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mtor protein, human

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667627/propofol-inhibits-hela-cells-by-impairing-autophagic-flux-via-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-activation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-regulated-by-calcium
#1
Xi Chen, Kai Li, Guoqing Zhao
BACKGROUND Propofol has antitumor effects against various cancers. However, the mechanism of action of propofol in HeLa human cervical cancer cells has not been elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS We treated HeLa human cervical cancer cells with different concentrations of propofol. Cell viability was evaluated with Cell Counting Kit-8 and apoptosis was analyzed by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Autophagosome formation was evaluated based on microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC)3 conversion and light chain 3 puncta formation...
April 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662178/defining-essential-genes-for-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-crispr-cas9-screening-in-haploid-cells
#2
Atilgan Yilmaz, Mordecai Peretz, Aviram Aharony, Ido Sagi, Nissim Benvenisty
The maintenance of pluripotency requires coordinated expression of a set of essential genes. Using our recently established haploid human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), we generated a genome-wide loss-of-function library targeting 18,166 protein-coding genes to define the essential genes in hPSCs. With this we could allude to an intrinsic bias of essentiality across cellular compartments, uncover two opposing roles for tumour suppressor genes and link autosomal-recessive disorders with growth-retardation phenotypes to early embryogenesis...
April 16, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662061/rpap3-provides-a-flexible-scaffold-for-coupling-hsp90-to-the-human-r2tp-co-chaperone-complex
#3
Fabrizio Martino, Mohinder Pal, Hugo Muñoz-Hernández, Carlos F Rodríguez, Rafael Núñez-Ramírez, David Gil-Carton, Gianluca Degliesposti, J Mark Skehel, S Mark Roe, Chrisostomos Prodromou, Laurence H Pearl, Oscar Llorca
The R2TP/Prefoldin-like co-chaperone, in concert with HSP90, facilitates assembly and cellular stability of RNA polymerase II, and complexes of PI3-kinase-like kinases such as mTOR. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. Here we use cryo-EM and biochemical studies on the human R2TP core (RUVBL1-RUVBL2-RPAP3-PIH1D1) which reveal the distinctive role of RPAP3, distinguishing metazoan R2TP from the smaller yeast equivalent. RPAP3 spans both faces of a single RUVBL ring, providing an extended scaffold that recruits clients and provides a flexible tether for HSP90...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658590/cucurbitacin-d-impedes-gastric-cancer-cell-survival-via-activation-of-the-inos-no-and-inhibition-of-the-akt-signalling-pathway
#4
Yan Zhen Zhang, Chun Feng Wang, Lian Feng Zhang
Cucurbitacin D (CuD), isolated from plants from the Cucurbitaceae family, is a potential antitumour agent since it inhibits proliferation, migration and metastasis of cancer cells. Despite CuD antitumour activity in cancer cells, the effects of CuD on gastric cancer cell lines remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of CuD on gastric cancer cell growth and death. Human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, SNU1 and Hs746T) were cultured and treated with different concentrations of CuD (0, 0...
April 10, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656208/akt-mtor-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-activation-in-treponema-pallidum-stimulates-m1-macrophages
#5
Li-Rong Lin, Zheng-Xiang Gao, Yong Lin, Xiao-Zhen Zhu, Wei Liu, Dan Liu, Kun Gao, Man-Li Tong, Hui-Lin Zhang, Li-Li Liu, Yao Xiao, Jian-Jun Niu, Fan Liu, Tian-Ci Yang
The polarization of macrophages and the molecular mechanism involved during the early process of syphilis infection remain unknown. This study was conducted to explore the influence of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) treatment on macrophage polarization and the Akt-mTOR-NFκB signaling pathway mechanism involved in this process. M0 macrophages derived from the phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 were cultured with T. pallidum. T. pallidum induced inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β and TNF-α) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
April 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655701/apoptosis-and-pro-death-autophagy-induced-by-a-spirostanol-saponin-isolated-from-rohdea-chinensis-baker-n-tanaka-synonym-tupistra-chinensis-baker-on-hl-60-cells
#6
Xiaomin Yi, Limin Xiang, Yuying Huang, Yihai Wang, Xiangjiu He
BACKGROUND: Our previous study has revealed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the rhizomes of Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) (Convallariaceae) (a reputed folk medicine) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. However, the underlying mechanism of purified saponins remains unclear. More studies are necessary to assess the apoptosis and autophagy activities of the saponins from R. chinensis and clarify their antiproliferative mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655686/physakengose-g-induces-apoptosis-via-egfr-mtor-signaling-and-inhibits-autophagic-flux-in-human-osteosarcoma-cells
#7
Hua Lin, Chao Zhang, Hao Zhang, Yuan-Zheng Xia, Chuan-Yang Zhang, Jie Luo, Lei Yang, Ling-Yi Kong
BACKGROUND: Physakengose G (PG) is a new compound first isolated from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii, an anticarcinogenic traditional Chinese medicine. PG has shown promising anti-tumor effects, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the anti-cancer effects of PG on human osteosarcoma cells and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis rates, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) formation were determined by flow cytometry...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649662/autophagy-attenuates-copper-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-by-regulating-oxidative-stress-in-chicken-hepatocytes
#8
Fan Yang, Jianzhao Liao, Ruonan Pei, Wenlan Yu, Qingyue Han, Ying Li, Jianying Guo, Lianmei Hu, Jiaqiang Pan, Zhaoxin Tang
Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element that is required for the catalysis of several cellular enzymes. Excessive Cu could induce hepatotoxicity in humans and multiple animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of autophagy machinery on Cu-induced hepatotoxicity. Chicken hepatocytes were cultured in medium in the absence and presence of Cu sulfate (CuSO4 ) (0, 10, 50, and 100 μM) for 0, 6, 12, and 24 h, and in the combination of CuSO4 and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) (1 mM), rapamycin (10 nM), and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (5 mM) for 24 h...
