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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913610/whole-exome-sequencing-of-thymic-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-ectopic-acth-syndrome
#1
Yanli Li, Ying Peng, Xiuli Jiang, Yulong Cheng, Weiwei Zhou, Tingwei Su, Jing Xie, Xu Zhong, Dalong Song, Luming Wu, Liwen Fan, Min Li, Jie Hong, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Yanan Cao
OBJECTIVE: Thymic neuroendocrine tumor is the second-most prevalent cause of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome (EAS), which is a rare disease characterized by ectopic ACTH oversecretion from nonpituitary tumors. However, the genetic abnormalities of thymic neuroendocrine tumors with EAS remain largely unknown. We aim to elucidate the genetic abnormalities and identify the somatic mutations of potential tumor-related genes of thymic neuroendocrine tumors with EAS by whole exome sequencing...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906437/vitamin-d-receptor-polymorphisms-as-tool-for-early-screening-of-severe-bone-loss-in-women-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
G Di Spigna, A Del Puente, B Covelli, E Abete, E Varriale, S Salzano, L Postiglione
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that leads to local and systemic arthritis and bone loss. Exploring genetic markers of candidate genes in osteoporosis and inflammatory cytokine genes could be a useful tool for the early identification of bone loss and fracture risk in RA patients. The target of this study is the evaluation and correlation between of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) and possible effects on bone loss in RA...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902262/saccharedens-versatilis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-sugar-degrading-member-of-the-burkholderiales-isolated-from-cephalotes-rohweri-ant-guts
#3
Jonathan Y Lin, William J Hobson, John T Wertz
Cephalotes "turtle" ants host a core group of gut-associated symbionts, but their potential contributions to ant nutrition and disease resistance remain uncharacterized in vitro. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic capability of core symbionts belonging to the Burkholderiales, we cultivated and characterized strain CAG32T, isolated from the guts of Cephalotes rohweri ants. Strain CAG32T was rod-shaped, Gram-negative, motile, and formed pale-white colonies on trypticase soy agar. Optimum growth occurred under an atmosphere of 20% O2 supplemented with 1% CO2...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894259/genomic-signatures-of-mannheimia-haemolytica-that-associate-with-the-lungs-of-cattle-with-respiratory-disease-an-integrative-conjugative-element-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#4
Michael L Clawson, Robert W Murray, Michael T Sweeney, Michael D Apley, Keith D DeDonder, Sarah F Capik, Robert L Larson, Brian V Lubbers, Brad J White, Theodore S Kalbfleisch, Gennie Schuller, Aaron M Dickey, Gregory P Harhay, Michael P Heaton, Carol G Chitko-McKown, Dayna M Brichta-Harhay, James L Bono, Timothy P L Smith
BACKGROUND: Mannheimia haemolytica typically resides in cattle as a commensal member of the upper respiratory tract microbiome. However, some strains can invade their lungs and cause respiratory disease and death, including those with multi-drug resistance. A nucleotide polymorphism typing system was developed for M. haemolytica from the genome sequences of 1133 North American isolates, and used to identify genetic differences between isolates from the lungs and upper respiratory tract of cattle with and without clinical signs of respiratory disease...
November 29, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890641/specific-point-mutations-in-key-redox-enzymes-are-associated-with-chemoresistance-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#5
Nicole M Fletcher, Jimmy Belotte, Mohammed G Saed, Ira Memaj, Michael P Diamond, Robert T Morris, Ghassan M Saed
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer. Resistance to chemotherapy presents a significant challenge for ovarian cancer treatment. Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key redox enzymes have been associated with ovarian cancer survival and progression. The objective of this study was to determine whether chemotherapy induces point mutations in key redox enzymes that lead to the acquisition of chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Human EOC cell lines and their chemoresistant counterpart were utilized for this study...
