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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619675/a-pilot-exploration-of-the-effect-of-designated-function-focused-care-on-mobility-functional-dependence-and-falls-frequency-in-dutch-nursing-home-residents
#1
Eva S van der Ploeg, Marleen L Leermakers
In recent years, there has been a gradual change in nursing home care from care providers doing as many things as possible for residents to a philosophy where patients are encouraged to become more involved in their care and activities of daily living. Function Focused Care (FFC) is a methodology to stimulate the involvement of residents on a daily basis that has shown to be safe and effective in improving ADL-functioning. We implemented FFC in four nursing homes with 53 residents. This first pilot project in Dutch nursing homes has replicated the finding that FFC inspires functional independence, but also revealed a reduction in the number of falls among fallers...
June 12, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606750/error-thresholds-for-rna-replication-in-the-presence-of-both-point-mutations-and-premature-termination-errors
#2
Andrew S Tupper, Paul G Higgs
We consider a spatial model of replication in the RNA World in which polymerase ribozymes use neighbouring strands as templates. Point mutation errors create parasites that have the same replication rate as the polymerase. We have shown previously that spatial clustering allows survival of the polymerases as long as the error rate is below a critical error threshold. Here, we additionally consider errors where a polymerase prematurely terminates replication before reaching the end of the template, creating shorter parasites that are replicated faster than the functional polymerase...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594842/-if-my-husband-leaves-me-i-will-go-home-and-suffer-so-better-cling-to-him-and-hide-this-thing-the-influence-of-gender-on-option-b-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-participation-in-malawi-and-uganda
#3
Valerie L Flax, Jennifer Yourkavitch, Elialilia S Okello, John Kadzandira, Anne Ruhweza Katahoire, Alister C Munthali
The role of gender in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) participation under Option B+ has not been adequately studied, but it is critical for reducing losses to follow-up. This study used qualitative methods to examine the interplay of gender and individual, interpersonal, health system, and community factors that contribute to PMTCT participation in Malawi and Uganda. We conducted in-depth interviews with women in PMTCT, women lost to follow-up, government health workers, and stakeholders at organizations supporting PMTCT as well as focus group discussions with men...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593776/-ultrasound-staging-of-stage-i-ii-endometrial-cancer-analysis-of-own-file-in-the-years-2012-2016
#4
O Míka, J Kožnarová, P Sak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound staging of early stage endometrial cancer depending on grading, evaluation of ultrasound examination accuracy growing overtime with gained experience of examiners and comparison of subjective versus objective modalities of deep myometrial invasion assessment in the file of patients who were referred in The Oncogyneacologic Center, Department of Gyneacology and Obstetrics in České Budějovice. DESIGN: Retrospective study...
2017: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588515/does-gender-of-administrator-matter-national-study-explores-u-s-university-administrators-attitudes-about-retaining-women-professors-in-stem
#5
Wendy M Williams, Agrima Mahajan, Felix Thoemmes, Susan M Barnett, Francoise Vermeylen, Brian M Cash, Stephen J Ceci
Omnipresent calls for more women in university administration presume women will prioritize using resources and power to increase female representation, especially in STEM fields where women are most underrepresented. However, empirical evidence is lacking for systematic differences in female vs. male administratorsŠ attitudes. Do female administrators agree on which strategies are best, and do men see things differently? We explored United States college and university administratorsŠ opinions regarding strategies, policies, and structural changes in their organizations designed to increase women professorsŠ representation and retention in STEM fields...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581476/lgr5-expressing-chief-cells-drive-epithelial-regeneration-and-cancer-in-the-oxyntic-stomach
#6
Marc Leushacke, Si Hui Tan, Angeline Wong, Yada Swathi, Amin Hajamohideen, Liang Thing Tan, Jasmine Goh, Esther Wong, Simon L I J Denil, Kazuhiro Murakami, Nick Barker
The daily renewal of the corpus epithelium is fuelled by adult stem cells residing within tubular glands, but the identity of these stem cells remains controversial. Lgr5 marks homeostatic stem cells and 'reserve' stem cells in multiple tissues. Here, we report Lgr5 expression in a subpopulation of chief cells in mouse and human corpus glands. Using a non-variegated Lgr5-2A-CreERT2 mouse model, we show by lineage tracing that Lgr5-expressing chief cells do not behave as corpus stem cells during homeostasis, but are recruited to function as stem cells to effect epithelial renewal following injury by activating Wnt signalling...
