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Forensic Pathology Autopsy

Mio Takayama, Brian Waters, Hiroshi Fujii, Kenji Hara, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Aya Matsusue, Natsuki Ikematsu, Shin-Ichi Kubo
Based on a prospective case-control study of forensic autopsies, the causes of cocaine (COC)-related sudden death (SD) are cardiovascular events in 62.0% of cases, cerebrovascular events in 14.0%, and others. A forensic autopsy of a male in his early forties revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at the base of the brain. A cerebral arterial aneurysm was not detected even though hemorrhage was clearly observed in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) bifurcation area. The brain weighed 1488 g and was edematous...
March 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
Samuel P Prahlow, Joseph A Prahlow
As forensic scientists and physicians, forensic pathologists are duty-bound to perform their examinations with integrity and professionalism. The practice of medicine requires knowledge regarding the history and presentation of the patient. In forensic pathology, the history includes scene and other investigative information, and the decedent's medical and social history. Such information is important for the correct certification of the cause and manner of death. Herein, the authors present a case originally thought by police and death investigators to represent a sexual-assault-related homicide, as an elderly female's body was found partially nude, and apparently beaten, on the muddy floor of her horse barn...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Banwari Meel
Background Firearm-related deaths are a serious public-health problem in South Africa, which has the second-highest rate of firearm-related deaths in the world. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trend in firearm deaths in the Transkei subregion of South Africa. Method An autopsy record review study was conducted at the Forensic Pathology Laboratory at Mthatha over a period of 23 years (1993-2015). Results Over a 23-year period (1993-2015), 27,036 autopsies were performed at the Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory on people who had died from unnatural causes...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Gil Graziani, Sigal Tal, Adi Adelman, Chen Kugel, Tali Bdolah-Abram, Alon Krispin
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Post-mortem CT (PMCT) is becoming an essential tool available to forensic pathologists worldwide, but its validity with respect to evidence for legal purposes still requires more comprehensive large-scale studies, comparing PMCT to autopsy. This article compares PMCT and autopsy findings of the head, neck, and spine during a period of five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 203 cases for which both autopsy and PMCT were performed...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Josep M Casadesús, Fernando Aguirre, Ana Carrera, Pere Boadas-Vaello, Maria T Serrando, Francisco Reina
The purpose of this study was to suggest modifications of autopsy techniques in order to improve post-mortem diagnosis of arterial gas embolism (AGE) based on multidisciplinary investigation of SCUBA diving fatalities. Five adult human cadavers from the voluntary donation program of the Human Anatomy Laboratory, and eight judicial autopsied bodies of SCUBA divers from the Forensic Pathology Service were assessed. Before performing any autopsies, we accessed the diving plan and the divers' profiles for each case...
February 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Alessandro Bonsignore, Cristian Palmiere, Francesca Buffelli, Eloisa Maselli, Andrea Marzullo, Giulio Fraternali Orcioni, Francesco Ventura, Francesco De Stefano, Alessandro Dell'Erba
Attribution of death to myocarditis continues to be a controversial issue in forensic pathology, despite the existence of established histopathological criteria as well as complementary investigations. The aim of the study was two-fold: (a) to retrospectively analyse the data obtained from a series of clinical and forensic autopsies in order to assess the number of cases with death attributed to myocarditis, and (b) to reevaluate these cases in order to assess how properly the histopathological diagnosis of myocarditis conformed to established criteria and therefore how accurately these were used on the basis of all postmortem investigation findings to conclude the cause of death...
February 7, 2018: Forensic Science International
Amanda R Hale, Ann H Ross
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a promising, novel method to aid in the assessment of bone quality in forensically relevant skeletal remains. BMD is an important component of bone's nutritional status and in skeletal remains of both juveniles and adults, and it can provide information about bone quality. For adults remains, it can provide information on pathological conditions or when bone insufficiency may have occurred. In juveniles, it provides a useful metric to elucidate cases of fatal starvation or neglect, which are generally difficult to identify...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
X Y Luo, J J Xue, Y Zhang, Z P Cao, M H Tian, Y Xiao, B L Zhu
OBJECTIVES: To study the expression pattern of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in myocardial tissue from forensic routine cases and to explore its application value in the forensic determination of sudden cardiac death (SCD). METHODS: The data of 96 autopsy cases accepted by the center of Medico-legal Investigation of China Medical University between December 2008 to May 2014 were collected. There were 62 cases in SCD group cardiac and 34 cases in non-SCD group...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Michael S Pollanen
Detainees may be subjected to torture and extra-judicial execution by State actors and terrorists. But, the pathology of torture has not been well-described. This is due to the lack of autopsies performed on victims of torture, mostly due to the disposal of the bodies of the victims by their torturers. On this basis, the cause of death of detainees subjected to torture is often a matter of speculation or remains obscure. This paper provides an overview of the pathology of torture based on the authour's experience with the autopsies of torture victims...
December 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
Aleksandra Aljakna, Tony Fracasso, Sara Sabatasso
Diagnosing early myocardial ischemia (the initial 4 to 6 h after interruption of blood flow to part of the myocardium) remains a challenge for clinical and forensic pathologists. Several immunohistochemical markers have been proposed for improving postmortem detection of early myocardial ischemia; however, no single marker appears to be both sufficiently specific as well as sensitive. This review summarizes the diverse categories of molecular tissue markers that have been investigated in human autopsy samples with acute myocardial infarction as well as in the well-established and widely used in vivo animal model of early myocardial ischemia (permanent ligation of the coronary artery)...