March 29, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627439/mir-155-5p-inhibits-pdk1-and-promotes-autophagy-via-the-mtor-pathway-in-cervical-cancer
#9
Fang Wang, Shu Shan, Yan Huo, Zipeng Xie, Yehong Fang, Zhiying Qi, Fengzhen Chen, Yongmei Li, Bei Sun
Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women. Persistent cervical infection by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is related to cervical cancer. MicroRNAs could regulate autophagy caused by viral infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of autophagy by miR-155-5p in cervical cancer. In HPV+ human cervical lesion tissues, miR-155-5p expression was found to be markedly decreased. Compared to C33A cancer cells (HPV-), the miR-155-5p expression was significantly lower in Siha and HeLa cells (HPV+), which are both hrHPV positive...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626392/exercise-and-exercise-training-induced-increase-in-autophagy-markers-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#10
Nina Brandt, Thomas P Gunnarsson, Jens Bangsbo, Henriette Pilegaard
Moderately trained male subjects (mean age 25 years; range 19-33 years) completed an 8-week exercise training intervention consisting of continuous moderate cycling at 157 ± 20 W for 60 min (MOD; n = 6) or continuous moderate cycling (157 ± 20 W) interspersed by 30-sec sprints (473 ± 79 W) every 10 min (SPRINT; n = 6) 3 days per week. Sprints were followed by 3:24 min at 102 ± 17 W to match the total work between protocols. A muscle biopsy was obtained before, immediately and 2 h after the first training session as well as at rest after the training session...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621758/targeting-mtor-by-cz415-inhibits-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#11
Jing Xie, Quan Li, Xi Ding, Yunyun Gao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: mTOR is an important therapeutic target for human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The current study tested the anti-HNSCC cell activity by a mTOR kinase inhibitor CZ415. METHODS: HNSCC cells were treated with CZ415. Cell death was tested by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and MTT assay. Cell proliferation was tested by BrdU ELISA assay and [H3] thymidine incorporation assay, with apoptosis assayed by the TUNEL staining. A Western blotting assay was applied to test autophagy-associated proteins, mTOR and signalings...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620275/effects-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-on-autophagy-and-apoptosis-of-human-leukemia-cells-via-inhibition-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#12
Li-Juan Li, Ye Chai, Xiao-Jia Guo, Song-Lin Chu, Lian-Sheng Zhang
The present study aimed to explore the regulatory effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) on the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, and its subsequent effects on autophagy and apoptosis of human leukemia cells. Human leukemia cells were cultured and treated with various concentrations of tunicamycin for 0, 24, 48, 72 and 90 h. Subsequently, human leukemia cells were assigned into the ER activation group, which was treated with 100 ng/ml tunicamycin, the ER activation + TO901317 (PI3K inhibitor) group, and the control group...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620191/arsenic-disulfide%C3%A2-induced-apoptosis-and-its-potential-mechanism-in-two%C3%A2-and-three%C3%A2-dimensionally-cultured-human-breast-cancer-mcf%C3%A2-7-cells
#13
Yuxue Zhao, Kenji Onda, Bo Yuan, Sachiko Tanaka, Anna Kiyomi, Kentaro Sugiyama, Munetoshi Sugiura, Norio Takagi, Toshihiko Hirano
In China, arsenic disulfide (As2S2) has been used for the treatment of hematological malignancies. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of As2S2 on the human breast cancer MCF‑7 cell line cultured in both two‑dimensional (2D) monolayers and three‑dimensional (3D) spheroids to explore its therapeutic potential in breast cancer treatment. Cellular viability and the induction of apoptosis were examined with a cell counting kit‑8 (CCK‑8) assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Alterations in the expression levels of apoptosis‑associated proteins, including Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax), B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), p53, and caspase‑7, as well as the cell survival‑associated proteins, phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), were assessed by western blotting...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616118/adenosine-induces-intrinsic-apoptosis-via-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-human-pharyngeal-squamous-carcinoma-fadu-cells
#14
Mi Suk Choi, Sung-Min Moon, Seul Ah Lee, Bo-Ram Park, Jae-Sung Kim, Do Kyung Kim, Yong Hwan Kim, Chun Sung Kim
Adenosine has been identified to occur abundantly intra-and extracellularly, and to exert diverse biological functions, including the suppression of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Adenosine has been reported to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines; however, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of adenosine on head and neck cancer cells has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether adenosine exerts any anticancer effect via induction of apoptosis in human pharyngeal squamous carcinoma FaDu cells...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615929/muscle-atrophy-induced-by-mechanical-unloading-mechanisms-and-potential-countermeasures
