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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821943/xcc2366-a-gene-encoding-a-putative-tetr-family-transcriptional-regulator-is-required-for-acriflavin-resistance-and-virulence-of-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#1
Chao-Tsai Liao, Hsueh-Hsia Lo, Weng-Ting Peng, Wan-Ling Song, Shin-Chiao Du, Yi-Min Hsiao
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the phytopathogen that causes black rot disease in cruciferous plants. The XCC2366 gene product is annotated as a protein belonging to the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. In this study, we evaluated the function and expression of the XCC2366 gene. Mutational analysis demonstrated that XCC2366 is involved in the resistance to acriflavin and is necessary for virulence in Xcc. In addition, the XCC2366 transcription initiation site was mapped at nucleotide A, 63 nucleotide upstream of the XCC2366 translation start codon...
August 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813411/mammals-divert-endogenous-genotoxic-formaldehyde-into-one-carbon-metabolism
#2
Guillermo Burgos-Barragan, Niek Wit, Johannes Meiser, Felix A Dingler, Matthias Pietzke, Lee Mulderrig, Lucas B Pontel, Ivan V Rosado, Thomas F Brewer, Rebecca L Cordell, Paul S Monks, Christopher J Chang, Alexei Vazquez, Ketan J Patel
The folate-driven one-carbon (1C) cycle is a fundamental metabolic hub in cells that enables the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids and epigenetic modifications. This cycle might also release formaldehyde, a potent protein and DNA crosslinking agent that organisms produce in substantial quantities. Here we show that supplementation with tetrahydrofolate, the essential cofactor of this cycle, and other oxidation-prone folate derivatives kills human, mouse and chicken cells that cannot detoxify formaldehyde or that lack DNA crosslink repair...
August 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811348/a-critical-role-of-glutamine-and-asparagine-%C3%AE-nitrogen-in-nucleotide-biosynthesis-in-cancer-cells-hijacked-by-an-oncogenic-virus
#3
Ying Zhu, Tingting Li, Suzane Ramos da Silva, Jae-Jin Lee, Chun Lu, Hyungjin Eoh, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
While glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized from glucose, some cancer cells primarily depend on glutamine for their growth, proliferation, and survival. Numerous types of cancer also depend on asparagine for cell proliferation. The underlying mechanisms of the glutamine and asparagine requirement in cancer cells in different contexts remain unclear. In this study, we show that the oncogenic virus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) accelerates the glutamine metabolism of glucose-independent proliferation of cancer cells by upregulating the expression of numerous critical enzymes, including glutaminase 2 (GLS2), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (GOT2), to support cell proliferation...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798999/influence-of-immunostimulant-polysaccharides-nucleic-acids-and-bacillus-strains-on-the-innate-immune-and-acute-stress-response-in-turbots-scophthalmus-maximus-fed-soy-bean-and-wheat-based-diets
#4
V I Fuchs, J Schmidt, M J Slater, B H Buck, D Steinhagen
Immunostimulants are widely applied in aquaculture practice and may have beneficial effects on the immune system and physical functions allowing higher tolerance to stress. In the current study, the impact of four (i-iv) dietary active ingredients on the immune and stress response of turbot was examined in two experiments (I and II). A basal low fish meal (FM; 32%) diet was formulated and supplemented with (i) yeast β-glucan and mannan oligosaccharide (GM), (ii) alginic acid (AC), (iii) yeast nucleotides and RNA (NR), or (iv) Bacillus strains (BS)...