November 24, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882067/bioinformatic-identification-of-rare-codon-clusters-rccs-in-hbv-genome-and-evaluation-of-rccs-in-proteins-structure-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#6
Mojtaba Mortazavi, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Saeid Gholamzadeh, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohammad Ghorbani, Reza Dehghani, Abdorrasoul Malekpour, Mohammadhasan Meshkibaf, Ali Fakhrzad
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) as an infectious disease that has nine genotypes (A - I) and a 'putative' genotype J. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the rare codon clusters (RCC) in the HBV genome and to evaluate these RCCs in the HBV proteins structure. METHODS: For detection of protein family accession numbers (Pfam) in HBV proteins, the UniProt database and Pfam search tool were used. Protein family accession numbers is a comprehensive and accurate collection of protein domains and families...
October 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875588/genetic-diversity-of-blumeria-graminis-f-sp-hordei-in-central-europe-and-its-comparison-with-australian-population
#7
Eva Komínková, Antonín Dreiseitl, Eva Malečková, Jaroslav Doležel, Miroslav Valárik
Population surveys of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), a causal agent of more than 50% of barley fungal infections in the Czech Republic, have been traditionally based on virulence tests, at times supplemented with non-specific Restriction fragment length polymorphism or Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. A genomic sequence of Bgh, which has become available recently, enables identification of potential markers suitable for population genetics studies. Two major strategies relying on transposable elements and microsatellites were employed in this work to develop a set of Repeat junction markers, Single sequence repeat and Single nucleotide polymorphism markers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866827/nucleoprotein-supplementation-enhances-the-recovery-of-rat-soleus-mass-with-reloading-after-hindlimb-unloading-induced-atrophy-via-myonuclei-accretion-and-increased-protein-synthesis
#8
Ryosuke Nakanishi, Yusuke Hirayama, Minoru Tanaka, Noriaki Maeshige, Hiroyo Kondo, Akihiko Ishihara, Roland R Roy, Hidemi Fujino
Hindlimb unloading results in muscle atrophy and a period of reloading has been shown to partially recover the lost muscle mass. Two of the mechanisms involved in this recovery of muscle mass are the activation of protein synthesis pathways and an increase in myonuclei number. The additional myonuclei are provided by satellite cells that are activated by the mechanical stress associated with the reloading of the muscles and eventually incorporated into the muscle fibers. Amino acid supplementation with exercise also can increase skeletal muscle mass through enhancement of protein synthesis and nucleotide supplements can promote cell cycle activity...
October 23, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866253/characterization-of-clostridium-ljungdahlii-ota1-a-non-autotrophic-hyper-ethanol-producing-strain
#9
Jason M Whitham, Mark J Schulte, Benjamin G Bobay, Jose M Bruno-Barcena, Mari S Chinn, Michael C Flickinger, Joel J Pawlak, Amy M Grunden
A Clostridium ljungdahlii lab-isolated spontaneous-mutant strain, OTA1, has been shown to produce twice as much ethanol as the C. ljungdahlii ATCC 55383 strain when cultured in a mixotrophic medium containing fructose and syngas. Whole-genome sequencing identified four unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the C. ljungdahlii OTA1 genome. Among these, two SNPs were found in the gene coding for AcsA and HemL, enzymes involved in acetyl-CoA formation from CO/CO2. Homology models of the respective mutated enzymes revealed alterations in the size and hydrogen bonding of the amino acids in their active sites...
November 19, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860192/metabolite-profiling-of-whole-murine-embryos-reveals-metabolic-perturbations-associated-with-maternal-valproate-induced-neural-tube-closure-defects
#10
Darya Akimova, Bogdan J Wlodarczyk, Ying Lin, M Elizabeth Ross, Richard H Finnell, Qiuying Chen, Steven S Gross
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is prescribed therapeutically for multiple conditions, including epilepsy. When taken during pregnancy, VPA is teratogenic, increasing the risk of several birth and developmental defects including neural tube defects (NTDs). The mechanism by which VPA causes NTDs remains controversial and how VPA interacts with folic acid (FA), a vitamin commonly recommended for the prevention of NTDs, remains uncertain. We sought to address both questions by applying untargeted metabolite profiling analysis to neural tube closure (NTC) stage mouse embryos...
