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Pediatric ADHD

Erin N Schoenfelder, Tyler Sasser
Although side effects and family concerns are common and long-term medication adherence is low, stimulant medications are a front-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychosocial treatments include classroom, family, and child-focused interventions that teach caregivers and teachers how to implement contingencies to shape behavior and provide children with skills to compensate for ADHD deficits. Such programs have a growing evidence-base and can be implemented alone or in conjunction with pharmacological treatments...
October 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Parsa Yousefichaijan, Mojtaba Sharafkhah, Mohammad Rafiei, Bahman Salehi
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic diseases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ADHD in children with overactive bladder. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A number of 92 children with overactive bladder and 92 healthy children without overactive bladder (age range of both groups 5 to 12 years old) were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Sabine E Mous, Tonya White, Ryan L Muetzel, Hanan El Marroun, Jolien Rijlaarsdam, Tinca J C Polderman, Vincent W Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Danielle Posthuma, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms have repeatedly been associated with poor cognitive functioning. Genetic studies have demonstrated a shared etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cognitive ability, suggesting a common underlying neurobiology of ADHD and cognition. Further, neuroimaging studies suggest that altered cortical development is related to ADHD. In a large population-based sample we investigated whether cortical morphology, as a potential neurobiological substrate, underlies the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and cognitive problems...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Christel M Middeldorp, Anke R Hammerschlag, Klaasjan G Ouwens, Maria M Groen-Blokhuis, Beate St Pourcain, Corina U Greven, Irene Pappa, Carla M T Tiesler, Wei Ang, Ilja M Nolte, Natalia Vilor-Tejedor, Jonas Bacelis, Jane L Ebejer, Huiying Zhao, Gareth E Davies, Erik A Ehli, David M Evans, Iryna O Fedko, Mònica Guxens, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, James J Hudziak, Astanand Jugessur, John P Kemp, Eva Krapohl, Nicholas G Martin, Mario Murcia, Ronny Myhre, Johan Ormel, Susan M Ring, Marie Standl, Evie Stergiakouli, Camilla Stoltenberg, Elisabeth Thiering, Nicholas J Timpson, Maciej Trzaskowski, Peter J van der Most, Carol Wang, Dale R Nyholt, Sarah E Medland, Benjamin Neale, Bo Jacobsson, Jordi Sunyer, Catharina A Hartman, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Craig E Pennell, Joachim Heinrich, Robert Plomin, George Davey Smith, Henning Tiemeier, Danielle Posthuma, Dorret I Boomsma
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to elucidate the influence of common genetic variants on childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, to identify genetic variants that explain its high heritability, and to investigate the genetic overlap of ADHD symptom scores with ADHD diagnosis. METHOD: Within the EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ADHD symptom scores were available for 17,666 children (<13 years of age) from nine population-based cohorts...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Gerasimos Kolaitis, Christian G Bouwkamp, Alexia Papakonstantinou, Ioanna Otheiti, Maria Belivanaki, Styliani Haritaki, Terpsihori Korpa, Zinovia Albani, Elena Terzioglou, Polyxeni Apostola, Aggeliki Skamnaki, Athena Xaidara, Konstantina Kosma, Sophia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis
BACKGROUND: This is a case with multiple chromosomal aberrations which are likely etiological for the observed psychiatric phenotype consisting of attention deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorders. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on an 11 year-old boy, admitted to the pediatric hospital for behavioral difficulties and a delayed neurodevelopmental trajectory. A cytogenetic analysis and high-resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was performed...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Carl Bonander, Linda Beckman, Staffan Janson, Carolina Jernbro
INTRODUCTION: Injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Sweden and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has previously been associated with an increased risk of injury in pediatric populations elsewhere in the world. Current evidence regarding the possible link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and injury risk appears limited, even though some potentially risk-increasing symptoms overlap. The purpose of this study was thus to study the association between both ADHD and ASD concerning the risk of injury among Swedish schoolchildren...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Frank Haessler, Franziska Gaese, Michael Huss, Christoph Kretschmar, Marc Brinkman, Helmut Peters, Samuel Elstner, Michael Colla, David Pittrow
BACKGROUND: As data on the phenotype, characteristics and management of patients with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) are limited, we aimed to collect such data in Germany in experienced centres involved in the treatment of such patients. METHODS: EXPLAIN-FXS is a prospective observational (non-interventional) study (registry) performed between April 2013 and January 2016 at 18 sites in Germany. Requirements for patient participation included confirmed diagnosis of FXS by genetic testing (>200 CGG repeats) and written informed consent...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
A Sinha, O Lewis, R Kumar, S L H Yeruva, B H Curry
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
Geir Ogrim, Ida Emilia Aasen, Jan Ferenc Brunner
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 30% of children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with stimulants are considered non-responders (non-REs). Reliable predictors of response are missing. We examined changes in Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) induced by a single dose of stimulant medication in order to predict later clinical response. METHODS: ERPs were registered twice during performance of a visual cued go/no-go task in 87 ADHD patients (27 girls) aged 8-18years; the second recording on a single dose of stimulant medication, followed by a systematic medication trial lasting 4weeks...
