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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728586/a-never-before-opportunity-to-strengthen-investment-and-action-on-adolescent-contraception-and-what-we-must-do-to-make-full-use-of-it
#1
Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli, Pooja S Parameshwar, Matti Parry, Catherine Lane, Gwyn Hainsworth, Sylvia Wong, Lindsay Menard-Freeman, Beth Scott, Emily Sullivan, Miles Kemplay, Lale Say
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, the health and rights of adolescents are being recognized and prioritized on the global agenda. This presents us with a "never-before" opportunity to address adolescent contraception. This is timely, as there are enormous numbers of adolescents who are currently unable to obtain and use contraceptives. From research evidence and programmatic experience, it is clear that we need to do things differently to meet their needs/fulfil their rights. MAIN BODY: In this commentary, we call for action in several key areas to address adolescents' persistent inability to obtain and use contraceptives...
July 20, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722088/-evaluation-of-new-minimally-invasive-techniques-in-gastrointestinal-surgery-and-contemplation-on-health-economics
#2
Xishan Wang
With the widespread introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in late 1987 by laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the practice and expectation of general surgery were changed forever. As the development of scientific technology, new techniques of MIS have sprung up all around the world. 3D laparoscopy surgery, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, da Vinci surgical system and other new technologies also need time to be verified, and this is the only way all new things should get though. They are very unique in their own right, and all have advantages and disadvantages...
July 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716675/what-we-imagine-is-what-we-do-a-critical-overview-about-mental-imagery-as-a-strategy-to-study-human-defensive-responses
#3
REVIEW
Rosana Shuhama, D Caroline Blanchard, Frederico Guilherme Graeff, Cristina Marta Del-Ben
There is not a single and perfect instinctive behavior to react to threatening situations. However, the study of particular features of these situations suggests the existence of prototypical emotional reactions and associated defensive behaviors. Since all living beings are subjected to common evolutionary pressures, such as predation and conspecific competition, it is plausible that there is conservation of some basic defensive responses in their behavioral repertoire. The choice for approaching or withdrawing from a given situation depends, among others things, on environmental features, including the threat intensity and the distance from the source of the threat...
July 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715306/a-data-rich-longitudinal-wellness-study-for-the-digital-age-fixing-a-broken-medical-system-requires-data-about-each-patient
#4
Gustavo Glusman
We live in an age of plentiful information, collected continuously by pervasive gadgetry, distributed through digital and social networks, and mined deeply by ever-more-powerful analytics systems. And yet, one of the things we know the least about is our bodies. When it comes to our own health, we are driving blindly. Modern medicine has clearly been remarkably successful, as evidenced by continually growing life expectancies. For example, the number of people 65 and older in the United States has seen a steady increase over the last century, rising from 3...
July 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688085/fit-for-purpose-and-modern-validity-theory-in-clinical-outcomes-assessment
#5
Michael C Edwards, Ashley Slagle, Jonathan D Rubright, R J Wirth
PURPOSE: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as part of its regulatory mission, is charged with determining whether a clinical outcome assessment (COA) is "fit for purpose" when used in clinical trials to support drug approval and product labeling. In this paper, we will provide a review (and some commentary) on the current state of affairs in COA development/evaluation/use with a focus on one aspect: How do you know you are measuring the right thing? In the psychometric literature, this concept is referred to broadly as validity and has itself evolved over many years of research and application...
July 7, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677442/raising-concerns-do-the-right-thing
#6
Mandy Day-Calder
I will never forget the clinical tutor who, after we had assisted an older woman to have a wash, asked me: 'If this was your mum, would you do anything differently?' This became my motto throughout my training and guided me in one of the most challenging situations I encountered: that of witnessing and reporting care that I felt verged on negligent.
July 5, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671543/quality-and-innovation-redesigning-a-coordinated-and-connected-health-system
#7
Peter W Vaughan
Nova Scotia's consolidated health system was launched on April 1, 2015. This new approach to organizing health administration and services in the province arose out of necessity. When planning began, Nova Scotia was spending 41% of its annual budget on health services. In comparison to other provinces and territories, our per capita health-related spending was among the highest in the country, we had one of Canada's oldest populations and we had some of the worst health outcomes. Clearly, we could not continue to do the same things and expect different results...
