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Nucleotide supplementation

Pradeep Kumar, Shubham Misra, Arun Kumar Yadav, Amit Kumar, Mukesh Sriwastva, Kameshwar Prasad
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of -174G/C and -572C/G in the Interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter gene can affect both transcription and secretion of IL-6 and may be involved in the inflammatory mechanisms in early and delayed phases after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The role of these polymorphisms remains unclear for the pathogenesis of ICH. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Google Scholar searches were conducted from January 1, 1950 to February 29, 2016 and were supplemented with relevant articles identified in the references...
September 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
F-C Tang, C-C Chan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and purine nucleotide cycle (PNC) are both associated with energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of BCAA supplementation on the PNC activity of male athletes in response to a bout of endurance running exercise. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twelve male athletes (20.3±1.4 years) participated in the study. Each of the athletes received 12 g of a BCAA supplement (leucine 54%, isoleucine 19% and valine 27%) per day during the study...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Scott D Kennedy
Knowledge of RNA secondary structure is often sufficient to identify relationships between the structure of RNA and processing pathways, and the design of therapeutics. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can identify types of nucleotide base pairs and the sequence, thus limiting possible secondary structures. Because NMR experiments, like chemical mapping, are performed in solution, not in single crystals, experiments can be initiated as soon as the biomolecule is expressed and purified. This chapter summarizes NMR methods that permit rapid identification of RNA secondary structure, information that can be used as supplements to chemical mapping, and/or as preliminary steps required for 3D structure determination...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kelly Green Corkins, Teresa Shurley
Infant formulas are designed to be a substitute for breast milk. Since they are sole source of nutrition for growing and developing infants, they are highly regulated by the government. All ingredients in infant formulas must be considered "generally recognized as safe." Manufacturers are continually modifying their products to make them more like breast milk. Functional ingredients added to infant formula include long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nucleotides, prebiotics, and probiotics. The most common breast milk substitutes are standard cow's milk-based term infant formulas, which include subcategories of organic and breast milk supplementation, and come in standard dilutions of 19 or 20 calories per ounce...
September 19, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Theo W Prins, Ingrid M J Scholtens, Arno W Bak, Jeroen P van Dijk, Marleen M Voorhuijzen, Emile J Laurensse, Esther J Kok
This article contains data related to the research article entitled "A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4" (Prins et al., 2016) [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with targets that are putatively present in genetically modified (GM) papaya was used as a first screening to narrow down the vast array of candidates. The combination of elements P-nos and nptII was further confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the P-nos/nptII construct...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Shannon L Glisan, Caroline Ryan, Andrew P Neilson, Joshua D Lambert
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) consumption has been associated with health beneficial effects. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a comorbidity of obesity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract (CBE) on hepatic inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese C57BL/6J mice. Following dietary treatment with 0.8% CBE for 10 weeks, we observed no change in body weight or visceral fat mass in CBE-supplemented mice compared to HF-fed control mice. We did observe a significant decrease in plasma alanine aminotransferase (31%) and histological severity of NAFLD (33% decrease in area of involvement, 29% decrease in lipid droplet size) compared to HF-fed controls...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Stine Nygaard Nielsen, Kathrine Grell, Jacob Nersting, Thomas Leth Frandsen, Lisa Lyngsie Hjalgrim, Kjeld Schmiegelow
PURPOSE: Normal white blood cell counts (WBC) are unknown in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Accordingly, 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) maintenance therapy is adjusted by a common WBC target of 1.5-3.0 × 10(9)/L. Consequently, the absolute degree of myelosuppression is unknown for the individual child and we wanted to evaluate this. METHODS: A median of 22 (range 8-27) 6MP/MTX metabolite samples and 100 (range 25-130) blood counts during therapy and 10 (range 2-15) off therapy were collected in 50 children with ALL...