October 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Heidi A Browne, Amirhossein Modabbernia, Joseph D Buxbaum, Stefan N Hansen, Diana E Schendel, Erik T Parner, Abraham Reichenberg, Dorothy E Grice
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the role of prenatal maternal smoking in risk for Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD: In an analysis of 73,073 singleton pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort, we calculated incidence rates (IR) per 1,000 person-year for TS/CT and OCD. We then determined crude and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs associated with prenatal maternal smoking, considering smoking as a dichotomous (yes/no) variable or a stratified variable (no smoking, light smoking, and heavy smoking [≥10 cigarettes/day])...
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Nerissa S Bauer, Rachel Yoder, Aaron E Carroll, Stephen M Downs
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric anxiety is prevalent but frequently underdiagnosed compared with other behavioral conditions in primary care practice. Pediatricians routinely screen for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder using the Vanderbilt Rating Scale, which includes a short screen for anxiety. We sought to examine the prevalence of potential anxiety among patients whose parents originally had concerns of disruptive behavior in a diverse setting and examine differences in anxiety across ethnic groups using the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scale (VADRS)...
October 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Paul Hodgkins, Andrew Lloyd, M Haim Erder, Juliana Setyawan, Margaret D Weiss, Rahul Sasané, Beenish Nafees
OBJECTIVE: Defining minimal important difference (MID) is critical to interpreting patient-reported outcomes data and treatment efficacy in clinical trials. This study estimates the MID for the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report (WFIRS-P) and the Child Health and Illness Profile-Parent Report (CHIP-CE-PRF76) among parents of young people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the UK. METHODS: Parents of children (6-12 years; n=100) and adolescents (13-17 years; n=117) with ADHD completed a socio-demographic form, the CHIP-CE-PRF76, the WFIRS-P, and the Pediatric Quality of Life scale at baseline and 4 weeks later...
August 18, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Marco Angriman, Samuele Cortese, Oliviero Bruni
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a relatively common neurological disorder in childhood, although it is usually overlooked due to the atypical presentation in children and associated comorbid conditions that may affect its clinical presentation. Here, we aimed to perform, for the first time, a systematic review of studies reporting the association between RLS in children and adolescents (<18 y) and somatic or neuropsychiatric conditions. We searched for peer-reviewed studies in PubMed, Ovid (including PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE(®), and Embase), Web of Knowledge (Web of Science, Biological abstracts, BIOSIS, FSTA) through November 2015, with no language restrictions...
