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Things we do

John Turri
This paper addresses a fundamental question in folk metaphysics: how do we ordinarily view human agency? According to the transcendence account, we view human agency as standing outside of the causal order and imbued with exceptional powers. According to a naturalistic account, we view human agency as subject to the same physical laws as other objects and completely open to scientific investigation. According to exceptionalist naturalism, the truth lies somewhere in between: we view human agency as fitting broadly within the causal order while still being exceptional in important respects...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Motohiro Matoba
The newly revised 2014 Set of Standards for"Designated Cancer Care Hospitals"mandated the screening of all cancer patients6 for their physical and psychological suffering systematically in both outpatient and inpatient settings as well as rapid response to the suffering detected. It is a step forward as a cancer control policy, but because the pain associated with cancer changes by time depending on factors such as disease progression and treatment, it must be evaluated repeatedly. Simply complying with the standard by measuring once, say on admission or at the initial visit, will not help patients...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Mike Horton, Amanda E Perry
Aims and method To explore the modern psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), we used the Rasch analysis in a sample of 767 primary care patients with depression. Results The analysis highlighted dependency issues between items 1 and 2 ('Little interest or pleasure in doing things' and 'Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless'), and items 3 and 4 ('Trouble falling or staying asleep, or sleeping too much' and 'Feeling tired or having little energy'). Items 1 and 2 displayed an over-discrimination, suggesting their potential redundancy within the complete item set...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Ann C Palmenberg
Science is our best current approximation of the way things work. You cannot do science unless you believe there is a discernable truth inherent to the arrangement of our tangible world. The problem is, we in our given time never know where exactly the asymptote lies or how far we are from it. My curiosity about the natural world is innate, but fate has variously gifted me with outstanding personal opportunities to indulge that curiosity through the study of viruses. To a woman of the boomer generation, professional paths were not always open-door, and to a certain extent they still aren't...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Serge A Trines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Brent I Fox, Bill G Felkey
Some things really never change. For example, medication adherence remains a critical factor that influences the effectiveness of our modern health care system. Is there a magic bullet to solve the problem of nonadherence? We don't think there is. We do believe, however, that tools to monitor adherence continue to improve in their utility.
November 2015: Hospital Pharmacy
Jacob L Mey
Pragmatics is not about language as such, viewed in isolation, but about words as they are being used. And words are never things, pure objects; words have their history and lives: their story is the story of their users. Pragmatic thinking focuses not just on what 'is' there (the 'essentialist' method of linguistics), but on how what 'is' there, 'got' there, and what it 'does' there, in a 'functionalist' approach, characteristic of pragmatics. Such a functional approach relies heavily on the processes that are material in creating the conditions for words to be used in a particular way: both those processes we normally call 'historical' (the history of what has been) and those that are characteristic for what happens in our own times: the pragmatic life of words...
2016: SpringerPlus
Kerry Kuluski, Allie Peckham, A Paul Williams, Ross E G Upshur
Person-centred care is becoming a key component of quality in health systems worldwide. Although the term can mean different things, it typically entails paying attention to the needs and background of health system users, involving them in decisions that affect their health, assessing their care goals and implementing a coordinated plan of care that aligns with their unique circumstances. The importance of practising a person-centred approach in care delivery dominates policy and research rhetoric worldwide, yet competing goals set by policy planners to save money, eliminate waste and sustain the healthcare system challenge the implementation of such an approach...
2016: Healthcare Quarterly
Christina Starmans, Paul Bloom
Sometimes it is easy to do the right thing. But often, people act morally only after overcoming competing immoral desires. How does learning about someone's inner moral conflict influence children's and adults' moral judgments about that person? Across four studies, we discovered a striking developmental difference: When the outcome is held constant, 3- to 8-year-old children judge someone who does the right thing without experiencing immoral desires to be morally superior to someone who does the right thing through overcoming conflicting desires-but adults have the opposite intuition...
September 27, 2016: Psychological Science
Jessie S Zhong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Ruud Hendriks
Clowns seem suspect when it comes to respect. The combination of clowning and people with dementia may seem especially suspicious. In this argument, I take potential concerns about clowning in dementia care as an opportunity to explore the meaning of a respectful approach of people with dementia. Our word 'respect' is derived from the Latin respiciō, meaning 'looking back' or 'seeing again', as well as 'looking after' or 'having regard' for someone or something. I build upon this double meaning of respiciō by examining how simultaneously we look to and after people with dementia...
