness. Such "compact identifiers" have been widely used in biomedical informatics to support global resource identification with local identifier assignment...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Data
Eleftheria Vaportzis, Alan J Gow
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a U.K.-wide survey to collect information on people's beliefs, fears, perceptions, and attitudes to cognitive aging. METHODS: This community-based aging survey included 3,146 adults aged 40 years and over. RESULTS: Respondents believed memory might be the earliest cognitive skill to decline (mean: 59.4 years), followed by speed of thinking (mean: 64.9). Those in their 40s were more pessimistic, because they estimated cognitive changes would start up to 15 years earlier than respondents aged over 70...
April 4, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Viet-Thi Tran, Eugene Messou, Mariam Mama Djima, Philippe Ravaud, Didier K Ekouevi
OBJECTIVE: Patients living with HIV infection (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa face an important burden of treatment related to everything they do to take care of their health: doctor visits, tests, regular refills, travels, and so on. In this study, we involved PLWH in proposing ideas on how to decrease their burden of treatment and assessed to what extent these propositions could be implemented in care. METHODS: Adult PLWH recruited in three HIV care centres in Côte d'Ivoire participated in qualitative interviews starting with ' What do you believe are the most important things to change in your care to improve your burden of treatment? ' Two independent investigators conducted a thematic analysis to identify and classify patients' propositions to decrease their burden of treatment...
April 29, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Josef C Uyeda, Rosana Zenil-Ferguson, Matthew W Pennell
As a result of the process of descent with modification, closely related species tend to be similar to one another in a myriad different ways. In statistical terms, this means that traits measured on one species will not be independent of traits measured on others. Since their introduction in the 1980s, phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) have been framed as a solution to this problem. In this paper, we argue that this way of thinking about PCMs is deeply misleading. Not only has this sowed widespread confusion in the literature about what PCMs are doing but has led us to develop methods that are susceptible to the very thing we sought to build defenses against - unreplicated evolutionary events...
April 25, 2018: Systematic Biology
Carrie Herzke, Weijen Chang, Rianna Leazer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Atsubumi Murakami
In this seminar, I would like to discuss the recent hybrid operations in patients with peripheral arterial diseases. Hybrid is generally defined as combinations of different types of things. In the surgical community, it is loosely defined as therapy combining open surgery (OS) and endovascular therapy (EVT). In practice, combination surgery of diseased inflow vessels by EVT and outflow vessels by OS is a typical example, namely, the combination therapy of thromboendarterectomy (TEA) for common femoral artery and EVT (PTA and stenting) for iliac artery in patients with PAD (ilio-femoral lesions)...
March 25, 2018: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Panagiotis Stathopoulos, Dimosthenis Igoumenakis, Michalis Mezitis, George Rallis
OBJECTIVES: This was a 27-year study of a cohort of 5708 patients who had sustained maxillofacial fractures. Our purpose was to present the etiology, mechanism of trauma, site, and concomitant injuries that led to visual loss. We hypothesize that fractures caused by high-energy impact of the midface may be associated with blindness. A discussion of the treatment approaches is also included. STUDY DESIGN: The study included 5708 patients who had sustained a maxillofacial fracture during the years 1985-2012...
March 23, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Jonah Berger, Grant Packard
Why do some cultural items become popular? Although some researchers have argued that success is random, we suggest that how similar items are to each other plays an important role. Using natural language processing of thousands of songs, we examined the relationship between lyrical differentiation (i.e., atypicality) and song popularity. Results indicated that the more different a song's lyrics are from its genre, the more popular it becomes. This relationship is weaker in genres where lyrics matter less (e...
April 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Laura E Kunst, Winifred A Gebhardt
BACKGROUND: Recent developments in drug use patterns call for an investigation of current party-drug use and associated problems among college students, who appear to be an important target population for harm reduction interventions. OBJECTIVES: In addition to reporting on party-drug use prevalence, we investigated whether initial use and continuation of party-drug use among students was associated with demographic, personality and psychosocial factors. METHODS: An online questionnaire was administered to 446 students from a Dutch university, inquiring about party-drug use, demographic characteristics, social norms and personality (big five, impulsiveness, aggression)...
April 18, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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