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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104792/new-insight-into-chondroitin-and-heparosan-like-capsular-polysaccharide-synthesis-by-profiling-of-the-nucleotide-sugar-precursors
#1
Odile Francesca Restaino, Irene di Lauro, Rosaria Di Nuzzo, Mario De Rosa, Chiara Schiraldi
Escherichia coli K4 and K5 capsular polysaccharides have been used as starting material for the biotechnological production of chondroitin sulfate and heparin, respectively. The capsular polysaccharide covers the outer cell wall but in late exponential or stationary growth phase it is started to be released in the surrounding medium. The released capsular polysaccharide concentration was used, so far, as the only marker to connect the strain production ability to the different cultivation conditions employed...
January 19, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097715/c-di-amp-modulates-listeria-monocytogenes-central-metabolism-to-regulate-growth-antibiotic-resistance-and-osmoregulation
#2
Aaron T Whiteley, Nicholas E Garelis, Bret N Peterson, Philip H Choi, Liang Tong, Joshua J Woodward, Daniel A Portnoy
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a conserved nucleotide second messenger critical for bacterial growth and resistance to cell wall-active antibiotics. In Listeria monocytogenes, the sole diadenylate cyclase, DacA, is essential in rich, but not synthetic media and ΔdacA mutants are highly sensitive to the β-lactam antibiotic cefuroxime. In this study, loss of function mutations in the oligopeptide importer (oppABCDF) and glycine betaine importer (gbuABC) allowed ΔdacA mutants to grow in rich medium...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095637/gene-therapy-for-achromatopsia
#3
REVIEW
Stylianos Michalakis, Christian Schön, Elvir Becirovic, Martin Biel
AIM: This review summarizes the current status of Achromatopsia (ACHM) gene therapy-related research activities and provides an outlook for their clinical application. DISCUSSION: ACHM is an inherited eye disease characterized by congenital absence of cone photoreceptor function. As a consequence, ACHM is associated with strongly impaired daylight vision, photophobia, nystagmus, and lack of color discrimination. Currently, six genes have been linked to ACHM. Up to 80% of the patients carry mutations in the genes CNGA3 and CNGB3 encoding the two subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087461/low-glucose-stress-decreases-cellular-nadh-and-mitochondrial-atp-in-colonic-epithelial-cancer-cells-influence-of-mitochondrial-substrates
#4
Magdalena L Circu, Ronald E Maloney, Tak Yee Aw
In this study, we investigated how colonic epithelial cells maintained pyridine nucleotide (NADH/NAD(+)) redox homeostasis upon acute metabolic variation imposed by glucose deprivation or supplementation with mitochondrial substrates, succinate and malate/glutamate (M/G). Our results showed that low glucose caused cellular NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance that diminished lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and resulted in lower lactate contents. The concurrent activation of malic enzyme (ME) suggested a role for malate in preserving cellular pyruvate that remained unchanged at low glucose...
January 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003811/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-association-between-dietary-potassium-and-risk-of-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#5
Hamed Khalili, Sakshi Malik, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, John J Garber, Leslie M Higuchi, Amit Joshi, Joanna Peloquin, James M Richter, Kathleen O Stewart, Gary C Curhan, Amit Awasthi, Vijay Yajnik, Andrew T Chan
BACKGROUND: Recent animal studies have identified that dietary salt intake may modify the risk and progression of autoimmune disorders through modulation of the IL-23/TH17 pathway, which is critical in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of U.S. women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII who provided detailed and validated information on diet and lifestyle beginning in 1984 in NHS and 1991 in NHSII...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978548/vitamin-d-receptor-genotype-vitamin-d3-supplementation-and-risk-of-colorectal-adenomas-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Elizabeth L Barry, Janet L Peacock, Judy R Rees, Roberd M Bostick, Douglas J Robertson, Robert S Bresalier, John A Baron
Importance: Despite epidemiological and preclinical evidence suggesting that vitamin D and calcium inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis, daily supplementation with these nutrients for 3 to 5 years was not found to significantly reduce the risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas in a recent randomized clinical trial. Objective: To investigate whether common variants in 7 vitamin D and calcium pathway genes (VDR, GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and CASR) modify the effects of vitamin D3 or calcium supplementation on colorectal adenoma recurrence...
December 15, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966543/limb-girdle-myasthenia-with-digenic-rapsn-and-a-novel-disease-gene-ak9-mutations
#7
Ching-Wan Lam, Ka-Sing Wong, Ho-Wan Leung, Chun-Yiu Law
Though dysfunction of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is associated with congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS), the proteins involved in neuromuscular transmission have not been completely identified. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel CMS gene in a consanguineous family with limb-girdle type CMS. Homozygosity mapping of the novel CMS gene was performed using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays. The variants in CMS gene were identified by whole-exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940539/examination-of-contribution-of-pentose-catabolism-to-molecular-hydrogen-formation-by-targeted-disruption-of-arabinose-isomerase-araa-in-the-hyperthermophilic-bacterium-thermotoga-maritima
#8
Derrick White, Raghuveer Singh, Deepak Rudrappa, Jackie Mateo, Levi Kramer, Laura Freese, Paul Blum
: Thermotoga maritima ferments a broad range of sugars to form acetate, carbon dioxide, traces of lactate and near theoretic yields of molecular hydrogen (H2). In this organism, the catabolism of pentose sugars such as arabinose depends on the interaction between the pentose phosphate pathway along with the Embden Myerhoff and Entner Doudoroff pathways. While values for H2 yield have been determined using pentose supplemented complex media (CM) and predicted by metabolic pathway reconstruction, the actual effect of pathway elimination on hydrogen production has not been reported due to the lack of a genetic method for the creation of targeted mutations...
