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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050018/root-surface-biofilms-and-caries
#1
Thuy Do, Nailê Damé-Teixeira, Monika Naginyte, Philip D Marsh
Following gingival recession, which increases with age, the root surface becomes exposed, creating new environments for microbial colonization and biofilm formation. The formation of root surface biofilms is influenced by the availability and composition of saliva and gingival crevicular fluid; they provide components for the conditioning film (acquired root surface pellicle) and also act as a source of nutrients. The early bacterial colonizers of the root surface are similar to those found on the enamel, and Gram-positive species such as Streptococcus sanguinis, S...
2017: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048773/use-of-a-rho-kinase-inhibitor-to-increase-human-tonsil-keratinocyte-longevity-for-three-dimensional-tissue-engineered-tonsil-epithelium-equivalents
#2
Amy K Grayson, Vanessa Hearnden, Robert Bolt, Ala Jebreel, Helen E Colley, Craig Murdoch
The generation of tissue-engineered epithelial models is often hampered by the limited proliferative capacity of primary epithelial cells. This study aimed to isolate normal tonsillar keratinocytes (NTK) from human tonsils, increase the lifespan of these cells using the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and to develop tissue-engineered equivalents of healthy and infected tonsil epithelium. The proliferation rate of isolated NTK and expression of c-MYC and p16INK4A were measured in the absence or presence of the inhibitor...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047451/functionalization-of-bacterial-cellulose-wound-dressings-with-the-antimicrobial-peptide-%C3%AE%C2%B5-poly-l-lysine
#3
Marian Fürsatz, Mårten Skog, Petter Sivlér, Eleonor Palm, Christopher Aronsson, Andreas Skallberg, Grzegorz Greczynski, Hazem Khalaf, Torbjörn Bengtsson, Daniel Aili
Wound dressings based on bacterial cellulose (BC) can form a soft and conformable protective layer that can stimulate wound healing while preventing bacteria from entering the wound. Bacteria already present in the wound can, however, thrive in the moist environment created by the BC dressing which can aggravate the healing process. Possibilities to render the BC antimicrobial without affecting the beneficial structural and mechanical properties of the material would hence be highly attractive. Here we present methods for functionalization of BC with ε-Poly-L-Lysine (ε-PLL), a non-toxic biopolymer with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity...
October 19, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046783/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characteristics-of-esbl-and-ampc-producing-organisms-associated-with-bacteraemia-in-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam
#4
Nguyen Phu Huong Lan, Nguyen Huu Hien, Tu Le Thi Phuong, Duy Pham Thanh, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Dung Tran Thi Ngoc, Ha Thanh Tuyen, Phat Voong Vinh, Matthew J Ellington, Guy E Thwaites, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Stephen Baker, Christine J Boinett
BACKGROUND: Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are commonly used as empirical therapy for infections of presumed bacterial origin. Increasing resistance to these antimicrobial agents has prompted the need for alternative therapies and more effective surveillance. Better surveillance leads to more informed and improved delivery of therapeutic interventions, potentially leading to better treatment outcomes. METHODS: We screened 1017 Gram negative bacteria (excluding Pseudomonas spp...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046782/assessment-of-the-potential-for-resistance-to-antimicrobial-violet-blue-light-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Rachael M Tomb, Michelle Maclean, John E Coia, Scott J MacGregor, John G Anderson
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial violet-blue light in the region of 405 nm is emerging as an alternative technology for hospital decontamination and clinical treatment. The mechanism of action is the excitation of endogenous porphyrins within exposed microorganisms, resulting in ROS generation, oxidative damage and cell death. Although resistance to 405 nm light is not thought likely, little evidence has been published to support this. This study was designed to establish if there is potential for tolerance development, using the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus as the model organism...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046671/generation-of-persister-cells-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-aureus-by-chemical-treatment-and-evaluation-of-their-susceptibility-to-membrane-targeting-agents
#6
Lucia Grassi, Mariagrazia Di Luca, Giuseppantonio Maisetta, Andrea C Rinaldi, Semih Esin, Andrej Trampuz, Giovanna Batoni
Persister cells (PCs) are a subset of dormant, phenotypic variants of regular bacteria, highly tolerant to antibiotics. Generation of PCs in vivo may account for the recalcitrance of most chronic infections to antimicrobial treatment and demands for the identification of new antimicrobial agents able to target such cells. The present study explored the possibility to obtain in vitro PCs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus at high efficiency through chemical treatment, and to test their susceptibility to structurally different antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and two clinically used peptide-based antibiotics, colistin and daptomycin...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045816/assessment-of-bacterial-membrane-fluidity-by-flow-cytometry
#7
Marielle Bouix, Sarrah Ghorbal