November 18, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858292/cisplatin-toxicity-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-is-relieved-by-meclizine-via-diminution-of-mitochondrial-compromise-and-improved-clearance-of-dna-damage
#11
Murat F Gorgun, Ming Zhuo, Ella W Englander
Chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity of peripheral nervous system (PNS) hinders efficacy of cancer treatments. Mechanisms initiating PNS injury by anticancer drugs are incompletely understood delaying development of effective management strategies. To understand events triggered in PNS by cancer drugs, we exposed dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to cisplatin, a drug from platinum-based class of chemotherapeutics frequently implicated in peripheral neuropathies. While cisplatin enters cancer cells and forms cisplatin/DNA crosslinks that block cell proliferation, circulating cisplatin can also reach the PNS and produce crosslinks that impede critical DNA transactions in postmitotic neurons...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856775/genetically-decreased-vitamin-d-and-risk-of-alzheimer-disease
#12
Lauren E Mokry, Stephanie Ross, John A Morris, Despoina Manousaki, Vincenzo Forgetta, J Brent Richards
OBJECTIVE: To test whether genetically decreased vitamin D levels are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) using mendelian randomization (MR), a method that minimizes bias due to confounding or reverse causation. METHODS: We selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (p < 5 × 10(-8)) from the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) Consortium (N = 33,996) to act as instrumental variables for the MR study...
November 16, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833112/prevalence-of-hbv-dna-among-20-million-seronegative-blood-donations-in-china-from-2010-to-2015
#13
Chao Liu, Le Chang, Huimin Ji, Fei Guo, Kuo Zhang, Guigao Lin, Rui Zhang, Jinming Li, Lunan Wang
The prevalence of HBV DNA among seronegative blood donations in China has not been studied extensively on a nationwide scale. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence, trend, distributions, and serological characteristics of HBV DNA positive/seronegative blood donations. We collected HBV test data from all blood banks of China from 2010 to 2015 and performed supplemental serological tests and quantitative detection of HBV DNA of the seronegative/HBV DNA positive blood donations. We analysed the prevalence of HBV DNA among seronegative blood donations screened by varying nucleotide acid test (NAT) reagents...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825992/prevalence-determinants-and-clinical-correlates-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-adults-with-inhaled-corticosteroid-treated-asthma-in-london-uk
#14
REVIEW
David A Jolliffe, Kate Kilpin, Beverley D MacLaughlin, Claire L Greiller, Richard L Hooper, Neil C Barnes, Peter M Timms, Raj K Rajakulasingam, Angshu Bhowmik, Aklak B Choudhury, David E Simcock, Elina Hyppönen, Christopher J Corrigan, Robert T Walton, Christopher J Griffiths, Adrian R Martineau
Vitamin D deficiency is common in children with asthma, and it associates with poor asthma control, reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and increased requirement for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Cross-sectional studies investigating the prevalence, determinants and clinical correlates of vitamin D deficiency in adults with asthma are lacking. We conducted a multi-centre cross-sectional study in 297 adults with a medical record diagnosis of ICS-treated asthma living in London, UK. Details of potential environmental determinants of vitamin D status, asthma control and medication use were collected by questionnaire; blood samples were taken for analysis of serum 25(OH)D concentration and DNA extraction, and participants underwent measurement of weight, height and fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration (FeNO), spirometry and sputum induction for determination of lower airway eosinophil counts (n=35 sub-group)...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825987/safety-assessment-of-bacillus-subtilis-cu1-for-use-as-a-probiotic-in-humans
#15
Marie Lefevre, Silvia M Racedo, Muriel Denayrolles, Gabrielle Ripert, Thomas Desfougères, Alexandra R Lobach, Ryan Simon, Fanny Pélerin, Peter Jüsten, Maria C Urdaci
Bacillus subtilis CU1 is a recently described probiotic strain with beneficial effects on immune health in elderly subjects. The following work describes a series of studies supporting the safety of the strain for use as an ingredient in food and supplement preparations. Using a combination of 16S rDNA and gyrB nucleotide analyses, the species was identified as a member of the Bacillus subtilis complex (B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii). Further characterization of the organism at the strain level was achieved using random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses...