2017: HealthcarePapers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665879/-at-our-age-we-would-like-to-do-things-the-way-we-want-a-qualitative-study-of-adolescent-hiv-testing-services-in-kenya
#8
Kate S Wilson, Kristin M Beima-Sofie, Helen Moraa, Anjuli D Wagner, Cyrus Mugo, Peter M Mutiti, Dalton Wamalwa, David Bukusi, Grace C John-Stewart, Jennifer A Slyker, Pamela K Kohler, Gabrielle O'Malley
OBJECTIVES: Adolescents in Africa have low HIV testing rates. Better understanding of adolescent, provider, and caregiver experiences in high-burden countries such as Kenya could improve adolescent HIV testing programs. DESIGN: We conducted 16 qualitative interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescents (13-18 years) and six focus group discussions with Healthcare workers (HCWs) and caregivers of adolescents in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were recorded and transcribed...
July 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648407/health-related-quality-of-life-fear-of-recurrence-and-emotional-distress-in-patients-treated-for-thyroid-cancer
#9
S N Rogers, V Mepani, S Jackson, D Lowe
Diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary or follicular) and its treatment may be associated with a poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and with fear of recurrence (FoR), and distress. To our knowledge, this is the first time a single FoR screening question (written to complement a HRQoL questionnaire), has been reported with HRQoL and levels of distress in patients treated for the disease. In April 2014 we did a cross-sectional survey of patients who had presented to the Merseyside and Cheshire thyroid cancer network between April 2009 and November 2013...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644980/making-power-visible-doing-theatre-based-status-work-with-nursing-students
#10
Steven S Taylor, Rosemary A Taylor
As part of a senior leadership class in an undergraduate baccalaureate nursing program in the northeastern United States, we conducted an experiential, theater-based workshop designed to increase student awareness of the micro-dynamics of power and the enactment of status in their day-to-day lives. These exercises allowed student participants to embody status and power and understand it in ways that they did not after simply completing assigned readings. At the conclusion of the workshop the participants were asked to reflect on their status habits and the consequences of these habits in a single hand-written page...
June 15, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642724/i-don-t-want-to-miss-a-thing-learning-dynamics-and-effects-of-feedback-type-and-monetary-incentive-in-a-paired-associate-deterministic-learning-task
#11
Magda Gawlowska, Ewa Beldzik, Aleksandra Domagalik, Adam Gagol, Tadeusz Marek, Justyna Mojsa-Kaja
Effective functioning in a complex environment requires adjusting of behavior according to changing situational demands. To do so, organisms must learn new, more adaptive behaviors by extracting the necessary information from externally provided feedback. Not surprisingly, feedback-guided learning has been extensively studied using multiple research paradigms. The purpose of the present study was to test the newly designed Paired Associate Deterministic Learning task (PADL), in which participants were presented with either positive or negative deterministic feedback...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619675/a-pilot-exploration-of-the-effect-of-designated-function-focused-care-on-mobility-functional-dependence-and-falls-frequency-in-dutch-nursing-home-residents
#12
Eva S van der Ploeg, Marleen L Leermakers
In recent years, there has been a gradual change in nursing home care from care providers doing as many things as possible for residents to a philosophy where patients are encouraged to become more involved in their care and activities of daily living. Function Focused Care (FFC) is a methodology to stimulate the involvement of residents on a daily basis that has shown to be safe and effective in improving ADL-functioning. We implemented FFC in four nursing homes with 53 residents. This first pilot project in Dutch nursing homes has replicated the finding that FFC inspires functional independence, but also revealed a reduction in the number of falls among fallers...
June 12, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606750/error-thresholds-for-rna-replication-in-the-presence-of-both-point-mutations-and-premature-termination-errors
#13
Andrew S Tupper, Paul G Higgs
We consider a spatial model of replication in the RNA World in which polymerase ribozymes use neighbouring strands as templates. Point mutation errors create parasites that have the same replication rate as the polymerase. We have shown previously that spatial clustering allows survival of the polymerases as long as the error rate is below a critical error threshold. Here, we additionally consider errors where a polymerase prematurely terminates replication before reaching the end of the template, creating shorter parasites that are replicated faster than the functional polymerase...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594842/-if-my-husband-leaves-me-i-will-go-home-and-suffer-so-better-cling-to-him-and-hide-this-thing-the-influence-of-gender-on-option-b-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-participation-in-malawi-and-uganda
#14
Valerie L Flax, Jennifer Yourkavitch, Elialilia S Okello, John Kadzandira, Anne Ruhweza Katahoire, Alister C Munthali
The role of gender in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) participation under Option B+ has not been adequately studied, but it is critical for reducing losses to follow-up. This study used qualitative methods to examine the interplay of gender and individual, interpersonal, health system, and community factors that contribute to PMTCT participation in Malawi and Uganda. We conducted in-depth interviews with women in PMTCT, women lost to follow-up, government health workers, and stakeholders at organizations supporting PMTCT as well as focus group discussions with men...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593776/-ultrasound-staging-of-stage-i-ii-endometrial-cancer-analysis-of-own-file-in-the-years-2012-2016
#15
O Míka, J Kožnarová, P Sak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound staging of early stage endometrial cancer depending on grading, evaluation of ultrasound examination accuracy growing overtime with gained experience of examiners and comparison of subjective versus objective modalities of deep myometrial invasion assessment in the file of patients who were referred in The Oncogyneacologic Center, Department of Gyneacology and Obstetrics in České Budějovice. DESIGN: Retrospective study...