December 9, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937091/personal-genomic-testing-for-cancer-risk-results-from-the-impact-of-personal-genomics-study
#9
Stacy W Gray, Sarah E Gollust, Deanna Alexis Carere, Clara A Chen, Angel Cronin, Sarah S Kalia, Huma Q Rana, Mack T Ruffin, Catharine Wang, J Scott Roberts, Robert C Green
Purpose Significant concerns exist regarding the potential for unwarranted behavior changes and the overuse of health care resources in response to direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (PGT). However, little is known about customers' behaviors after PGT. Methods Longitudinal surveys were given to new customers of 23andMe (Mountain View, CA) and Pathway Genomics (San Diego, CA). Survey data were linked to individual-level PGT results through a secure data transfer process. Results Of the 1,042 customers who completed baseline and 6-month surveys (response rate, 71...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916418/knockdown-of-tktl1-additively-complements-cisplatin-induced-cytotoxicity-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-by-regulating-the-levels-of-nadph-and-ribose-5-phosphate
#10
Yuke Dong, Ming Wang
BACKGROUND: Transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) plays an important role in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) branch, the main pathway generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and nucleotides for DNA synthesis. TKTL1 is closely related to DNA damage and has a close relationship with incidence and progression of cancers. Cisplatin is the main chemotherapeutic drug by inducing DNA damage. Whether TKTL1 knockdown additively complements cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, however, remains largely undefined...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914500/effect-of-l-arginine-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-and-symmetric-dimethylarginine-on-ischemic-heart-disease-risk-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#11
Shiu Lun Au Yeung, Shi Lin Lin, Hung San Hugh Simon Lam, Catherine Mary Schooling
BACKGROUND: l-arginine is a commonly consumed dietary conditional essential amino acid found in food items and supplements, which is closely related to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). l-arginine is thought to increase nitric oxide and be cardioprotective, whereas ADMA and SDMA may inhibit nitric oxide synthesis and increase cardiovascular disease risk. Unexpectedly, l-arginine increased mortality in a small trial. To clarify the effects of these potential targets of intervention, we assessed the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) by genetically determined l-arginine, ADMA, and SDMA...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913610/whole-exome-sequencing-of-thymic-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-ectopic-acth-syndrome
#12
Yanli Li, Ying Peng, Xiuli Jiang, Yulong Cheng, Weiwei Zhou, Tingwei Su, Jing Xie, Xu Zhong, Dalong Song, Luming Wu, Liwen Fan, Min Li, Jie Hong, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Yanan Cao
OBJECTIVE: Thymic neuroendocrine tumor is the second-most prevalent cause of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome (EAS), which is a rare disease characterized by ectopic ACTH oversecretion from nonpituitary tumors. However, the genetic abnormalities of thymic neuroendocrine tumors with EAS remain largely unknown. We aim to elucidate the genetic abnormalities and identify the somatic mutations of potential tumor-related genes of thymic neuroendocrine tumors with EAS by whole exome sequencing...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906437/vitamin-d-receptor-polymorphisms-as-tool-for-early-screening-of-severe-bone-loss-in-women-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
G Di Spigna, A Del Puente, B Covelli, E Abete, E Varriale, S Salzano, L Postiglione
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that leads to local and systemic arthritis and bone loss. Exploring genetic markers of candidate genes in osteoporosis and inflammatory cytokine genes could be a useful tool for the early identification of bone loss and fracture risk in RA patients. The target of this study is the evaluation and correlation between of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) and possible effects on bone loss in RA...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902262/saccharedens-versatilis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-sugar-degrading-member-of-the-burkholderiales-isolated-from-cephalotes-rohweri-ant-guts
#14
Jonathan Y Lin, William J Hobson, John T Wertz
Cephalotes "turtle" ants host a core group of gut-associated symbionts, but their potential contributions to ant nutrition and disease resistance remain uncharacterized in vitro. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic capability of core symbionts belonging to the Burkholderiales, we cultivated and characterized strain CAG32T, isolated from the guts of Cephalotes rohweri ants. Strain CAG32T was rod-shaped, Gram-negative, motile, and formed pale-white colonies on trypticase soy agar. Optimum growth occurred under an atmosphere of 20% O2 supplemented with 1% CO2...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894259/genomic-signatures-of-mannheimia-haemolytica-that-associate-with-the-lungs-of-cattle-with-respiratory-disease-an-integrative-conjugative-element-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#15
Michael L Clawson, Robert W Murray, Michael T Sweeney, Michael D Apley, Keith D DeDonder, Sarah F Capik, Robert L Larson, Brian V Lubbers, Brad J White, Theodore S Kalbfleisch, Gennie Schuller, Aaron M Dickey, Gregory P Harhay, Michael P Heaton, Carol G Chitko-McKown, Dayna M Brichta-Harhay, James L Bono, Timothy P L Smith
BACKGROUND: Mannheimia haemolytica typically resides in cattle as a commensal member of the upper respiratory tract microbiome. However, some strains can invade their lungs and cause respiratory disease and death, including those with multi-drug resistance. A nucleotide polymorphism typing system was developed for M. haemolytica from the genome sequences of 1133 North American isolates, and used to identify genetic differences between isolates from the lungs and upper respiratory tract of cattle with and without clinical signs of respiratory disease...