November 5, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822527/differential-functional-constraints-cause-strain-level-endemism-in-polynucleobacter-populations
#16
Naseer Sangwan, Iratxe Zarraonaindia, Jarrad T Hampton-Marcell, Herbert Ssegane, Tifani W Eshoo, Geeta Rijal, M Cristina Negri, Jack A Gilbert
The adaptation of bacterial lineages to local environmental conditions creates the potential for broader genotypic diversity within a species, which can enable a species to dominate across ecological gradients because of niche flexibility. The genus Polynucleobacter maintains both free-living and symbiotic ecotypes and maintains an apparently ubiquitous distribution in freshwater ecosystems. Subspecies-level resolution supplemented with metagenome-derived genotype analysis revealed that differential functional constraints, not geographic distance, produce and maintain strain-level genetic conservation in Polynucleobacter populations across three geographically proximal riverine environments...
May 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819280/cationic-bactericidal-peptide-1018-does-not-specifically-target-the-stringent-response-alarmone-p-ppgpp
#17
Liis Andresen, Tanel Tenson, Vasili Hauryliuk
The bacterial stringent response is a key regulator of bacterial virulence, biofilm formation and antibiotic tolerance, and is a promising target for the development of new antibacterial compounds. The intracellular nucleotide (p)ppGpp acts as a messenger orchestrating the stringent response. A synthetic peptide 1018 was recently proposed to specifically disrupt biofilms by inhibiting the stringent response via direct interaction with (p)ppGpp (de la Fuente-Núñez et al. (2014) PLoS Pathogens). We have interrogated the specificity of the proposed molecular mechanism...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816474/characterization-of-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-fives-tripe-wrasse-thalassoma-quinquevittatum-lay-bennett-1839-and-phylogenetic-analysis
#18
Kecheng Zhu, Na Wu, Xiaoxiao Sun, Huayang Guo, Nan Zhang, Shigui Jiang, Dianchang Zhang
To further supplement the genome-level features in related species, T. quinquevittatum complete mtDNA was firstly sequenced and de novo assembled by next-generation sequencing. The full-length mtDNA of T. quinquevittatum was a 16,896bp fragment, which was atypical of Labridae, with 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 23 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). Additionally, the mtDNA of T. quinquevittatum exhibited characteristics of A (27.1%), T (29...
November 2, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814631/expression-of-proteins-in-intestinal-middle-villus-epithelial-cells-of-weanling-piglets
#19
Fei Wu, Xia Xiong, Huansheng Yang, Kang Yao, Yehui Duan, Xiaocheng Wang, Bie Tan, Tiejun Li, Liping Xiao, Yongqing Hou, Guoyao Wu, Yulong Yin
Weaning affects intestinal development in mammals, and pigs are often used as an animal model for analyzing the metabolism and physiology of differentiating middle villus intestinal epithelial cells (DIECs). To assess the impact of weaning on the proteomes of DIECs, we weaned piglets on day 14 and collected their jejunum on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 after weaning. Levels of proteins associated with (a) Golgi vesicle transport and protein glycosylation; (b) monosaccharide, lipid, phospholipid, and nucleotide metabolism; and (c) Krebs cycle and respiratory electron transport chain were decreased in DIECs after weaning...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798339/a-combination-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-is-associated-with-interindividual-variability-in-cholecalciferol-bioavailability-in-healthy-men
#20
Charles Desmarchelier, Patrick Borel, Aurélie Goncalves, Rachel Kopec, Marion Nowicki, Sophie Morange, Nathalie Lesavre, Henri Portugal, Emmanuelle Reboul
BACKGROUND: Most people require dietary vitamin D to achieve the recommended concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in the blood. However, the response to vitamin D supplementation is highly variable among individuals. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether the variability in cholecalciferol bioavailability was associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes. METHODS: In a single-group design, 39 healthy adult men with a mean ± SD age of 33 ± 2 y and mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
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