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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096066/-happiness-inventors-informing-positive-computing-technologies-through-participatory-design-with-children
#1
Svetlana Yarosh, Stephen Matthew Schueller
BACKGROUND: Positive psychological interventions for children have typically focused on direct adaptations of interventions developed for adults. As the community moves toward designing positive computing technologies to support child well-being, it is important to use a more participatory process that directly engages children's voices. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were, through a participatory design study, to understand children's interpretations of positive psychology concepts, as well as their perspectives on technologies that are best suited to enhance their engagement with practice of well-being skills...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094653/associate-move-is-about-years-of-poor-decisions-not-improving-care
#2
Jane Bates
Physician associates, nursing associates - before long everyone will be associated with their job without being fully qualified to do it. Will we have associate managers? Associate MPs? The whole thing is quite odd.
January 4, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092708/-applying-ethics-placating-ethics-or-applying-ourselves-to-ethics-a-critical-view-of-environmental-ethics-as-applied-ethics
#3
Alejandro Serani Merlo
There is actually a pervasive tendency to consider environmental ethics and bioethics as specific cases pertaining to a supposed kind of ″applied ethics″. Application can be understood in two different meanings: a concrete sense, as in technical applications, and a psychological meaning, as when we mentally apply ourselves to a task. Ethics has been always thought as a practical knowledge, in a ″praxical″ sense and not in a ″poietic″ one. Ethics has to do with ″ends″ not with ″means″; in this sense ethics is ″useless″...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077845/when-words-were-wanted-but-woefully-wanting-we-waged-war-with-chess
#4
Burton Norman Seitler
What do you say to a child who rarely speaks? How do you work with such a youngster? What are the sine qua nons or guiding principles upon which analysts can draw? And, how do we know if we are being helpful? Sam was 9-years when I began treating him. He was extremely withdrawn and rarely spoke more than a few words. Instead, he mainly played chess. I did not know at first whether Sam's taciturn demeanor was due to shyness, limited verbal abilities, or the stultifying effects of trauma. Fortuitously, during one of many seemingly "innocent" games of chess, Sam happened to make a bold move, to which I admiringly remarked, "What a move, you're killing me...
December 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077741/is-using-a-latrine-a-strange-thing-to-do-a-mixed-methods-study-of-sanitation-preference-and-behaviors-in-rural-ethiopia
#5
Kristen Aiemjoy, Nicole E Stoller, Sintayehu Gebresillasie, Ayalew Shiferaw, Zerihun Tadesse, Tegene Sewent, Bezuayehu Ayele, Melsew Chanyalew, Solomon Aragie, Kelly Callahan, Aisha Stewart, Paul M Emerson, Thomas M Lietman, Jeremy D Keenan, Catherine E Oldenburg
Latrines are the most basic form of improved sanitation and are a common public health intervention. Understanding motivations for building and using latrines can help develop effective, sustainable latrine promotion programs. We conducted a mixed-methods study of latrine use in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. We held 15 focus group discussions and surveyed 278 households in five communities. We used the Integrated Behavioral Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene interventions to guide our qualitative analysis...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074675/the-emergence-of-an-abstract-grammatical-category-in-children-s-early-speech
#6
Stephan C Meylan, Michael C Frank, Brandon C Roy, Roger Levy
How do children begin to use language to say things they have never heard before? The origins of linguistic productivity have been a subject of heated debate: Whereas generativist accounts posit that children's early language reflects the presence of syntactic abstractions, constructivist approaches instead emphasize gradual generalization derived from frequently heard forms. In the present research, we developed a Bayesian statistical model that measures the degree of abstraction implicit in children's early use of the determiners "a" and "the...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074583/show-code
#7
Daniel Shalev
"Let's get one thing straight: there is no such thing as a show code," my attending asserted, pausing for effect. "You either try to resuscitate, or you don't. None of this halfway junk." He spoke so loudly that the two off-service consultants huddled at computers at the end of the unit looked up… We did four rounds of compressions and pushed epinephrine twice. It was not a long code. We did good, strong compressions and coded this man in earnest until the end. Toward the final round, though, as I stepped up to do compressions, my attending looked at me in a deep way...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073329/the-other-side-of-magic
#8
Vebjørn Ekroll, Bilge Sayim, Johan Wagemans
When magicians perform spectacles that seem to defy the laws of nature, they do so by manipulating psychological reality. Hence, the principles underlying the art of conjuring are potentially of interest to psychological science. Here, we argue that perceptual and cognitive principles governing how humans experience hidden things and reason about them play a central role in many magic tricks. Different from tricks based on many other forms of misdirection, which require considerable skill on the part of the magician, many elements of these tricks are essentially self-working because they rely on automatic perceptual and cognitive processes...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040988/how-will-cancer-survivors-use-survivorship-care-plans
#9
Nicole A Kinnane, Amanda J Piper, Michael Jefford
BACKGROUND: Survivorship care plans (SCPs) are internationally endorsed as an important tool to enhance post-treatment survivorship care. To support broad implementation of SCPs, we investigated survivors' preferences regarding SCPs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted at a comprehensive cancer center. Eligible patients from 10 clinical services, generally up to 12 months following end of treatment (EOT) were approached in clinics or via telephone. A purpose-designed survey assessed survivors' intended use of a SCP and preferences regarding format and content...