July 1, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Liang-Jen Wang, Kang-Chung Yang, Sheng-Yu Lee, Chun-Ju Yang, Ting-Shuo Huang, Tung-Liang Lee, Shin-Sheng Yuan, Yu-Chiau Shyu
BACKGROUND: Pharmacotherapy is an effective therapeutic option for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Understanding the patterns of medication treatment is crucial for clinical practice. This study employed nationwide population-based data to elucidate the initiation and persistence of pharmacotherapy (immediate-release methylphenidate [IR-MPH], osmotic controlled-release formulations of methylphenidate [OROS-MPH] and atomoxetine [ATX]) for youths with ADHD in Taiwan. METHODS: Patients first receiving an ADHD diagnosis at age 18 or younger between January 2000 and December 2009 (n = 112,140; mean age at ADHD diagnosis: 7...
2016: PloS One
Therdpong Thongseiratch, Juthamas Worachotekamjorn
This study compared the number of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) cases defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV versus DSM-V criterion in children who have learning or behavioral problems with high IQ. The medical records of children ≤15 years of age who presented with learning or behavioral problems and underwent a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)-III IQ test at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic unit between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Information on DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria for ADHD were derived from computer-based medical records...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
Akira Kamida, Kenta Shimabayashi, Masayoshi Oguri, Toshihiro Takamori, Naoyuki Ueda, Yuki Koyanagi, Naoko Sannomiya, Haruki Nagira, Saeko Ikunishi, Yuiko Hattori, Kengo Sato, Chisako Fukuda, Yasuaki Hirooka, Yoshihiro Maegaki
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pathological condition that is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) power differences between children with ADHD and healthy control children. METHODS: EEGs were recorded as part of routine medical care received by 80 children with ADHD aged 4-15 years at the Department of Pediatric Neurology in Tottori University Hospital. Additionally, we recorded in 59 control children aged 4-15 years after obtaining informed consent...
June 2016: Yonago Acta Medica
Ruth Ek Stein, Amy Storfer-Isser, Bonnie D Kerker, Andrew Garner, Moira Szilagyi, Kimberly E Hoagwood, Karen G O'Connor, Cori M Green, Sarah McCue Horwitz
OBJECTIVE: Since 1997 pediatric residencies have been required to provide a 4-week block rotation in developmental and behavioral pediatrics (DBP), but it is not known whether this has altered the care and management of children by practicing pediatricians. To compare the self-reported practice patterns of pediatricians who were trained with 4 or more weeks of DBP to the practice patterns of those who were trained for < 4 weeks. METHODS: We used self-reported practices from the American Academy of Pediatrics Periodic Survey #85...
July 29, 2016: Academic Pediatrics
Salima Punja, Catherine J Nikles, Hugh Senior, Geoffrey Mitchell, Christopher H Schmid, Helen Heussler, Manisha Witmans, Sunita Vohra
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurological disorder affecting 5 % of children worldwide. A prevalent problem for children with ADHD is initial insomnia. The gold standard treatment to manage ADHD symptoms is stimulant medications, which may exacerbate the severity of existing initial insomnia. Currently, no gold standard treatment option exists for initial insomnia for these children. Melatonin, a hormone and a popular natural health product, is commonly provided to children by parents and recommended by healthcare providers, but high quality pediatric evidence is lacking...
2016: Trials
Tommi Cooke, Tsz-Yin So
The United States Food and Drug Administration currently states that the use of stimulants in patients with tic disorders and/or family history of tic disorders including Tourette's syndrome is contraindicated. Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however, are at increased risk of tics regardless of stimulants use. After evaluating the most recent literature on the incidence of tic disorders in pediatric patients treated with stimulants for ADHD, it is reasonable to say that the incidence of tics and the severity of tics are not increased by the use of these medications...
July 28, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
Anne Shaffer, Oliver Lindhiem, David Kolko
The goal of this brief report is to demonstrate the utility of quantifying parental discipline practices as relative frequencies in measuring changes in parenting behavior and relations to child behavior following intervention. We explored comparisons across methodological approaches of assessing parenting behavior via absolute and relative frequencies in measuring improvements in parent-reported disciplinary practices (increases in positive parenting practices in response to child behavior; decreases in inconsistent discipline and use of corporal punishment) and child behavior problems...
July 29, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
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