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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232252/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-and-its-related-precursors-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Nady Braidy, Ross Grant, Perminder S Sachdev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review discusses the biology and metabolism of the essential pyridine nucleotide nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in the central nervous system. We also review recent work suggesting important neuroprotective effects that may be associated with the promotion of NAD+ levels through NAD+ precursors against Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Perturbations in the physiological homoeostatic state of the brain during the ageing process can lead to impaired cellular function, and ultimately leads to loss of brain integrity and accelerates cognitive and memory decline...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215281/metabolic-effect-of-dietary-taurine-supplementation-on-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-nilotictus-evaluated-by-nmr-based-metabolomics
#2
Guiping Shen, Ying Huang, Jiyang Dong, Xuexi Wang, Kian-Kai Cheng, Jianghua Feng, Jingjing Xu, Jidan Ye
Taurine is indispensable in aquatic diets that are based solely on plant protein, and it promotes growth of many fish species. However, the physiological and metabolome effects of taurine on fish have not been well described. In this study, 1H NMR-based metabolomics approaches were applied to investigate the metabolite variations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) muscle in order to visualize the metabolic trajectory and reveal the possible mechanisms of metabolic effects of dietary taurine supplementation on tilapia growth...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205785/plant-polyphenols-stimulate-adhesion-to-intestinal-mucosa-and-induce-proteome-changes-in-the-probiotic-lactobacillus-acidophilus-ncfm
#3
Hasan Ufuk Celebioglu, Marta Delsoglio, Susanne Brix, Enrica Pessione, Birte Svensson
SCOPE: Plant phenolics, known to exert beneficial effects on human health, were supplemented to cultures of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) to assess their effect on its adhesive capacity and the abundancy of individual proteins. METHODS AND RESULTS: The presence of resveratrol and ferulic acid during bacterial growth stimulated adhesion of NCFM to mucin and human intestinal HT-29 cells, while tannic acid improved adhesion only to HT-29 cells and caffeic acid had very modest effect overall...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176804/one-crisis-diverse-impacts-tissue-specificity-of-folate-deficiency-induced-circulation-defects-in-zebrafish-larvae
#4
Hung-Chi Tu, Gang-Hui Lee, Tsun-Hsien Hsiao, Tseng-Ting Kao, Tzu-Ya Wang, Jen-Ning Tsai, Tzu-Fun Fu
Folate (vitamin B9) is an essential nutrient required for cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and therefore embryogenesis. Folate deficiency has been associated with many diseases, including congenital heart diseases and megaloblastic anemia, yet the mechanisms underlying these remains elusive. Here, we examine the impact of folate deficiency on the development of the circulation system using a zebrafish transgenic line which displays inducible folate deficiency. Impaired hematopoiesis includes decreased hemoglobin levels, decreased erythrocyte number, increased erythrocyte size and aberrant c-myb expression pattern were observed in folate deficient embryos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168041/making-sense-of-snps-women-s-understanding-and-experiences-of-receiving-a-personalized-profile-of-their-breast-cancer-risks
#5
Mary-Anne Young, Laura Elenor Forrest, Victoria-Mae Rasmussen, Paul James, Gillian Mitchell, Sarah Dilys Sawyer, Katrina Reeve, Nina Hallowell
Genome wide association studies have identified a number of common genetic variants - single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - that combine to increase breast cancer risk. SNP profiling may enhance the accuracy of risk assessment and provides a personalized risk estimate. SNP testing for breast cancer risks may supplement other genetic tests in the future, however, before it can be implemented in the clinic we need to know how it will be perceived and received. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 women who had previously had a breast cancer diagnosis and undergone BRCA1/2 testing, participated in the Variants in Practice (ViP) study and received personalized risk (SNP) profiles...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166661/ultraconserved-elements-uces-resolve-the-phylogeny-of-australasian-smurf-weevils
#6
Matthew H Van Dam, Athena W Lam, Katayo Sagata, Bradley Gewa, Raymond Laufa, Michael Balke, Brant C Faircloth, Alexander Riedel
Weevils (Curculionoidea) comprise one of the most diverse groups of organisms on earth. There is hardly a vascular plant or plant part without its own species of weevil feeding on it and weevil species diversity is greater than the number of fishes, birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals combined. Here, we employ ultraconserved elements (UCEs) designed for beetles and a novel partitioning strategy of loci to help resolve phylogenetic relationships within the radiation of Australasian smurf-weevils (Eupholini)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156925/-new-ingredients-in-infant-formula-health-and-functional-benefits
#7
M Cristina De Almagro García, José Antonio Moreno Muñoz, Jesús Jiménez López, María Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma
