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Anatomic Forensic Pathology

Jonathan E Medcalf, C Paul Johnson, Azzam Taktak, Silke Grabherr
Fatal traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) is a characteristic forensic pathological entity, the investigation of which requires special techniques. In Liverpool, post-mortem room angiography is undertaken, followed by complete removal of the vertebral arteries and histological examination. It has been observed that the arterial anatomy can be highly variable, particularly the length and course of the loop segments located between the C2 vertebra and the dura. In a number of cases of TBSAH the loop segments of torn vessels have appeared relatively short...
December 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Annamaria Vullo, Valeria Panebianco, Giuseppe Cannavale, Mariarosaria Aromatario, Luigi Cipolloni, Paola Frati, Alessandro Santurro, Francesco Vullo, Carlo Catalano, Vittorio Fineschi
The aim of the present study is to offer our experience concerning post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) in foetal death cases and an evaluation of the differences between the findings acquired by PMMR and by forensic autopsy. Fifteen foetuses were recruited from July 2014 to December 2015. These had suffered intrauterine death in women in the 21st to 38th week of gestation who were treated in the emergency department for non-perception of foetal movements. We performed a PMMR on foetuses, 3 ± 1 days on average from the time of death, and then a complete forensic autopsy was performed...
November 2016: La Radiologia Medica
V A Fetisov, T A Kuprina, V E Sinitsyn, S E Dubrova, B A Filimonov
We undertook the analysis of the foreign publications concerning the application of the modern radiodiagnostic methods (including MSCT- and MRI-visualization) with reference to the solution of the traditional problems facing forensic medical expertise, such as the estimation of prescription of death coming and time of infliction of injury in the dead bodies. Both advantages and disadvantages of postmortem visualization of the corpses of adult subjects are discussed taking into consideration the period of time that elapsed between the death and the onset of the study as well as the character of the injuries...
March 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Samantha K Rowbotham, Soren Blau
To investigate what is currently known about skeletal blunt force trauma (BFT) resulting from falls, and how valuable that research is in contributing to forensic anthropology investigations and interpretations of circumstances of death, a comprehensive review of forensic anthropology, forensic pathology and clinical medicine literature was performed. Forensic anthropology literature identified that establishing the type of fall from the analysis of BFT is difficult given the uniqueness of each fall event, the complexities involved with identify BFT and, in particular, the limited available research documenting fracture patterning and morphologies...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
J Tschui, C Jackowski, N Schwendener, C Schyma, W D Zech
INTRODUCTION: Putrefaction of the brain is a challenge to a forensic pathologist because it may lead to considerable organ alterations and restrict documenting reliable autopsy findings. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to present a new and systematic evaluation of possible benefits of post-mortem MR Neuroimaging (1.5 Tesla, sequences: T1w, T2w) in putrefied corpses in comparison to PMCT and autopsy. METHODS: A post-mortem MRI brain examination was conducted on 35 adult, putrefied corpses after performing a whole body CT scan prior to a forensic autopsy...
July 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Antoine Balzeau, Philippe Charlier
Cranial vault thickness (CVT) of Liang Bua 1, the specimen that is proposed to be the holotype of Homo floresiensis, has not yet been described in detail and compared with samples of fossil hominins, anatomically modern humans or microcephalic skulls. In addition, a complete description from a forensic and pathological point of view has not yet been carried out. It is important to evaluate scientifically if features related to CVT bring new information concerning the possible pathological status of LB1, and if it helps to recognize affinities with any hominin species and particularly if the specimen could belong to the species Homo sapiens...
April 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
B J McEwen
Asphyxia in a forensic context refers to death by rapid cerebral anoxia or hypoxia due to accidental or nonaccidental injury. Death due to nondrowning asphyxia can occur with strangulation, suffocation, and mechanical asphyxia, each of which is categorized based on the mechanism of injury. Individuals dying due to various types of asphyxia may or may not have lesions, and even those lesions that are present may be due to other causes. The interpretation or opinion that death was due to asphyxia requires definitive and compelling evidence from the postmortem examination, death scene, and/or history...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Wolf-Dieter Zech, Anna-Lena Hottinger, Nicole Schwendener, Frederick Schuster, Anders Persson, Marcel J Warntjes, Christian Jackowski
Recently, post-mortem MR quantification has been introduced to the field of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging. By usage of a particular MR quantification sequence, T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density (PD) of tissues and organs can be quantified simultaneously. The aim of the present basic research study was to assess the quantitative T1, T2, and PD values of regular anatomical brain structures for a 1.5T application and to correlate the assessed values with corpse temperatures. In a prospective study, 30 forensic cases were MR-scanned with a quantification sequence prior to autopsy...
July 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Qiuping Wu, Liyong Zhang, Jinxiang Zheng, Qianhao Zhao, Yeda Wu, Kun Yin, Lei Huang, Shuangbo Tang, Jianding Cheng
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is progressively threatening the lives of young people throughout the world. We conducted a retrospective study of SCD cases identified among sudden death cases based on comprehensive autopsies and pathological examinations in the Center for Medicolegal Expertise of Sun Yat-Sen University to investigate the exact etiological distribution and epidemiological features of SCD. One thousand six hundred fifty-six cases were identified, and SCD accounted for 43.0% of these sudden death cases...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
M Yoshina
This paper constitutes a review of the literature and an evaluation of the anatomical relationships between skull and face, along with a discussion of the methodology involved in the various superimposition techniques used in forensic science. In addition, some unique anatomical traits and pathological findings are reviewed, with the hope that the information will find efficient use in the personal identification of unknown skulls.