August 10, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783736/glutamate-alleviates-muscle-protein-loss-by-modulating-tlr4-nods-akt-foxo-and-mtor-signaling-pathways-in-lps-challenged-piglets
#5
Ping Kang, Xiuying Wang, Huanting Wu, Huiling Zhu, Yongqing Hou, Longmei Wang, Yulan Liu
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of the glutamate (Glu) on muscle protein loss through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NODs), Akt/Forkhead Box O (Akt/FOXO) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in LPS-challenged piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets were assigned into four treatments: (1) Control; (2) LPS+0% Glu; (3) LPS + 1.0% Glu; (4) LPS + 2.0% Glu. The experiment was lasted for 28 days. On d 28, the piglets in the LPS challenged groups were injected with LPS on 100 μg/kg body weight (BW), and the piglets in the control group were injected with the same volume of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769632/the-morphological-and-molecular-identity-of-longidorus-piceicola-li%C3%A5-kov%C3%A3-robbins-brown-1997-from-romania-nematoda-dorylaimida
#6
Mariana Groza, Stela Lazarova, Francesca De Luca, Elena Fanelli, Milka Elshishka, Georgi Radoslavov, Peter Hristov, Mihaela Coman, Vlada Peneva
Longidorus piceicola, a new geographical and host record from Romania, was described and illustrated on the basis of two populations originating from a coniferous and a deciduous forest. The main morphological characters of specimens from Romania correspond very well with the type material collected from the soil around Picea abies L. (Slovakia) except for the shorter body and tail. The D2-D3 fragment of 28S rDNA from both populations was amplified and sequenced, and the sequences were identical to L. piceicola sequence from Slovakia...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765775/monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-polymorphism-interaction-with-spirulina-immunomodulatory-effects-in-healthy-korean-elderly-a-16-week-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Hee Jung Park, Hyun Sook Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Spirulina is a known a functional food related to lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity. Circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) level is associated with inflammation markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the MCP-1 promoter region -2518 have been identified and shown to affect gene transcription. Gene variation may also impact functional food supplementary effects. The current study investigated the interaction of MCP-1 -2518 polymorphism with spirulina supplements on anti-inflammatory capacity in Korean elderly...
August 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745430/supplementation-of-nucleosides-during-selection-can-reduce-sequence-variant-levels-in-cho-cells-using-gs-msx-selection-system
#8
Danming Tang, Cynthia Lam, Salina Louie, Kam Hon Hoi, David Shaw, Mandy Yim, Brad Snedecor, Shahram Misaghi
In the process of generating stable monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing cell lines, reagents such as Methotrexate (MTX) or Methionine Sulfoximine (MSX) are often used. However, using such selection reagent(s) increases the possibility of having higher occurrence of sequence variants in the expressed antibody molecules due to the effects of MTX or MSX on de novo nucleotide synthesis. Since MSX inhibits glutamine synthase (GS) and results in both amino acid and nucleoside starvation, we questioned whether supplementing nucleosides into the media could lower sequence variant levels without affecting titer...
July 26, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745211/the-lipid-lowering-effects-and-associated-mechanisms-of-dietary-phytosterol-supplementation
#9
Jerad H Dumolt, Todd C Rideout
Phytosterols (PS) are plant-based structural analogous of mammalian cholesterol that have been shown to lower blood cholesterol concentrations by ~10%, although inter-individual response to PS supplementation due to subject-specific metabolic and genetic factors is evident. Recent work further suggests that PS may act as effective triglyceride (TG)-lowering agents with maximal TG reductions observed in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Although PS have been demonstrated to interfere with cholesterol and perhaps TG absorption within the intestine, they also have the capacity to modulate the expression of lipid regulatory genes through liver X receptor (LXR) activation...
July 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742912/association-of-genetic-variants-related-to-serum-calcium-levels-with-coronary-artery-disease-and-myocardial-infarction
#10
Susanna C Larsson, Stephen Burgess, Karl Michaëlsson
Importance: Serum calcium has been associated with cardiovascular disease in observational studies and evidence from randomized clinical trials indicates that calcium supplementation, which raises serum calcium levels, may increase the risk of cardiovascular events, particularly myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the potential causal association between genetic variants related to elevated serum calcium levels and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction using mendelian randomization...
