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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450231/free-will-in-addictive-behaviors-a-matter-of-definition
#1
REVIEW
W Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi
Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449890/benefits-harms-and-evidence-reflections-from-uk-primary-healthcare
#2
Margaret McCartney
In this paper I examine the relationship between benefits, harms and evidence-based medicine in the context of British primary healthcare. First, I will examine: 'What is a benefit and what is a harm?' Second, what should we know about where the balance of risk and benefit appear to lie? Third, what should we do with this knowledge, particularly in the context of the biopsychosocial gaze of primary care? I conclude that even perfect knowledge about benefits and harms requires to be translated in the context of the individual patient: it also requires to be interpreted according to what that persons' wishes are...
January 2018: London Journal of Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444954/invite-your-representative-to-work-change-the-world-here-s-how
#3
Denise J Montell
Today's political climate can seem hostile to science. Alternative facts, climate change denial, and relabeling of actual news as fake news are discouraging phenomena for sure. But these trends make it more important than ever to engage our politicians. Take heart! There is something you can do. You can show your representatives firsthand the amazing things you do, evidence of the economic engine that your activities generate, and the real people behind the discoveries. I did, and it was fun. We invited our congressman to the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and he accepted! For 2 hours, we explained and demonstrated efforts to cure blindness using stem cells, the medical implications of the discovery that cells can recover from the brink of death, a mosquito lab striving to eliminate insect-borne disease, and an Alzheimer's disease laboratory...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414864/iot-forensics-meets-privacy-towards-cooperative-digital-investigations
#4
Ana Nieto, Ruben Rios, Javier Lopez
IoT-Forensics is a novel paradigm for the acquisition of electronic evidence whose operation is conditioned by the peculiarities of the Internet of Things (IoT) context. As a branch of computer forensics, this discipline respects the most basic forensic principles of preservation, traceability, documentation, and authorization. The digital witness approach also promotes such principles in the context of the IoT while allowing personal devices to cooperate in digital investigations by voluntarily providing electronic evidence to the authorities...
February 7, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402102/public-health-by-stealth
#5
Jessie Williams
What does it take to light a fire to create cultural change about the way we do death, dying and bereavement in Australia? The GroundSwell Project set out to embark on a bold journey to create cultural change in the death and dying space in Australia. For 7 years we have delivered over 55 arts/health projects and have punched well above our weight. What have we learned about change and innovation? We've learned that we had to set up a fiercely independent organisation, drawing on short term funding so that we were never locked into delivering results that perpetuated 'systemic malaise'...
January 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396838/preparticipation-screening-the-way-forward-is-smart-screening
#6
REVIEW
H Thune Jørstad
The image of a young athlete collapsing on the pitch, followed by resuscitation, leaves an unforgettable impression. However, this impression should not seduce us into resuscitating the debate for large-scale preparticipation screening without doing the smart thing: taking a step back to review what we know to be effective, and what has been shown not to be effective. What we should do is use this momentum to focus on what we still need to know.
February 2, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360210/biosimilars-what-the-dermatologist-should-know
#7
REVIEW
Paul Yamauchi, Jeffrey Crowley, Primal Kaur, Lynda Spelman, Richard Warren
Biosimilars are highly similar versions of approved branded biologics. In contrast to generics, which are identical copies of the originator medicines, biosimilars are considered unique but related molecules that differ from the originator reference product as well as from each other. Owing to the complexity of biologic medicines, such as therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, minor differences between biosimilars and the reference products are acceptable provided these differences do not result in any clinically meaningful differences in safety or efficacy...
January 23, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354812/mhealth-visual-discovery-dashboard
#8
Dezhi Fang, Fred Hohman, Peter Polack, Hillol Sarker, Minsuk Kahng, Moushumi Sharmin, Mustafa al'Absi, Duen Horng Chau
We present Discovery Dashboard, a visual analytics system for exploring large volumes of time series data from mobile medical field studies. Discovery Dashboard offers interactive exploration tools and a data mining motif discovery algorithm to help researchers formulate hypotheses, discover trends and patterns, and ultimately gain a deeper understanding of their data. Discovery Dashboard emphasizes user freedom and flexibility during the data exploration process and enables researchers to do things previously challenging or impossible to do - in the web-browser and in real time...
September 2017: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352754/providing-ethical-healthcare-in-resource-poor-environments
#9
Kenneth V Iserson
The ethics of providing health care in resource-poor environments is a complex topic. It implies two related questions: What can we do with the resources on hand? Of all the things we can do, which ones should we do? "Resource-poor" (i.e., resource-challenged, resource-constrained) environments are situations in which clinicians, organizations, or healthcare systems have the knowledge and skills, but not the means, to carry out highly effective and beneficial interventions. Determinants of a population's health often rely less on disease and injury management than on recognizing and meeting their basic needs...
January 19, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344524/the-professionalization-of-iranian-hospital-social-workers
#10
Maliheh Khalvati, Hossein Fekrazad, Maryam Rafatjah, Leila Ostadhashemi, Hamid Reza Khankeh
Introduction: Identity is formed through our understanding of ourselves and what others perceive of our actions and how we do things. Formation of professional identity includes development, advancement and socialization through social learning of specific knowledge and skills obtained within the context of professional roles, new attitudes and values. Methods: This qualitative study used content analysis approach to explain the professionalization process of 22 social workers working in 14 public hospitals in Tehran based on their experiences...