There is an increasing body of evidence about the effect that early nutrition and lifestyle could have on the programming of later health and disease. Infant formula must cover all the nutritional needs to promote adequate infant growth and development. Currently, important research efforts have been made to supplement infant formulae with new bioactive ingredients with health benefits for the infant. The milk fat globule membrane is one of the new ingredients, which provides phospholipids and gangliosides, as well as bioactive proteins...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147571/a-surprising-treatment-response-in-a-patient-with-rare-isolated-growth-hormone-deficiency-type-ib
#8
Jordan Yardain Amar, Kimberly Borden, Elizabeth Watson, Talin Arslanian
Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency (IGHD) is a rare cause of short stature, treated with the standard regimen of subcutaneous synthetic growth hormone (GH). Patients typically achieve a maximum height velocity in the first year of treatment, which then tapers shortly after treatment is stopped. We report a case of a 9-year-old male who presented with short stature (<3rd percentile for age and race). Basal hormone levels showed undetectable serum IGF1. Skeletal wrist age was consistent with chronologic age...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113108/polymorphisms-in-ffar4-gpr120-gene-modulate-insulin-levels-and-sensitivity-after-fish-oil-supplementation
#9
Bastien Vallée Marcotte, Hubert Cormier, Iwona Rudkowska, Simone Lemieux, Patrick Couture, Marie-Claude Vohl
The objective was to test whether FFAR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with glycemic control-related traits in humans following fish oil supplementation. A total of 210 participants were given 3 g/day of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA) (1.9-2.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) during six weeks. Biochemical parameters were taken before and after the supplementation. Using the HapMap database and the tagger procedure in Haploview, 12 tagging SNPs in FFAR4 were selected and then genotyped using TaqMan technology...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099659/identification-of-a-de-novo-ank1-mutation-in-a-chinese-family-with-hereditary-spherocytosis
#10
Hongzai Guan, Xinping Liang, Rong Zhang, Haiyan Wang, Wenmiao Liu, Ru Zhang, Jie Yang, Shiguo Liu
OBJECTIVES: Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a genetic heterogeneous disorder characterized by sphere-shaped erythrocytes on peripheral blood smear with a few clinical manifestations. As an important red cell membrane protein, ankyrin 1 can interact with transmembrane proteins and the membrane skeleton and mutations in the ankyrin 1 (ANK1) genes affect about half of all patients with HS. The purpose of this study was to investigate a Chinese Han family with HS to find out the causative gene mutation and explore the genotype-phenotype correlation which can provide the basis for the pathogenesis and prenatal diagnosis for this disease...
November 3, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089348/circulating-vitamin-d-concentration-and-risk-of-seven-cancers-mendelian-randomisation-study
#11
Vasiliki I Dimitrakopoulou, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Philip C Haycock, Niki L Dimou, Kawthar Al-Dabhani, Richard M Martin, Sarah J Lewis, Marc J Gunter, Alison Mondul, Irene M Shui, Evropi Theodoratou, Katharina Nimptsch, Sara Lindström, Demetrius Albanes, Tilman Kühn, Timothy J Key, Ruth C Travis, Karani Santhanakrishnan Vimaleswaran, Peter Kraft, Brandon L Pierce, Joellen M Schildkraut
Objective To determine if circulating concentrations of vitamin D are causally associated with risk of cancer.Design Mendelian randomisation study.Setting Large genetic epidemiology networks (the Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON), the Genetic and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), and the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortiums, and the MR-Base platform).Participants 70 563 cases of cancer (22 898 prostate cancer, 15 748 breast cancer, 12 537 lung cancer, 11 488 colorectal cancer, 4369 ovarian cancer, 1896 pancreatic cancer, and 1627 neuroblastoma) and 84 418 controls...
October 31, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080494/aqme-a-forensic-mitochondrial-dna-analysis-tool-for-next-generation-sequencing-data
#12
Kimberly Sturk-Andreaggi, Michelle A Peck, Cecilie Boysen, Patrick Dekker, Timothy P McMahon, Charla K Marshall
The feasibility of generating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data has expanded considerably with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), specifically in the generation of entire mtDNA genome (mitogenome) sequences. However, the analysis of these data has emerged as the greatest challenge to implementation in forensics. To address this need, a custom toolkit for use in the CLC Genomics Workbench (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) was developed through a collaborative effort between the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System - Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory (AFMES-AFDIL) and QIAGEN Bioinformatics...
September 19, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053175/distinct-pattern-of-tp53-mutations-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-related-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
Frederico O Gleber-Netto, Mei Zhao, Sanchit Trivedi, Jiping Wang, Samar Jasser, Christina McDowell, Humam Kadara, Jiexin Zhang, Jing Wang, William N William, J Jack Lee, Minh Ly Nguyen, Sara I Pai, Heather M Walline, Dong M Shin, Robert L Ferris, Thomas E Carey, Jeffrey N Myers, Curtis R Pickering
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals (HIVIIs) have a higher incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and clinical and histopathological differences have been observed in their tumors in comparison with those of HNSCC patients without a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The reasons for these differences are not clear, and molecular differences between HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC may exist. This study compared the mutational patterns of HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC...