September 6, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Wenbao Yu, Seungyeoun Lee, Taesung Park
MOTIVATION: Gene-gene interaction (GGI) is one of the most popular approaches for finding and explaining the missing heritability of common complex traits in genome-wide association studies. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method has been widely studied for detecting GGI effects. However, there are several disadvantages of the existing MDR-based approaches, such as the lack of an efficient way of evaluating the significance of multi-locus models and the high computational burden due to intensive permutation...
September 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
Koji Otani, Toshio Watanabe, Sunao Shimada, Shogo Takeda, Shigehiro Itani, Akira Higashimori, Yuji Nadatani, Yasuaki Nagami, Fumio Tanaka, Noriko Kamata, Hirokazu Yamagami, Tetsuya Tanigawa, Masatsugu Shiba, Kazunari Tominaga, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Tetsuo Arakawa
The inflammasome is a large, multiprotein complex that consists of a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR), an apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, and pro-caspase-1. Activation of the inflammasome results in cleavage of pro-caspase-1 into cleaved caspase-1, which promotes the processing of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β into mature IL-1β. We investigated the effects of colchicine on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury and activation of the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome...
2016: Scientific Reports
Shijian Liu, James G Wilson, Fan Jiang, Michael Griswold, Adolfo Correa, Hao Mei
OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been successful in identifying obesity risk genes by single-variant association analysis. For this study, we designed steps of analysis strategy and aimed to identify multi-variant effects on obesity risk among candidate genes. METHODS: Our analyses were focused on 2137 African American participants with body mass index measured in the Jackson Heart Study and 657 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped at 8 GWAS-identified obesity risk genes...
November 30, 2016: Gene
Shirlee Wohl, Stephen F Schaffner, Pardis C Sabeti
Genomic analysis is a powerful tool for understanding viral disease outbreaks. Sequencing of viral samples is now easier and cheaper than ever before and can supplement epidemiological methods by providing nucleotide-level resolution of outbreak-causing pathogens. In this review, we describe methods used to answer crucial questions about outbreaks, such as how they began and how a disease is transmitted. More specifically, we explain current techniques for viral sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, transmission reconstruction, and evolutionary investigation of viral pathogens...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
A Arabi, N Khoueiry-Zgheib, Z Awada, R Mahfouz, L Al-Shaar, M Hoteit, M Rahme, R Baddoura, G Halabi, R Singh, G El Hajj Fuleihan
: We studied the association between CYP2R1 genetic polymorphisms and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] before and after supplementation with vitamin D3 in 218 elderly. We found differences between 3 and 8 ng/ml in circulating levels at baseline in women but not in the response after 1 year of supplementation. INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CYP2R1 gene and 25(OH)D levels before and 1 year after supplementation with two different doses of vitamin D3 (600 IU daily or a dose equivalent to 3750 IU daily), in a cohort of 218 (96 men and 122 women) Lebanese elderly overweight subjects...
July 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Shana J Kim, Anna Zuchniak, Kyoung-Jin Sohn, Jan Lubinski, Rochelle Demsky, Andrea Eisen, Mohammad R Akbari, Young-In Kim, Steven A Narod, Joanne Kotsopoulos
BACKGROUND: B vitamins [vitamins B-6, B-9 (folate), and B-12] play important roles in nucleotide biosynthesis and biological methylation reactions, aberrancies of which have all been implicated in carcinogenesis. In the general population, evidence has suggested that high circulating folate and folic acid (synthetic form of folate) supplement use may increase breast cancer risk, but the role of folate in BRCA-associated breast cancer is not clear. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated the relation between plasma folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; the biologically active form of vitamin B-6), and vitamin B-12 and breast cancer risk in women with a BRCA1/2 mutation...