June 1989: Forensic Science Review
Ivan Birch, Wesley Vernon, Jeremy Walker, Maria Young
The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso...
July 2015: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
A V Kovalev, V A Putintsev, D V Bogomolov, Iu P Gribunov, B P Bogomolov, A V Deviatkin
This article provides the example of postmortem forensic medical diagnostics of fulminant sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacterium (Capnocitophaga canimorsus) following a dog bite. In order to identify the etiological factor of fulminant sepsis, the expert carried out the study of the autopsy materials with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This method has only recently been introduced into postmortem diagnostics of fulminant sepsis in this country; it has no analogs abroad and can be employed for the purpose of forensic medical expertise and pathological anatomic studies...
March 2015: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Naoki Nishida, Koji Yoshida, Yukiko Hata, Yuichi Arai, Koshi Kinoshita
AIMS: The manner in which pathological lesions of corticobasal degeneration (CBD) progress remains poorly understood. Because the pathology of early disease stages may be fundamental for elucidating a border between clinical and preclinical states of CBD, the present study aimed to detect preclinical or early clinical CBD cases by examining a series of forensic autopsy cases. METHODS: A series of 887 brains from medicolegal autopsies was examined. Immunohistochemistry for tau (AT8, 3, and 4-repeat-tau) and Gallyas-Braak was applied for diagnosis...
December 2015: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
D Sabageh, T O Solaja, B J Olasode
BACKGROUND: Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract constitute a diverse heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms with unique epidemiological, pathological, and treatment considerations. Only few studies have been conducted so far on these tumors in Nigeria. This study aims to study in greater detail, the pathological features of these cancers in Nigerian patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surgical specimens of patients diagnosed with malignant tumors of the upper aerodigestive tracts in the Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTHC) in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, over a 10-year period, formed the basis of this study...
March 2015: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Lars Christian Ebert, Thomas D Ruder, Rosa Maria Martinez, Patricia M Flach, Wolf Schweitzer, Michael J Thali, Garyfalia Ampanozi
UNLABELLED: OBJECTIVE; Virtual autopsy methods, such as postmortem CT and MRI, are increasingly being used in forensic medicine. Forensic investigators with little to no training in diagnostic radiology and medical laypeople such as state's attorneys often find it difficult to understand the anatomic orientation of axial postmortem CT images. We present a computer-assisted system that permits postmortem CT datasets to be quickly and intuitively resliced in real time at the body to narrow the gap between radiologic imaging and autopsy...
January 2015: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
M Bevilacqua, G Fanti, M D'Arienzo, A Porzionato, V Macchi, R De Caro
As the literature is not exhaustive with reference to the way the Turin Shroud (TS) Man was crucified, and it is not easy to draw significant information from only a "photograph" of a man on a linen sheet, this study tries to add some detail on this issue based on both image processing of high resolution photos of the TS and on experimental tests on arms and legs of human cadavers. With regard to the TS Man hands, a first hypothesis states that the left hand of the TS Man was nailed twice at two different anatomical sites: the midcarpal joint medially to the pisiform between the lunate/pyramidal and capitate/uncinate bones (Destot's space) and the radiocarpal joint between the radio, lunate and scaphoid; also the right hand would have been nailed twice...
December 2014: Injury
Gaetano Thiene
The experience as a cardiovascular pathologist on sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young and the impact that the findings had on in vivo diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are herein reported. The story dates back in the late 70s, when a series of juvenile sudden deaths occurred in the Veneto Region, North East of Italy. A successful application for a prospective study on young people dying suddenly (<35 years old, sudden infant death syndrome excluded) was submitted to the regional health authorities, thus implementing a network of collaboration with anatomic and forensic pathologists, to collect all such events and to gather epidemiological data...
December 15, 2014: American Journal of Cardiology
Javier Irurita, Inmaculada Alemán, Joan Viciano, Sandra López-Lázaro, Miguel Cecilio Botella
One of the most common conditions during fetal development is anencephaly, which often involves many identification difficulties in the context of physical anthropology, as it causes severe skull challenges. In this paper, we describe the alterations found in the skulls of two perinatal individuals with anencephaly from the osteological collection of identified infants in the Anthropology Laboratory of the University of Granada, Spain. Both subjects of study are in perfect state of preservation. Despite the severe malformations, all skull bones have been targeted and identified, as the possibility of studying a subject with a complete, articulated, and partially mummified skull; the other was disjointed and well preserved...
July 2015: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Anne-Mari Louhelainen, Joonas Aho, Sari Tuomisto, Janne Aittoniemi, Risto Vuento, Pekka J Karhunen, Tanja Pessi
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. OBJECTIVE: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic-anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases...
2014: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Petr Hejna, Martin Janík, Petra Urbanová
It is important that forensic pathologists are familiar with variations in the size and shape of the laryngohyoid complex when interpreting injuries and pathology of the head and neck region. Accurate postmortem examination of the laryngohyoid structures may be difficult if anatomical variation in these structures is present. Agenesis of the upper horns of the thyroid cartilage has medicolegal significance because it may be mistaken for a fracture or other trauma-related conditions. We present 3 cases with different forms of agenesis of the superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage, namely, right unilateral, left unilateral, and bilateral agenesis...
March 2015: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
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