September 23, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Raffaella I Rumiati, Francesco Foroni, Giulio Pergola, Paola Rossi, Maria Caterina Silveri
The study of category specific deficits in brain-damaged patients has been instrumental in explaining how knowledge about different types of objects is organized in the brain. Much of this research focused on testing putative semantic sensory/functional subsystems that could explain the observed dissociations in performance between living things (e.g., animals and fruits/vegetables) and non-living things (e.g., tools). As neuropsychological patterns that did not fit the original living/non-living distinction were observed, an alternative organization of semantic memory in domains constrained by evolutionary pressure was hypothesized...
September 17, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Burton Norman Seitler
What do you say to a child who rarely speaks? How do you work with such a youngster? What are the sine qua nons or guiding principles upon which analysts can draw? And, how do we know if we are being helpful? Sam was 9-years when I began treating him. He was extremely withdrawn and rarely spoke more than a few words. Instead, he mainly played chess. I did not know at first whether Sam's taciturn demeanor was due to shyness, limited verbal abilities, or the stultifying effects of trauma. Fortuitously, during one of many seemingly "innocent" games of chess, Sam happened to make a bold move, to which I admiringly remarked, "What a move, you're killing me...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Alexandre Bozec, Philippe Schultz, Jocelyn Gal, Emmanuel Chamorey, Yann Chateau, Olivier Dassonville, Gilles Poissonnet, José Santini, Frédéric Peyrade, Esma Saada, Joël Guigay, Karen Benezery, Axel Leysalle, Laure Santini, Antoine Giovanni, Lila Messaoudi, Nicolas Fakhry
AIM: Providing head and neck cancer patients with adequate information is essential to their confidence and satisfaction regarding medical care. The aims of this study were to evaluate patient perceptions of the information received, the predictive factors of such perceptions and their potential correlation with patient quality of life (QoL). METHODS: We conducted a prospective multicentric study using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-INFO25 and QLQ-C30 questionnaires before and after surgery...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Stephen Thompson, Michael R Kilbourn, Peter J H Scott
The Internet of Chemical Things (IoCT), a growing network of computers, mobile devices, online resources, software suites, laboratory equipment, synthesis apparatus, analytical devices, and a host of other machines, all interconnected to users, manufacturers, and others through the infrastructure of the Internet, is changing how we do chemistry. While in its infancy across many chemistry laboratories and departments, it became apparent when considering our own work synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) that a more mature incarnation of the IoCT already exists...
August 24, 2016: ACS Central Science
Bishal Gyawali, Vinay Prasad
Recently, two clinical trials of novel agents in metastatic ovarian cancer were published: a phase 3 study of nintedanib and a phase 2 study of volasertib. There seemed to be discordance between the results and conclusions in the publication of both these trials. Despite not very optimistic results, the studies concluded optimistically in favor of the new agents under study. Using these examples, we point out the discrepancies and the risks of concluding optimistically based on statistical significance when the actual benefit is minimal...
2016: Ecancermedicalscience
Daniel J Foley, Adam Nelson, Stephen P Marsden
As our understanding of the impact of specific molecular properties on applications in discovery-based disciplines improves, the extent to which published synthetic methods meet (or do not meet) desirable criteria is ever clearer. Herein, we show how the application of simple (and in many cases freely available) computational tools can be used to develop a semiquantitative understanding of the potential of new methods to support molecular discovery. This analysis can, among other things, inform the design of improved substrate scoping studies; direct the prioritization of specific exemplar structures for synthesis; and substantiate claims of potential future applications for new methods...
October 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Harry Smit
Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice. It is argued that we can resolve this problem if we (1) note that language evolution is the outcome of an evolutionary transition, and (2) observe that the use of words evolves during ontogenesis out of babbling...
2016: Biological Theory
Lore Thaler, Melvyn A Goodale
Bats and dolphins are known for their ability to use echolocation. They emit bursts of sounds and listen to the echoes that bounce back to detect the objects in their environment. What is not as well-known is that some blind people have learned to do the same thing, making mouth clicks, for example, and using the returning echoes from those clicks to sense obstacles and objects of interest in their surroundings. The current review explores some of the research that has examined human echolocation and the changes that have been observed in the brains of echolocation experts...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
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