July 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742803/the-role-of-supplementary-environmental-surveillance-to-complement-acute-flaccid-paralysis-surveillance-for-wild-poliovirus-in-pakistan-2011-2013
#11
Tori L Cowger, Cara C Burns, Salmaan Sharif, Howard E Gary, Jane Iber, Elizabeth Henderson, Farzana Malik, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Shahzad Shaukat, Lubna Rehman, Mark A Pallansch, Walter A Orenstein
BACKGROUND: More than 99% of poliovirus infections are non-paralytic and therefore, not detected by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Environmental surveillance (ES) can detect circulating polioviruses from sewage without relying on clinical presentation. With extensive ES and continued circulation of polioviruses, Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of ES as a supplement to AFP surveillance on overall completeness and timeliness of poliovirus detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726110/supplementation-of-selenium-vitamin-e-chromium-and-betaine-above-recommended-levels-improves-lactating-performance-of-sows-over-summer
#12
Fan Liu, Jeremy James Cottrell, Cherie Louise Collins, David James Henman, Kirrily Sharon Beatrice O'Halloran, Frank Rowland Dunshea
Heat stress (HS) exacerbates the body weight loss of lactating sows and reduces litter weight gain. Selenium (Se), vitamin E (VE), chromium (Cr) and betaine have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of HS, and yeast nucleotides and mannan oligosaccharides have been reported to improve lactational performance and immune response in pigs. Therefore, a combination of these nutrients may improve lactational performance of sows in summer. The effects of two nutritionally enhanced diets on lactational performance of sows in summer were investigated in two experiments...
July 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696212/compound-heterozygous-slc19a3-mutations-further-refine-the-critical-promoter-region-for-biotin-thiamine-responsive-basal-ganglia-disease
#13
Whitney Whitford, Isobel Hawkins, Emma Glamuzina, Francessa Wilson, Andrew Marshall, Fern Ashton, Donald R Love, Juliet Taylor, Rosamund Hill, Klaus Lehnert, Russell G Snell, Jessie C Jacobsen
Mutations in the gene SLC19A3 result in thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 2, also known as biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD). This neurometabolic disease typically presents in early-childhood with progressive neurodegeneration, including confusion, seizures, and dysphagia, advancing to coma and death. Treatment is possible via supplement of biotin and/or thiamine, with early treatment resulting in significant life-long improvements. Here we report two siblings who received a refined diagnosis of BTBGD following whole genome sequencing...
July 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692301/high-dose-vitamin-d3-during-tuberculosis-treatment-in-mongolia-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Baatar Munkhzul, Wafaie Fawzi, Donna Spiegelman, Walter C Willett, Purev Bayasgalan, Erkhembayar Baasansuren, Burneebaatar Buyankhishig, Sereeter Oyun-Erdene, David A Jolliffe, Theodoros Xenakis, Sabri Bromage, Barry R Bloom, Adrian R Martineau
RATIONALE: Existing trials of adjunctive vitamin D in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are variously limited by small sample sizes, inadequate dosing regimens and high baseline vitamin D status among participants. Comprehensive analyses of the effects of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway on response to vitamin D supplementation are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 on response to antimicrobial therapy for PTB and to evaluate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D pathway genes on response to adjunctive vitamin D3...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671202/transcriptome-dynamics-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-contracting-cardiomyocytes-using-an-embryoid-body-model-with-fetal-bovine-serum
#15
Kwang Bo Jung, Ye Seul Son, Hana Lee, Cho-Rok Jung, Janghwan Kim, Mi-Young Son
Cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation techniques for generating adult-like mature CMs remain imperfect, and the plausible underlying mechanisms remain unclear; however, there are a number of current protocols available. Here, to explore the mechanisms controlling cardiac differentiation, we analyzed the genome-wide transcription dynamics occurring during the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into CMs using embryoid body (EB) formation. We optimized and updated the protocol to efficiently generate contracting CMs from hPSCs by adding fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a medium supplement, which could have a significant impact on the efficiency of cardiac differentiation...