December 31, 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997672/caring-for-our-wounded-warriors-a-qualitative-examination-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-caregivers-of-individuals-with-military-related-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Noelle E Carlozzi, Tracey A Brickell, Louis M French, Angelle Sander, Anna L Kratz, David S Tulsky, Nancy D Chiaravalloti, Elizabeth A Hahn, Michael Kallen, Amy M Austin, Jennifer A Miner, Rael T Lange
The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual framework that captures aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for caregivers of individuals with military-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). We analyzed qualitative data from nine focus groups composed of caregivers of wounded warriors with a medically documented TBI. Focus group participants were recruited through hospital-based and/or community outreach efforts at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, the University of Michigan, and Hearts of Valor support groups (Tennessee and Washington)...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991605/some-things-must-not-change
#11
Anne Katz
The past three months have been a season of tremendous change, and many of us have been surprised by the political events that have taken place. January heralds a change in administration for the United States, and the future seems uncertain. I sense that change is going to be the new normal, and we have to be able to cope with it-and with each other-for a long time. What I want to talk about is those things that do not change and how we, as nurses and scientists, must remain true to our roots.
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January 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973714/ethics-of-mitochondrial-replacement-techniques-a-habermasian-perspective
#12
César Palacios-González
Jürgen Habermas is regarded as a central bioconservative commentator in the debate on the ethics of human prenatal genetic manipulations. While his main work on this topic, The Future of Human Nature, has been widely examined in regard to his position on prenatal genetic enhancement, his arguments regarding prenatal genetic therapeutic interventions have for the most part been overlooked. In this work I do two things. First, I present the three necessary conditions that Habermas establishes for a prenatal genetic manipulation to be regarded as morally permissible...
January 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968907/occupational-challenges-of-physicians-involved-in-tuberculosis-control-in-china-a-qualitative-study
#13
Shanquan Chen, Hui Zhang, Yan Qu, Yushan Wu, Qian Long, Limei Ran, Qiuji Xue, Kai Chen, Fei Luo, Lan Yao, Lai-Yi Wong, Hong Fung, Manli Chen, Li Xiang
BACKGROUND: Despite its dramatic improvement, China's tuberculosis burden is still high according to the 2015 WHO TB report. Evidence show that experienced physicians do better in reducing delay diagnosis and patient mortality and are more likely to follow the treatment guidelines. However, in China, few studies have focused on physicians specialised in tuberculosis; and these few studies were mainly centred on the prevalence and risk factors among them. We assessed the occupational challenges of these physicians in China...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941936/neural-pathway-of-renovative-and-innovative-products-appreciation
#14
Furong Huang, Chiyue Chiu, Jing Luo
According to the level of change an invention makes on existing things and how it overrides people's mental schemas on established categories, new inventions can be classified into two groups: incremental inventions (i.e., renovations), which make minor improvements on existing designs, and radical inventions (i.e., innovations), which make major developments that enable people to do things they have never been able to do before. Although innovation and renovation are two fundamentally different types of creation that feature new changes ranging from those in product development to those in large scale social changes, and people tend to report higher subjective preferences for incremental inventions compared to radical inventions, the cognitive brain mechanisms underlying the mental representation of these two types of inventions remains unknown...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935341/dealing-with-our-emotions-do-we-just-bottle-things-up
#15
Michelle Gracia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914845/does-magnetic-resonance-imaging-appearance-of-supraspinatus-muscle-atrophy-change-after-repairing-rotator-cuff-tears
#16
Sang-Hoon Lhee, Anant Kumar Singh, Do Young Lee
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine whether supraspinatus muscle atrophy appearance changes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and to quantify the change in appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), if any, based on age and tendon retraction. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and considered only 209 patients who had both preoperative and immediate postoperative MRI. Patients were grouped by age <60 years and >60 years...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909029/do-we-need-to-design-course-based-undergraduate-research-experiences-for-authenticity
#17
Susan Rowland, Rhianna Pedwell, Gwen Lawrie, Joseph Lovie-Toon, Yu Hung
The recent push for more authentic teaching and learning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics indicates a shared agreement that undergraduates require greater exposure to professional practices. There is considerable variation, however, in how "authentic" science education is defined. In this paper we present our definition of authenticity as it applies to an "authentic" large-scale undergraduate research experience (ALURE); we also look to the literature and the student voice for alternate perceptions around this concept...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906509/principles-of-brain-development
#18
REVIEW
Joan Stiles
Throughout much of the 20th century, the major models of brain development were strongly deterministic. It was thought that brain development proceeds via a prescribed blueprint that is somehow innately specified in the organism. Contemporary models present a distinctly different view of both inheritance and brain development. First, we do not inherit blueprints or plans, we inherit genes and the cellular machinery for expressing them. Genes carry essential information for creating proteins, but do not determine biological processes or developmental outcomes; the first cells contain the elements necessary for creating proteins based on the information coded in the nucleotide sequences of genes...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905083/who-should-decide-how-machines-make-morally-laden-decisions
#19
Dominic Martin
Who should decide how a machine will decide what to do when it is driving a car, performing a medical procedure, or, more generally, when it is facing any kind of morally laden decision? More and more, machines are making complex decisions with a considerable level of autonomy. We should be much more preoccupied by this problem than we currently are. After a series of preliminary remarks, this paper will go over four possible answers to the question raised above. First, we may claim that it is the maker of a machine that gets to decide how it will behave in morally laden scenarios...
November 30, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901442/a-broader-understanding-of-moral-distress
#20
Stephen M Campbell, Connie M Ulrich, Christine Grady
On the traditional view, moral distress arises only in cases where an individual believes she knows the morally right thing to do but fails to perform that action due to various constraints. We seek to motivate a broader understanding of moral distress. We begin by presenting six types of distress that fall outside the bounds of the traditional definition and explaining why they should be recognized as forms of moral distress. We then propose and defend a new and more expansive definition of moral distress and examine how it can enable the development of a taxonomy of moral distress...
December 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
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