June 5, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578524/the-role-of-feedback-delay-in-dual-task-performance
#7
Wilfried Kunde, Robert Wirth, Markus Janczyk
Doing two things at once is hard, and it is probably hard for various reasons. Here we aim to demonstrate that one so far barely considered reason is the monitoring of sensory action feedback, which detracts from processing of other concurrent tasks. To demonstrate this, we engaged participants in a psychological refractory period paradigm. The responses in the two tasks produced visual action effects. These effects occurred either immediately or they were delayed for the first of the two responses. We assumed that delaying these effects would engage a process of monitoring visual feedback longer, and delay a concurrent task more, as compared to immediate effects...
June 3, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573416/the-budding-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-as-a-model-organism-possible-implications-for-gerontological-studies
#8
Tomasz Bilinski, Aneta Bylak, Renata Zadrag-Tecza
Experimental gerontology is based on the fundamental assumption that the aging process has a universal character and that the mechanisms of aging are well-conserved among living things. The consequence of this assumption is the use of various organisms, including unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as models in gerontology, and direct extrapolation of the conclusions drawn from the studies carried on these organisms to human beings. However, numerous arguments suggest that aging is not universal and its mechanisms are not conserved in a wide range of species...
June 1, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561659/how-should-we-intervene-on-the-financial-toxicity-of-cancer-care-one-shot-four-perspectives
#9
S Yousuf Zafar, Lee N Newcomer, Justin McCarthy, Shelley Fuld Nasso, Leonard B Saltz
The median price of a month of chemotherapy has increased by an order of magnitude during the past 20 years, far exceeding inflation over the same period. Along with rising prices, increases in cost sharing have forced patients to directly shoulder a greater portion of those costs, resulting in undue financial burden and, in some cases, cost-related nonadherence to treatment. What can we do to intervene on treatment-related financial toxicity of patients? No one party can single-handedly solve the problem, and the solution must be multifaceted and creative...
2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556481/if-you-needed-an-organ-transplant-would-you-have-one-the-effect-of-reciprocity-priming-and-mode-of-delivery-on-organ-donor-registration-intentions-and-behaviour
#10
Ronan E O'Carroll, Lorna Haddow, Laura Foley, Jody Quigley
OBJECTIVE: There are approximately 6,500 people on the UK national transplant waiting list, around 400 of whom die every year. Only 35% of the UK population are currently on the organ donation register. We report two studies examining whether a reciprocity prime, in which participants were asked whether they would accept a donated organ, increased organ donation intentions and behaviour. DESIGN: Between-participants, randomized controlled design. METHODS: In two studies, participants who were not currently registered organ donors took part either face-to-face or online and were randomly allocated to a reciprocity prime or control condition...
May 26, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545519/staff-s-normative-attitudes-towards-coercion-the-role-of-moral-doubt-and-professional-context-a-cross-sectional-survey-study
#11
Bert Molewijk, Almar Kok, Tonje Husum, Reidar Pedersen, Olaf Aasland
BACKGROUND: The use of coercion is morally problematic and requires an ongoing critical reflection. We wondered if not knowing or being uncertain whether coercion is morally right or justified (i.e. experiencing moral doubt) is related to professionals' normative attitudes regarding the use of coercion. METHODS: This paper describes an explorative statistical analysis based on a cross-sectional survey across seven wards in three Norwegian mental health care institutions...
May 25, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530123/-we-are-a-team-couple-identity-and-memory-loss
#12
Elise Hernandez, Beth Spencer, Berit Ingersoll-Dayton, Alexandra Faber, Allison Ewert
Couplehood can be an important source of resilience in the face of memory loss, but couple identity has only recently been explored and has rarely been measured. This paper examines older spouses' descriptions of their couple identity and discusses salient themes. Data come from 19 couples from the Couples Life Story Project, a life review intervention where one partner has memory loss. Using baseline data, we analyzed how partners depicted their couple identity using a series of separate and overlapping circles...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507524/changing-what-you-see-by-changing-what-you-know-the-role-of-attention
#13
Gary Lupyan
Attending is a cognitive process that incorporates a person's knowledge, goals, and expectations. What we perceive when we attend to one thing is different from what we perceive when we attend to something else. Yet, it is often argued that attentional effects do not count as evidence that perception is influenced by cognition. I investigate two arguments often given to justify excluding attention. The first is arguing that attention is a post-perceptual process reflecting selection between fully constructed perceptual representations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498347/wireless-sensor-network-based-service-provisioning-by-a-brokering-platform
#14
Luis Guijarro, Vicent Pla, Jose R Vidal, Maurizio Naldi, Toktam Mahmoodi
This paper proposes a business model for providing services based on the Internet of Things through a platform that intermediates between human users and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The platform seeks to maximize its profit through posting both the price charged to each user and the price paid to each WSN. A complete analysis of the profit maximization problem is performed in this paper. We show that the service provider maximizes its profit by incentivizing all users and all Wireless Sensor Infrastructure Providers (WSIPs) to join the platform...