July 25, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659748/anti-fatigue-effects-of-dietary-nucleotides-in-mice
#16
Meihong Xu, Rui Liang, Yong Li, Junbo Wang
As the building blocks of nucleic acids, nucleotides are conditionally essential nutrients that exhibit multifaceted activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of dietary nucleotides (NTs) on mice and explore the possible underlying mechanism. Mice were randomly divided into four experimental sets to detect different indicators. Each set of mice was then divided into four groups: (i) one control group and (ii) three NTs groups, which were fed diets supplemented with NTs at concentrations of 0%, 0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659447/unravelling-the-relationship-between-the-tsetse-fly-and-its-obligate-symbiont-wigglesworthia-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-landscapes-reveal-highly-integrated-physiological-networks
#17
XiaoLi Bing, Geoffrey M Attardo, Aurelien Vigneron, Emre Aksoy, Francesca Scolari, Anna Malacrida, Brian L Weiss, Serap Aksoy
Insects with restricted diets rely on obligate microbes to fulfil nutritional requirements essential for biological function. Tsetse flies, vectors of African trypanosome parasites, feed exclusively on vertebrate blood and harbour the obligate endosymbiont Wigglesworthia glossinidia. Without Wigglesworthia, tsetse are unable to reproduce. These symbionts are sheltered within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) that form the midgut-associated bacteriome organ. To decipher the core functions of this symbiosis essential for tsetse's survival, we performed dual-RNA-seq analysis of the bacteriome, coupled with metabolomic analysis of bacteriome and haemolymph collected from normal and symbiont-cured (sterile) females...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649453/informed-consent-for-next-generation-nucleotide-sequencing-studies-aiding-communication-between-participants-and-investigators
#18
Rhonda G Kost, Stephen M Poppel, Barry S Coller
INTRODUCTION: Obtaining informed consent from prospective participants for research studies that include next-generation nucleotide sequencing (NGS) presents significant challenges because of the need to explain all the potential implications of participating, including the possible return of "incidental" findings, in easy-to-understand language. METHODS AND RESULTS: After reviewing the consent processes at other institutions, we decided to supplement the protocol-specific informed consent form with the following: (1) a short pamphlet for the prospective participant that includes a series of questions that she or he is encouraged to ask the investigator, and (2) a more detailed companion guide for investigators to help them develop simple-language answers to the questions...
April 2017: Journal of clinical and translational science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646828/spent-yeast-as-natural-source-of-functional-food-additives
#19
Rita Rakowska, Anna Sadowska, Ewa Dybkowska, Franciszek Świderski
Spent yeasts are by-products arising from beer and wine production which over many years have been chiefly used as feed additives for livestock. They contain many valuable and bioactive substances which has thereby generated much interest in their exploitation. Up till now, the main products obtained from beer-brewing yeasts are β-glucans and yeast extracts. Other like foodstuffs include dried brewer’s yeast, where this is dried and the bitterness removed to be fit for human consumption as well as mannan-oligosaccharides hitherto used in the feed industry...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639176/combined-or-individual-effects-of-dietary-probiotic-pedicoccus-acidilactici-and-nucleotide-on-growth-performance-intestinal-microbiota-hemato-biochemical-parameters-and-innate-immune-response-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#20
Nooshin Mehdinejad, Mohammad Reza Imanpour, Valiollah Jafari
This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic Pedicoccus acidilactici and nucleotide (separately or combined) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, hemato-immunological parameters, and immunity response in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish (average weight 5-6 g) were acclimatized and divided into eight experimental diets supplemented with P. acidilactici of different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% diet) and nucleotides (0 and 0.5% diet) for 6 months. Fish fed with experimental diets showed significant differences in terms of final weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, daily growth rate, and condition factor when compared to control diet (P < 0...
June 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
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