September 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Theo W Prins, Ingrid M J Scholtens, Arno W Bak, Jeroen P van Dijk, Marleen M Voorhuijzen, Emile J Laurensse, Esther J Kok
During routine monitoring for GMOs in food in the Netherlands, papaya-containing food supplements were found positive for the genetically modified (GM) elements P-35S and T-nos. The goal of this study was to identify the unknown and EU unauthorised GM papaya event(s). A screening strategy was applied using additional GM screening elements including a newly developed PRSV coat protein PCR. The detected PRSV coat protein PCR product was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence showed identity to PRSV YK strains indigenous to China and Taiwan...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Chika Yoshida, Mayumi Maekawa, Makoto Bannai, Takeshi Yamamoto
Glutamate (Glu) plays various roles directly or through conversions to other amino acids in intracellular metabolisms such as energy source for enterocytes and precursor for nucleic acids. In this study, we examined the effect of single and chronic oral administration of Glu on cell proliferation in intestine and growth in rainbow trout fed soybean meal (SBM) based diet. In the single dose study, 30, 120 and 360 min after oral administration of 50 and 500 mg/kg Glu, the blood and intestine tissues were collected for amino acid concentration and gene expression analysis...
2016: SpringerPlus
Audrey Machado Dos Reis, Geórgia Brum Kabke, Ana Valéria Gonçalves Fruchtenicht, Taiane Dias Barreiro, Luis Fernando Moreira
INTRODUCTION: Costs, length of hospital staying and morbidity are frequently and significantly increased as a result of infections and other complications following surgical procedure for gastrointestinal tract cancer. Recently, improving host defence mechanisms have become a target of interest. Immunonutrition aims at improving immunity, most likely providing key nutrients to maintain T-lymphocyte and other host defence. AIM: To evaluate the immunonutrition in cancer patients who are operated by digestive diseases and assess the cost-effectiveness of this supplementation...
April 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Jose Alberto Espinoza-Molina, Carlos Horacio Acosta-Muñiz, D R Sepulveda, Paul Baruk Zamudio-Flores, Claudio Rios-Velasco
Codon optimization of the Bos taurus Chymosin gene (CYM) for its expression in Pichia pastoris was performed in this study. A synthetic CYM gene was designed in silico by replacing codons rarely used by P. pastoris with equivalent nucleotide combinations that codify for the same amino acid but that are more frequently encountered in the genome of P. pastoris. A total of 332 nucleotides were modified to optimize 289 codons. The synthetic CYM gene was cloned into the expression vector pPICZαA and transformed into P...
October 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
Lei Wang, Dan Yi, Yongqing Hou, Binying Ding, Kang Li, Baocheng Li, Huiling Zhu, Yulan Liu, Guoyao Wu
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle undergoes rapid loss in response to inflammation. α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) has been reported to enhance muscle growth in piglets, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that dietary AKG supplementation activates mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and improves skeletal muscle energy metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. METHODS: Forty-eight male piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were weaned at 21 d of age to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet...
August 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Jesse A Davidson, Tracy Urban, Suhong Tong, Mark Twite, Alan Woodruff, Paul E Wischmeyer, Jelena Klawitter
RATIONALE: Decreased alkaline phosphatase activity after infant cardiac surgery is associated with increased post-operative cardiovascular support requirements. In adults undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, alkaline phosphatase infusion may reduce inflammation. Mechanisms underlying these effects have not been explored but may include decreased conversion of extracellular adenine nucleotides to adenosine. OBJECTIVES: 1) Evaluate the association between alkaline phosphatase activity and serum conversion of adenosine monophosphate to adenosine after infant cardiac surgery; 2) assess if inhibition/supplementation of serum alkaline phosphatase modulates this conversion...
2016: PloS One
Irene Pusceddu, Markus Herrmann, Susanne H Kirsch, Christian Werner, Ulrich Hübner, Marion Bodis, Ulrich Laufs, Thomas Widmann, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Jürgen Geisel, Wolfgang Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B deficiency is common in elderly people and has been associated with an increased risk of developing age-related diseases. B-vitamins are essential for the synthesis and stability of DNA. Telomers are the end caps of chromosomes that shorten progressively with age, and short telomers are associated with DNA instability. OBJECTIVE: In the present randomized intervention study, we investigated whether the one-carbon metabolism is related to telomere length, a surrogate marker for cellular aging...
July 5, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
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