January 2018: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335373/ectothermic-telomeres-it-s-time-they-came-in-from-the-cold
#11
REVIEW
Mats Olsson, Erik Wapstra, Christopher Friesen
We review the evolutionary ecology and genetics of telomeres in taxa that cannot elevate their body temperature to a preferred level through metabolism but do so by basking or seeking out a warm environment. This group of organisms contains all living things on earth, apart from birds and mammals. One reason for our interest in this synthetic group is the argument that high, stable body temperature increases the risk of malignant tumours if long, telomerase-restored telomeres make cells 'live forever'. If this holds true, ectotherms should have significantly lower cancer frequencies...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331519/understanding-and-misunderstanding-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
Angus Deaton, Nancy Cartwright
Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) are increasingly popular in the social sciences, not only in medicine. We argue that the lay public, and sometimes researchers, put too much trust in RCTs over other methods of investigation. Contrary to frequent claims in the applied literature, randomization does not equalize everything other than the treatment in the treatment and control groups, it does not automatically deliver a precise estimate of the average treatment effect (ATE), and it does not relieve us of the need to think about (observed or unobserved) covariates...
December 25, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328011/-is-there-quality-of-life-with-locked-in-syndrome
#13
S D Limburg, J Pols, M Limburg
A 57-year-old man developed a locked-in state due to a brain stem stroke. He communicated through eye movements. The team suggested treatment should be discontinued, as there was no perspective of improvement. The family was very upset because they experienced sufficient quality of life. We investigated what 'quality of life' means. The literature shows that severely ill and completely care-dependent patients may experience high quality of life; this is called the disability paradox. Patients and families evaluate quality of life by looking for positive things to live for...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323980/a-commitment-to-making-things-better
#14
Clare Price-Dowd
We hope that all nurses are committed to what they do, but what does that really mean? Clare Price-Dowd, Senior Programme Lead, NHS Leadership Academy, explores why commitment is fundamental for a nurse.
January 11, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318085/exploring-older-adult-ed-fall-patients-understanding-of-their-fall-a-qualitative-study
#15
Kalpana N Shankar, Devon Taylor, Caroline T Rizzo, Shan W Liu
Objective: We sought to understand older patients' perspectives about their fall, fall risk factors, and attitude toward emergency department (ED) fall-prevention interventions. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews between July 2015 and January 2016 of community-dwelling, nondemented patients in the ED, who presented with a fall to an urban, teaching hospital. Interviews were halted once we achieve thematic saturation with the data coded and categorized into themes...
December 2017: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313291/parafoveal-letter-position-coding-in-reading
#16
Joshua Snell, Daisy Bertrand, Jonathan Grainger
The masked-priming lexical decision task has been the paradigm of choice for investigating how readers code for letter identity and position. Insight into the temporal integration of information between prime and target words has pointed out, among other things, that readers do not code for the absolute position of letters. This conception has spurred various accounts of the word recognition process, but the results at present do not favor one account in particular. Thus, employing a new strategy, the present study moves out of the arena of temporal- and into the arena of spatial information integration...
January 8, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249777/-relationship-between-exercise-adherence-and-personality-characteristics-in-persons-experienced-in-the-medical-fitness-program
#17
Yuko Yamashita, Nao Seki, Kimie Umeda, Naohito Tanabe, Kunihiko Shinoda, Isamu Konishi, Akiyoshi Sekiya, Akiko Sekii, Tamaki Ohta
Objective We examined effective exercise adherence support methods for persons experienced in the Medical Fitness (MF) program to clarify the relation of personality traits with exercise adherence and the factors that improve exercise adherence.Methods Subjects were 283 adults who had registered as members in the MF program at an affiliate of Hospital A. We implemented an anonymous self-administered questionnaire by postal mail. Using the Japanese version of the Ten Item Personality Inventory (which contains 10 items that measure the Big Five personality traits), we evaluated the following characteristics: "Extraversion", "Agreeableness", "Conscientiousness", "Neuroticism", and "Openness"...
2017: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239635/-will-i-know-more-in-the-future-than-i-know-now-preschoolers-judgments-about-changes-in-general-knowledge
#18
Cristina M Atance, Julian S Caza
An important aspect of perspective-taking ability is the appreciation that mental states such as beliefs, desires, and knowledge change over time. The current study focused specifically on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds' understanding that they will have knowledge in the future that they do not currently possess-for example, that when they are grown-ups, they will know what the words on a newspaper say. We also compared this understanding to children's understanding that adults have knowledge that children do not...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238408/nanoparticle-risks-and-identification-in-a-world-where-small-things-do-not-survive
#19
Erik Reimhult
The risks of materials containing nanoscale components are in the public debate discussed as if a manufactured nanomaterial will remain invariant with time and environmental exposure, and as if we can identify its risks by the risks of its nanoscale components. Additionally, the debate on mitigation of specific nanorisks by new legislation implicitly assumes that we can have full and accurate knowledge of the distribution and composition of nanomaterials in a product or the environment. In this discussion note, I argue that physical laws intrinsic to the behavior of nanoparticles both lead to limits on the risks to which we are likely exposed and on our technological ability to verify compliance with new regulations...
2017: Nanoethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237168/evaluation-of-the-national-swiss-skin-cancer-screening-campaign-2013-do-we-do-the-right-thing
#20
Ralph-Peter Braun, Karina Ulrich, Robert Hunger, Olivier Gaide, Andreas Arnold, Rastine Merat, Reinhard Dummer, Jürg Hafner, Lars E French, Antonio Cozzio
BACKGROUND: Skin cancer prevention and screening programs are performed in many countries. Their benefit is discussed controversially. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to evaluate the Skin Cancer Screening Program 2013 in Switzerland by following up screenees upon interventions. METHODS: Quality was assessed by personal follow-up via phone/e-mail of every patient that had been screened during this campaign and histological follow-up of all participants with suspicious skin lesions...
December 14, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
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