March 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Emidio De Marco, Giuseppe Vacchiano, Paola Frati, Raffaele La Russa, Alessandro Santurro, Matteo Scopetti, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Vittorio Fineschi
Since the 1970s, remarkable efforts have been made in the post-mortem coronary study, especially by angiography, as an added tool to diagnose heart-related deaths. In more recent times, post-mortem CT (PMCT) and post-mortem CT-angiography (PMCTA) have become an established practice in numerous forensic units, because of the undeniable advantages these diagnostic instruments can offer: data acquisition times are increasingly fast, costs have become lower and, once acquired, data can be re-utilized and re-evaluated at any given time...
January 22, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Hasan Abder-Rahman, Mohanad S O Jaber, Shrouq S Al-Sabaileh
BACKGROUND: Falling from a distance is an important issue worldwide, which happens in different ages, genders and circumstances. It is usually not considered a medicolegal case in many countries hence no autopsy is performed. This study focused on analyzing injuries sustained in victims of falling in relation to different distances of fall. METHODS: Retrospective study of 352 autopsy reports of falling victims brought to the forensic pathology department at Jordan University Hospital during the period from January 1990 to March 2016...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Meel Banwari
Background Transkei is regarded as a rural part of South Africa. It was one of the black homelands where rigorous apartheid was practised. The incidence of firearm-related deaths used to be very high, but after the implementation of the Firearm Control Act in 2002, the trend changed. However, the murder rate is still a major public-health problem in this region of South Africa. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate 23 years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa. Method A review of records of medico-legal autopsies performed at Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory from 1993 to 2015 was undertaken...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
M Z Zhang, B X Li, R Zhao, D W Guan, G H Zhang, X Wu, B L Zhu, R B Li
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the cases of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease, and explore the general information of deaths and the forensic pathological characteristics to provide reference evidence for forensic identification of such cases. METHODS: Six cases of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease between 2001 and 2016 were selected from School of Forensic Medicine, China Medical University. The general information (gender and age), clinical manifestations, medical history, anatomical and histopathological findings, biochemical parameters and cause of death were analysed retrospectively...
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
F Y Wu, L L Gai, X P Kong, B Hao, E W Huang, H Shi, L H Sheng, L Quan, S P Liu, B Luo
Due to the negative autopsy and without cardiac structural abnormalities, unexpected sudden cardiac death (USCD) is always a tough issue for forensic pathological expertise. USCD may be associated with parts of fatal arrhythmic diseases. These arrhythmic diseases may be caused by disorders of cardiac ion channels or channel-related proteins. Caveolin can combine with multiple myocardial ion channel proteins through its scaffolding regions and plays an important role in maintaining the depolarization and repolarization of cardiac action potential...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Satoko Mishima, Hideto Suzuki, Tatsushige Fukunaga, Yoko Nishitani
PURPOSE: Bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, and many of these deaths are diagnosed as death from disease without autopsy in the current Japanese death-investigation system. Therefore, we aimed to examine the postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) findings of bath-related deaths to determine if PMCT can differentiate between real cases of drowning and sudden deaths not related to drowning. METHODS: Bath-related deaths were sampled from all autopsies conducted at the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from September 2015 to August 2016...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
Maria De Matteis, Giovanni Cecchetto, Giada Munari, Laura Balsamo, Marina Paola Gardiman, Renzo Giordano, Guido Viel, Matteo Fassan
Sudden and unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) represents one of the most challenging fields for clinical, forensic and preventative pathology. Several authors have emphasized the search of innovative biomarkers related to drug-resistance for an appropriate risk stratification in these patients. However, no reliable biomarker has been implemented into clinical practice, so far. Herein, we present a case of SUDEP due to drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) in which we performed miRNA expression profiling (miR-301a-3p, miR-194-5p, miR-30b-5p, mIR-342-5p, and miR-4446-3p) from both the plasma and the temporal lobe in comparison to ten autopsies for traumatic or asphyxia deaths...
December 4, 2017: Legal Medicine
Jan Mario Breen, Paal Aksel Naess, Hallvard Gjerde, Christine Gaarder, Arne Stray-Pedersen
Driver fatalities in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) encompass accidents, suicides, and natural deaths when driving. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of pathology and other autopsy findings for drivers in fatal MVCs. Forensic autopsy records of driver fatalities in southeast Norway between 2000 and 2014 were studied retrospectively. Data from individual police and collision investigation reports were also collected and analyzed. In 406 driver fatalities, the male/female ratio was 340/66; 9% died from natural causes, 9% were suicides, 65% were culpable accidental deaths, 14% were nonculpable deaths, and 3% were undetermined deaths...
March 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Jakob Heimer, Dominic Gascho, Vasiliki Chatzaraki, Damaris Fröhlich Knaute, Vera Sterzik, Rosa Maria Martinez, Michael J Thali, Niklaus Zoelch
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus that takes a lethal course if untreated. In this way relevant to forensic medicine, secure diagnosis of DKA usually involves the evidence of elevated levels of glucose and the ketone bodies acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate in corpse fluids. We conducted a postmortem hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) in a case of lethal DKA. Distinctive resonances of all three ketone bodies as well as glucose were visible in spectra of cerebrospinal fluid, vitreous humor, and white matter...
March 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Guido Pelletti, Giovanni Cecchetto, Alessia Viero, Maria De Matteis, Guido Viel, Massimo Montisci
Traumatic fatal aortic rupture (FAR) is a common finding in victims of motor vehicle crashes (MVC), but its aetiology and mechanisms of production remain an issue of major concern, above all in motorcyclists. This study reports a series of cases obtained from a retrospective analysis of traumatic FARs occurring in motorcycle drivers, with the aim of defining the injury patterns and correlating them with the mechanisms of FAR production. Circumstantial, autopsy and histology data were collected through a retrospective analysis of post mortem examinations performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University of Padova between 2014 and 2016...
December 2017: Forensic Science International
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