May 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492008/physician-industry-collaboration-organizational-considerations-for-the-future-of-innovation-and-growth-in-dermatology
#15
EDITORIAL
Wendy E Roberts, Neil S Sadick, Wilma F Bergfeld, Amy S Paller, Valerie D Callender, Lynn A Drake
The U.S. medical environment continues to evolve with issues from Privacy to EMR, Insurance regulations, Physician Access and Healthcare Reform, and MACRA (Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act) on the discussion table. Not since the advent of Medicare and Medicaid in the mid 1960's, have we seen such widespread changes in the medical healthcare environment (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). Physicians, industry, patients and consumers are affected by the changes. These four groups have historically worked as separate entities, but are now key stakeholders in the future of dermatology...
June 2016: International Journal of Women's Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483744/etest-developing-a-smart-home-hiv-testing-kit-that-enables-active-real-time-follow-up-and-referral-after-testing
#16
Tyler Wray, Philip A Chan, Erik Simpanen, Don Operario
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group at highest risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States, but many do not test as frequently as recommended. Home-based self-testing (HBST) for HIV holds promise for promoting regular testing among these individuals, but currently available HBSTs have limited follow-up options, providing only a 1-800 number that participants can call. Failure to actively conduct follow-up counseling and referrals after HBST use could result in delays in seeking confirmatory testing and care among users receiving reactive (preliminary positive) test results...
May 8, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479984/convergent-minds-some-questions-about-mental-evolution
#17
Matt Cartmill
In investigating convergent minds, we need to be sure that the things we are looking at are both minds and convergent. In determining whether a shared character state represents a convergence between two organisms, we must know the wider distribution and primitive state of that character so that we can map that character and its state transitions onto a phylogenetic tree. When we do this, some apparently primitive shared traits may prove to represent convergent losses of cognitive capacities. To avoid having to talk about the minds of plants and paramecia, we need to go beyond assessments of behaviourally defined cognition to ask questions about mind in the primary sense of the word, defined by the presence of mental events and consciousness...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479982/logic-passion-and-the-problem-of-convergence
#18
Daniel W McShea
Our estimate of the likelihood of convergence on human-style intelligence depends on how we understand our various mental capacities. Here I revive David Hume's theory of motivation and action to argue that the most common understanding of the two conventionally recognized components of intelligence-reason and emotion-is confused. We say things like, 'Reason can overcome emotion', but to make this statement meaningful, we are forced to treat reason as a compound notion, as a forced and unhappy mixture of concepts that are incommensurate...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478692/do-i-really-want-to-be-going-on-a-bloody-diet-gendered-narratives-in-older-men-with-painful-knee-osteoarthritis
#19
Francine Toye, Jonathan Room, Karen L Barker
PURPOSE: Small reductions in body weight can decrease osteoarthritic knee pain. Intuitively this should provide a strong incentive for weight-loss. However many people undergoing knee joint replacement (KJR) are categorised as obese. Gender theories can help us to understand differential responses to illness and therefore make an important contribution to rehabilitation. We aimed to explore barriers to weight loss in a group of older men with osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted 12 in-depth interviews, before and 1 year after surgery, with six obese men listed for KJR...
May 8, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475734/biological-criteria-of-disease-four-ways-of-going-wrong
#20
John Matthewson, Paul E Griffiths
We defend a view of the distinction between the normal and the pathological according to which that distinction has an objective, biological component. We accept that there is a normative component to the concept of disease, especially as applied to human beings. Nevertheless, an organism cannot be in a pathological state unless something has gone wrong for that organism from a purely biological point of view. Biology, we argue, recognises two sources of biological normativity, which jointly generate four "ways of going wrong" from a biological perspective...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
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