#15
REVIEW
Yunfang Gao, Yasir Arfat, Huiping Wang, Nandu Goswami
Prolonged periods of skeletal muscle inactivity or mechanical unloading (bed rest, hindlimb unloading, immobilization, spaceflight and reduced step) can result in a significant loss of musculoskeletal mass, size and strength which ultimately lead to muscle atrophy. With advancement in understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in disuse skeletal muscle atrophy, several different signaling pathways have been studied to understand their regulatory role in this process. However, substantial gaps exist in our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved, as well as their functional significance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615476/neuronostatin-exerts-actions-on-pituitary-that-are-unique-from-its-sibling-peptide-somatostatin
#16
Raul M Luque, Rhonda D Kineman
Neuronostatin, a somatostatin gene-encoded peptide, exerts important physiological and metabolic actions in diverse tissues. However, the direct biological effects of neuronostatin on pituitary function of humans and primates are still unknown. This study used baboon (Papio anubis) primary pituitary cell cultures, a species that closely models human physiology, to demonstrate that neuronostatin inhibits basal, but not ghrelin-/GnRH-stimulated, GH and LH secretion in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, without affecting the secretion of other pituitary hormones (prolactin, ACTH, FSH, TSH) or changing mRNA levels...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614812/20-s-protopanaxadiol-induced-apoptosis-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cell-line-through-the-inhibition-of-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#17
Hong Zhang, Hua-Li Xu, Yu-Chen Wang, Ze-Yuan Lu, Xiao-Feng Yu, Da-Yun Sui
20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) is one of the major active metabolites of ginseng. It has been reported that 20(S)-PPD shows a broad spectrum of antitumor effects. Our research study aims were to investigate whether apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells could be induced by 20(S)-PPD by targeting the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Protein kinase B/Mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signal pathway in vitro and in vivo. Cell cycle analysis was performed by Propidium Iodide (PI) staining. To overexpress and knock down the expression of mTOR, pcDNA3...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614494/deptor-deficiency-mediated-mtorc1-hyperactivation-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-promotes-angiogenesis
#18
Yan Ding, Lanlan Shan, Wenqing Nai, Xiaojun Lin, Ling Zhou, Xiaoying Dong, Hongyuan Wu, Min Xiao, Xuejuan Zhou, Linlin Wang, Ting Li, You Fu, Yijun Lin, Chunhong Jia, Meng Dai, Xiaochun Bai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is essential for angiogenesis and embryonic development. DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) is an mTOR binding protein that functions to inhibit the mTOR pathway In vitro experiments suggest that DEPTOR is crucial for vascular endothelial cell (EC) activation and angiogenic responses. However, knowledge of the effects of DEPTOR on angiogenesis in vivo is limited. This study aimed to determine the role of DEPTOR in tissue angiogenesis and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611102/11%C3%AE-hsd1-inhibition-by-rl-118-promotes-autophagy-and-correlates-with-reduced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-enhancing-cognitive-performance-in-samp8-mouse-model
#19
Dolors Puigoriol-Illamola, Christian Griñán-Ferré, Foteini Vasilopoulou, Rosana Leiva, Santiago Vázquez, Mercè Pallàs
Elevated glucocorticoid (GC) exposure is widely accepted as a key factor in the age-related cognitive decline in rodents and humans. 11β-HSD1 is a key enzyme in the GCs pathway, catalyzing the conversion of 11β-dehydrocorticosterone to corticosterone in mice, with possible implications in neurodegenerative processes and cognitive impairment. Here, we determined the effect of a new 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, RL-118, administered to 12-month-old senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice with neuropathological AD-like hallmarks and widely used as a rodent model of cognitive dysfunction...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610153/signaling-pathways-involved-in-the-regulation-of-mrna-translation
#20
Philippe P Roux, Ivan Topisirovic
Translation is a key step in the regulation of gene expression and one of the most energy consuming processes in the cell. In response to various stimuli, multiple signaling pathways converge on the translational machinery to regulate its function. To date, the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the regulation of translation is among the best understood. Both pathways engage the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) to regulate a variety of components of the translational machinery...
April 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
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