October 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032853/genetic-polymorphisms-of-cfh-and-arms2-do-not-predict-response-to-antioxidants-and-zinc-in-patients-with-age-related-macular-degeneration-independent-statistical-evaluations-of-data-from-the-age-related-eye-disease-study
#14
Melissa J Assel, Fan Li, Ying Wang, Andrew S Allen, Keith A Baggerly, Andrew J Vickers
PURPOSE: Considerable controversy has erupted in recent years regarding whether genotyping should be part of standard care for patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who are being considered for treatment with antioxidants and zinc. We aimed to determine whether genotype predicts response to supplements in AMD. DESIGN: Three separate statistical teams reanalyzed data derived from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), receiving data prepared by the AREDS investigators and, separately, data from investigators reporting findings that support the use of genotyping...
October 9, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986310/the-sgk1-inhibitor-emd638683-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiac-inflammation-and-fibrosis-by-blocking-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#15
Wenqiang Gan, Jingyuan Ren, Tiegang Li, Silin Lv, Chenghe Li, Ziliang Liu, Min Yang
Inflammation has emerged as a critical biological process contributing to hypertensive cardiac remodeling. Effective pharmacological treatments targeting the cardiac inflammatory response, however, are still lacking. Prior studies suggested that the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK1) plays a key role in inflammation and cardiac remodeling. Recently, a highly selective SGK1 inhibitor, EMD638683, was developed, though whether EMD638683 can prevent hypertension-induced cardiac fibrosis and the mechanisms by which this inhibitor may alter the disease process remain unknown...
October 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984202/svachra-a-tool-to-identify-genomic-structural-variation-in-mate-pair-sequencing-data-containing-inward-and-outward-facing-reads
#16
Oliver A Hampton, Adam C English, Mark Wang, William J Salerno, Yue Liu, Donna M Muzny, Yi Han, David A Wheeler, Kim C Worley, James R Lupski, Richard A Gibbs
BACKGROUND: Characterization of genomic structural variation (SV) is essential to expanding the research and clinical applications of genome sequencing. Reliance upon short DNA fragment paired end sequencing has yielded a wealth of single nucleotide variants and internal sequencing read insertions-deletions, at the cost of limited SV detection. Multi-kilobase DNA fragment mate pair sequencing has supplemented the void in SV detection, but introduced new analytic challenges requiring SV detection tools specifically designed for mate pair sequencing data...
October 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981929/-genetic-analysis-of-two-cases-with-dandy-walker-deformed-fetus
#17
Juan Yao, Rong Fang, Xueping Shen, Guosong Shen, Su Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic etiology of two fetuses with Dandy-Walker malformation using single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-array). METHODS: The fetuses and their parents were subjected to G banding karyotype analysis. The fetuses were also subjected to SNP-array analysis. RESULTS: The parents of both fetuses showed a normal karyotype. One fetus has a 46,X,?i(X)(q10), while for another conventional cell culture has failed...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976930/association-of-sun-exposure-skin-colour-and-body-mass-index-with-vitamin-d-status-in-individuals-who-are-morbidly-obese
#18
Clare F Dix, Judith D Bauer, Ian Martin, Sharon Rochester, Briony Duarte Romero, Johannes B Prins, Olivia R L Wright
Vitamin D deficiency is a common issue, particularly in obese populations, and is tested by assessing serum 25(OH)D concentrations. This study aimed to identify factors that contribute to the vitamin D status in fifty morbidly obese individuals recruited prior to bariatric surgery. Data collected included serum 25(OH)D concentrations, dietary and supplement intake of vitamin D, sun exposure measures, skin colour via spectrophotometry, and genotype analysis of several single nucleotide polymorphisms in the vitamin D metabolism pathway...
October 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968208/efficacy-and-stability-studies-of-microbial-folate-fortified-fruit-juices-prepared-using-probiotic-microorganism
#19
S Deep, S Ojha, S Kundu
Folate, natural form of water soluble vitamin folic acid, is significant for humans as involved in most important metabolic reactions i.e. nucleotide synthesis and amino acid inter conversions. Thus its deficiency causes neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Humans cannot synthesize folate de novo so consumption through diet is essential. Natural food sources, supplements and fortified food products are the choices available to complete the Daily recommended intake. However microbial fortification using probiotics recently gained wide attention due to dual advantage of natural food matrix with enhanced folate content along with the probiotics benefits...
July 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959253/methylation-of-the-vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-gene-together-with-genetic-variation-race-and-environment-influence-the-signaling-efficacy-of-the-toll-like-receptor-2-1-vdr-pathway
#20
Vanessa Meyer, Donovan Sean Saccone, Fidele Tugizimana, Furaha Florence Asani, Tamsyn Jacki Jeffery, Liza Bornman
BACKGROUND: The disparity in prevalence of infectious diseases across the globe is common knowledge. Vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/1 signaling produces antimicrobial peptides, which is critical as a first line of defense in innate immunity. Numerous studies disclosed the independent role of genetic polymorphisms in this pathway, vitamin D status or season and more recently epigenetics, as factors contributing to infectious disease predisposition. Few studies address the interaction between environment, genetics, and epigenetics...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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