2017: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588515/does-gender-of-administrator-matter-national-study-explores-u-s-university-administrators-attitudes-about-retaining-women-professors-in-stem
#16
Wendy M Williams, Agrima Mahajan, Felix Thoemmes, Susan M Barnett, Francoise Vermeylen, Brian M Cash, Stephen J Ceci
Omnipresent calls for more women in university administration presume women will prioritize using resources and power to increase female representation, especially in STEM fields where women are most underrepresented. However, empirical evidence is lacking for systematic differences in female vs. male administratorsŠ attitudes. Do female administrators agree on which strategies are best, and do men see things differently? We explored United States college and university administratorsŠ opinions regarding strategies, policies, and structural changes in their organizations designed to increase women professorsŠ representation and retention in STEM fields...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581476/lgr5-expressing-chief-cells-drive-epithelial-regeneration-and-cancer-in-the-oxyntic-stomach
#17
Marc Leushacke, Si Hui Tan, Angeline Wong, Yada Swathi, Amin Hajamohideen, Liang Thing Tan, Jasmine Goh, Esther Wong, Simon L I J Denil, Kazuhiro Murakami, Nick Barker
The daily renewal of the corpus epithelium is fuelled by adult stem cells residing within tubular glands, but the identity of these stem cells remains controversial. Lgr5 marks homeostatic stem cells and 'reserve' stem cells in multiple tissues. Here, we report Lgr5 expression in a subpopulation of chief cells in mouse and human corpus glands. Using a non-variegated Lgr5-2A-CreERT2 mouse model, we show by lineage tracing that Lgr5-expressing chief cells do not behave as corpus stem cells during homeostasis, but are recruited to function as stem cells to effect epithelial renewal following injury by activating Wnt signalling...
June 5, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578524/the-role-of-feedback-delay-in-dual-task-performance
#18
Wilfried Kunde, Robert Wirth, Markus Janczyk
Doing two things at once is hard, and it is probably hard for various reasons. Here we aim to demonstrate that one so far barely considered reason is the monitoring of sensory action feedback, which detracts from processing of other concurrent tasks. To demonstrate this, we engaged participants in a psychological refractory period paradigm. The responses in the two tasks produced visual action effects. These effects occurred either immediately or they were delayed for the first of the two responses. We assumed that delaying these effects would engage a process of monitoring visual feedback longer, and delay a concurrent task more, as compared to immediate effects...
June 3, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573416/the-budding-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-as-a-model-organism-possible-implications-for-gerontological-studies
#19
Tomasz Bilinski, Aneta Bylak, Renata Zadrag-Tecza
Experimental gerontology is based on the fundamental assumption that the aging process has a universal character and that the mechanisms of aging are well-conserved among living things. The consequence of this assumption is the use of various organisms, including unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as models in gerontology, and direct extrapolation of the conclusions drawn from the studies carried on these organisms to human beings. However, numerous arguments suggest that aging is not universal and its mechanisms are not conserved in a wide range of species...
June 1, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561659/how-should-we-intervene-on-the-financial-toxicity-of-cancer-care-one-shot-four-perspectives
#20
S Yousuf Zafar, Lee N Newcomer, Justin McCarthy, Shelley Fuld Nasso, Leonard B Saltz
The median price of a month of chemotherapy has increased by an order of magnitude during the past 20 years, far exceeding inflation over the same period. Along with rising prices, increases in cost sharing have forced patients to directly shoulder a greater portion of those costs, resulting in undue financial burden and, in some cases, cost-related nonadherence to treatment. What can we do to intervene on treatment-related financial toxicity of patients? No one party can single-handedly solve the problem, and the solution must be multifaceted and creative...
2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
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