It can be interesting to evaluate the cytoplasmic membrane fluidity of bacteria in order to understand the impacts of stresses during processing. Traditionally, membrane fluidity was assessed by fluorescence anisotropy measured by spectrofluorimetry, but this method does not make it possible to reveal the heterogeneity of bacterial populations. Flow cytometry, as opposed to spectrofluorimetry, has the ability to simultaneously detect different sub-populations. We developed a new method to measure the fluorescence anisotropy of bacterial membranes using flow cytometry...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045472/sulfites-inhibit-the-growth-of-four-species-of-beneficial-gut-bacteria-at-concentrations-regarded-as-safe-for-food
#8
Sally V Irwin, Peter Fisher, Emily Graham, Ashley Malek, Adriel Robidoux
Sulfites and other preservatives are considered food additives to limit bacterial contamination, and are generally regarded as safe for consumption by governmental regulatory agencies at concentrations up to 5000 parts per million (ppm). Consumption of bactericidal and bacteriostatic drugs have been shown to damage beneficial bacteria in the human gut and this damage has been associated with several diseases. In the present study, bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects of two common food preservatives, sodium bisulfite and sodium sulfite, were tested on four known beneficial bacterial species common as probiotics and members of the human gut microbiota...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043532/changes-observed-in-urine-microbiology-following-replacement-of-long-term-urinary-catheters-need-to-modify-uti-guidelines-in-the-uk
#9
Deepak Batura, G Gopal Rao, Marion Foran, Fatmata Brempong
AIMS: Bacteria adherent to long-term urinary catheters (LTUC) may give misleading urine culture results. Guidelines in the USA recommend changing LTUC before urine collection to diagnose UTI and before commencing appropriate antimicrobial treatment. However, in the UK there is no such guidance. In this study, we evaluated differences in urine cultures before and after changing LTUC. METHODS: In a prospective study in a UK urology department, we made a quantitative and qualitative comparison between paired urines collected before and after catheter change in patients with LTUC...
October 17, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043383/determination-of-heme-in-microorganisms-using-hplc-ms-ms-and-cobalt-iii-protoporphyrin-ix-inhibition-of-heme-acquisition-in-escherichia-coli
#10
Jonas Fyrestam, Conny Östman
One of the main threats to the achievements in modern medicine is antimicrobial resistance. Molecular targeting of bacterial acquisition mechanisms of heme has been suggested to be an alternative to antibiotics. In the present study, HPLC-MS/MS combined with a simple clean-up based on liquid-liquid extraction has been developed and evaluated for simultaneous determination of heme and porphyrin heme precursors in microorganisms. Experimental design was used to optimize the extraction parameters, to obtain a method with high recovery, low matrix effects, and high precision...
October 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042243/extracellular-self-dna-as-a-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-damp-that-triggers-self-specific-immunity-induction-in-plants
#11
Dalia Duran-Flores, Martin Heil
Mammals sense self or non-self extracellular or extranuclear DNA fragments (hereinafter collectively termed eDNA) as indicators of injury or infection and respond with immunity. We hypothesised that eDNA acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) also in plants and that it contributes to self versus non-self discrimination. Treating plants and suspension-cultured cells of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with fragmented self eDNA (obtained from other plants of the same species) induced early, immunity-related signalling responses such as H2O2 generation and MAPK activation, decreased the infection by a bacterial pathogen (Pseudomonas syringae) and increased an indirect defence to herbivores (extrafloral nectar secretion)...
October 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041907/detection-of-bacterial-dna-by-in-situ-hybridization-in-patients-with-decompensated-liver-cirrhosis
#12
Shingo Usui, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Po-Sung Chu, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Yoshiyuki Yamagishi, Hidetsugu Saito, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is often difficult to diagnose because bacteria in ascites cannot be detected accurately by conventional culture. In situ hybridization (ISH) was previously developed for rapid detection of genes from bacteria phagocytized by neutrophils. SBP may develop after bacteria enter into the systemic circulation following bacterial translocation. Therefore, we performed ISH to identify bacteria in blood samples collected from patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC)...
October 17, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041788/use-of-i-brucella-abortus-i-species-specific-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-bovine-brucellosis
#13
Songelwayo L Chisi, Tracy Schmidt, George W Akol, Henriette Van Heerden
Serology is primarily used in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Bacterial culture and isolation is the gold standard in diagnosing brucellosis but, like serology, it does not offer complete (100%) diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been suggested to offer better specificity and sensitivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Brucella abortus species specific (BaSS) PCR directly from different samples in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in naturally infected cattle in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa with known infectious status from culture...