November 29, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890641/specific-point-mutations-in-key-redox-enzymes-are-associated-with-chemoresistance-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#16
Nicole M Fletcher, Jimmy Belotte, Mohammed G Saed, Ira Memaj, Michael P Diamond, Robert T Morris, Ghassan M Saed
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer. Resistance to chemotherapy presents a significant challenge for ovarian cancer treatment. Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key redox enzymes have been associated with ovarian cancer survival and progression. The objective of this study was to determine whether chemotherapy induces point mutations in key redox enzymes that lead to the acquisition of chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Human EOC cell lines and their chemoresistant counterpart were utilized for this study...
January 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882067/bioinformatic-identification-of-rare-codon-clusters-rccs-in-hbv-genome-and-evaluation-of-rccs-in-proteins-structure-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#17
Mojtaba Mortazavi, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Saeid Gholamzadeh, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohammad Ghorbani, Reza Dehghani, Abdorrasoul Malekpour, Mohammadhasan Meshkibaf, Ali Fakhrzad
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) as an infectious disease that has nine genotypes (A - I) and a 'putative' genotype J. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the rare codon clusters (RCC) in the HBV genome and to evaluate these RCCs in the HBV proteins structure. METHODS: For detection of protein family accession numbers (Pfam) in HBV proteins, the UniProt database and Pfam search tool were used. Protein family accession numbers is a comprehensive and accurate collection of protein domains and families...
October 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875588/genetic-diversity-of-blumeria-graminis-f-sp-hordei-in-central-europe-and-its-comparison-with-australian-population
#18
Eva Komínková, Antonín Dreiseitl, Eva Malečková, Jaroslav Doležel, Miroslav Valárik
Population surveys of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), a causal agent of more than 50% of barley fungal infections in the Czech Republic, have been traditionally based on virulence tests, at times supplemented with non-specific Restriction fragment length polymorphism or Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. A genomic sequence of Bgh, which has become available recently, enables identification of potential markers suitable for population genetics studies. Two major strategies relying on transposable elements and microsatellites were employed in this work to develop a set of Repeat junction markers, Single sequence repeat and Single nucleotide polymorphism markers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866827/nucleoprotein-supplementation-enhances-the-recovery-of-rat-soleus-mass-with-reloading-after-hindlimb-unloading-induced-atrophy-via-myonuclei-accretion-and-increased-protein-synthesis
#19
Ryosuke Nakanishi, Yusuke Hirayama, Minoru Tanaka, Noriaki Maeshige, Hiroyo Kondo, Akihiko Ishihara, Roland R Roy, Hidemi Fujino
Hindlimb unloading results in muscle atrophy and a period of reloading has been shown to partially recover the lost muscle mass. Two of the mechanisms involved in this recovery of muscle mass are the activation of protein synthesis pathways and an increase in myonuclei number. The additional myonuclei are provided by satellite cells that are activated by the mechanical stress associated with the reloading of the muscles and eventually incorporated into the muscle fibers. Amino acid supplementation with exercise also can increase skeletal muscle mass through enhancement of protein synthesis and nucleotide supplements can promote cell cycle activity...
December 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866253/characterization-of-clostridium-ljungdahlii-ota1-a-non-autotrophic-hyper-ethanol-producing-strain
#20
Jason M Whitham, Mark J Schulte, Benjamin G Bobay, Jose M Bruno-Barcena, Mari S Chinn, Michael C Flickinger, Joel J Pawlak, Amy M Grunden
A Clostridium ljungdahlii lab-isolated spontaneous-mutant strain, OTA1, has been shown to produce twice as much ethanol as the C. ljungdahlii ATCC 55383 strain when cultured in a mixotrophic medium containing fructose and syngas. Whole-genome sequencing identified four unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the C. ljungdahlii OTA1 genome. Among these, two SNPs were found in the gene coding for AcsA and HemL, enzymes involved in acetyl-CoA formation from CO/CO2. Homology models of the respective mutated enzymes revealed alterations in the size and hydrogen bonding of the amino acids in their active sites...
November 19, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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