September 27, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040128/single-dose-preoperative-vitamin-d-supplementation-decreases-infection-in-a-mouse-model-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#14
Vishal Hegde, Erik M Dworsky, Alexandra I Stavrakis, Amanda H Loftin, Stephen D Zoller, Howard Y Park, Sherif Richman, Daniel Johansen, Yan Hu, Julie A Taylor, Christopher D Hamad, Rene F Chun, Weixian Xi, John S Adams, Nicholas M Bernthal
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances, infection remains the most common etiology of arthroplasty failure. Recent work suggests that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) deficiency correlates with the frequency of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). We endeavored to examine whether 25D3 deficiency leads to increased bacterial burden in vivo in an established mouse model of PJI and, if so, whether this effect can be reversed by preoperative 25D3 supplementation. METHODS: Mice (lys-EGFP) possessing fluorescent neutrophils were fed a vitamin D3-sufficient (n = 20) or deficient (n = 40) diet for 6 weeks...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039307/monoglobus-pectinilyticus-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-pectinolytic-bacterium-isolated-from-human-faeces
#15
Caroline C Kim, William J Kelly, Mark L Patchett, Gerald W Tannock, Z Jordens, Halina M Stoklosinski, Jordan W Taylor, Ian M Sims, Tracey J Bell, Douglas I Rosendale
A novel anaerobic pectinolytic bacterium (strain 14(T)) was isolated from human faeces. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain 14(T) belonged to the family Ruminococcaceae, but was located separately from known clostridial clusters within the taxon. The closest cultured relative of strain 14(T) was Acetivibrio cellulolyticus (89.7 % sequence similarity). Strain 14(T) shared ~99 % sequence similarity with cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences from uncultured bacteria derived from the human gut...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039089/detection-of-bacterial-contamination-in-nanoparticle-formulations-by-agar-plate-test
#16
Timothy M Potter, Barry W Neun, Anna N Ilinskaya, Marina A Dobrovolskaia
Bacterial contamination can confound the results of in vitro and in vivo preclinical tests. This protocol describes a procedure for detection of microbial contamination in nanotechnology-based formulations. Nanoparticle samples and controls are spread on the surface of agar and growth of bacterial colonies is monitored after 72 h of incubation. The intended purpose of this assay is to avoid introduction of microbial contamination into in vitro cell cultures and in vivo animal studies utilizing the test nanomaterial...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039076/evaluation-of-the-diversity-of-probiotic-bacillus-clostridium-and-bifidobacterium-using-the-illumina-based-sequencing-method
#17
Zaichao Xu, Lixiang Cao, Jun Liu, Hongming Tan, Zujun Deng
Bacterial species of Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium in the intestinal tract have been used as probiotics. Selections for probiotic candidates by the culture-based approaches are time-consuming and labor-consuming. The aim of this study was to develop a new method based on sequencing strategies to select the probiotic Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium. The Illumina-based sequencing strategies with different specific primers for Bacillus, Clostridium, and Bifidobacterium were applied to analyze diversity of the genera in goat feces...
October 16, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038632/evaluation-of-post-surgical-bacteremia-with-use-of-povidone-iodine-and-chlorhexidine-during-mandibular-third-molar-surgery
#18
Anil Managutti, Sunita A Managutti, Jigar Patel, Nagaraj Y Puthanakar
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms may invade the blood stream by oral routes through surgical procedures like extractions, fractured teeth and periodontal pockets. The incidence of bacteremia is 70-80 % following tooth extraction, sub gingival scaling and intra ligament injection. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Aim of study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two topical antimicrobial agents for the prevention of post-surgical bacteremia during mandibular third molar surgery...
December 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038627/characterization-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-profile-of-bacteria-in-orofacial-abscesses-of-odontogenic-origin
#19
H Jagadish Chandra, B H Sripathi Rao, A P Muhammed Manzoor, A B Arun
BACKGROUND: Odontogenic infections range from peripheral abscess to superficial and deep infections leading to severe infections in head and neck region. This study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates responsible for orofacial infection of odontogenic origin and their drug susceptibility patterns so as to provide better perceptive for the management of odontogenic infections. METHODS: The study was made in a selected cohort of patients, irrespective of age and gender having moderate and severe orofacial infections of odontogenic origin admitted to Yenepoya University Hospital...
December 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038467/self-sensing-in-bacillus-subtilis-quorum-sensing-systems
#20
Tasneem Bareia, Shaul Pollak, Avigdor Eldar
Bacterial cell-cell signalling, or quorum sensing, is characterized by the secretion and groupwide detection of small diffusible signal molecules called autoinducers. This mechanism allows cells to coordinate their behaviour in a density-dependent manner. A quorum-sensing cell may directly respond to the autoinducers it produces in a cell-autonomous and quorum-independent manner, but the strength of this self-sensing effect and its impact on bacterial physiology are unclear. Here, we explore the existence and impact of self-sensing in the Bacillus subtilis ComQXP and Rap-Phr quorum-sensing systems...
October 16, 2017: Nature Microbiology
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