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Essential amino acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339760/ultrastructural-immunohistochemical-study-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-4f2-heavy-chain-in-tumor-microvasculatures-of-n-butyl-n-4-hydroxybutyl-nitrosamine-bbn-induced-rat-bladder-carcinoma
#1
Eisuke Kume, Tomoko Mutou, Norio Kansaku, Hitoyuki Takahashi, Michael F Wempe, Masahiro Ikegami, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Hitoshi Endou, Shin Wakui
Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth, and an enhanced vasculature supplying nutrients and oxygen might reflect malignant potential. L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1/4F2hc) comprises a major nutrient transport system responsible for the Na+-independent transport of large neutral amino acids. Seventy five to seventy eight percent N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine-induced rat bladder carcinoma cells showed high LAT1/4F2hc expression. While the intracarcinoma microvasculatures of fenestrated endothelial cells highly expressing LAT1/4F2hc might progressively transport essential amino acids from the microvasculatures to the extracellular matrix, non-fenestrated endothelial cells and pericytes did not...
February 24, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339214/muscle-protein-signaling-in-c2c12-cells-is-stimulated-to-a-similar-degree-by-diverse-commercial-food-protein-sources-and-experimental-soy-protein-hydrolysates
#2
David A Roeseler, Nancy J McGraw, Dustie N Butteiger, Naina Shah, Janine Hall-Porter, Ratna Mukherjea, Elaine Susan Krul
Dietary protein stimulates muscle protein synthesis and is essential for muscle health. We developed a screening assay using C2C12 mouse muscle cells to assess the relative abilities of diverse commercial proteins sources and experimental soy protein hydrolysates (ESH), after simulated gut digestion (SGD), to activate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) muscle protein synthesis signaling pathway (p70S6K(Thr389) phosphorylation). Activation of mTORC1 was expressed as a percentage of a maximal insulin response...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335548/study-of-different-variants-of-mo-enzyme-crarc-and-the-interaction-with-its-partners-crcytb5-r-and-crcytb5-1
#3
Alejandro Chamizo-Ampudia, Aurora Galvan, Emilio Fernandez, Angel Llamas
The mARC (mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component) proteins are recently discovered molybdenum (Mo) Cofactor containing enzymes. They are involved in the reduction of several N-hydroxylated compounds (NHC) and nitrite. Some NHC are prodrugs containing an amidoxime structure or mutagens such as 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP). We have studied this protein in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (crARC). Interestingly, all the ARC proteins need the reducing power supplied by other proteins. It is known that crARC requires a cytochrome b₅ (crCytb5-1) and a cytochrome b₅ reductase (crCytb5-R) that form an electron transport chain from NADH to the substrates...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335483/land-use-for-edible-protein-of-animal-origin-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Gerhard Flachowsky, Ulrich Meyer, Karl-Heinz Südekum
The present period is characterized by a growing world population and a higher demand for more and better quality food, as well as other products for an improved standard of living. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and non-renewable resources such as fossil carbon-sources, water, and some minerals, as well as between food, feed, fuel, fiber, flowers, and fun (6 F's). Proteins of animal origin like milk, meat, fish, eggs and, probably, insects are very valuable sources of essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins, but their production consumes some non-renewable resources including arable land and causes considerable emissions...
March 18, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334955/the-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-ppr-protein-ppr10-associates-with-a-novel-protein-mpa1-and-acts-as-a-mitochondrial-translational-activator
#5
Yirong Wang, Jianhua Yan, Qingzhen Zhang, Xuting Ma, Juan Zhang, Minghui Su, Xiaojun Wang, Ying Huang
The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins characterized by tandem repeats of a degenerate 35-amino-acid motif function in all aspects of organellar RNA metabolism, many of which are essential for organellar gene expression. In this study, we report the characterization of a fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe PPR protein, Ppr10 and a novel Ppr10-associated protein, designated Mpa1. The ppr10 deletion mutant exhibits growth defects in respiratory media, and is dramatically impaired for viability during the late-stationary phase...
February 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334306/peptidemapper-efficient-and-versatile-amino-acid-sequence-and-tag-mapping
#6
Dominik Kopczynski, Harald Barsnes, Pål R Njølstad, Albert Sickmann, Marc Vaudel, Robert Ahrends
Summary: The mapping of amino acid sequences is an essential task in bioinformatics. Notably, the mapping of peptide sequences on a proteome is required for the post-processing of proteomics results. However, this step can quickly become a bottleneck when working with extensive numbers of peptides or large protein sequence databases. Here, we present PeptideMapper, a novel amino acid sequence mapper for both peptide sequences and de novo sequencing identification results. By taking advantage of the latest advances in pattern matching, PeptideMapper achieves unprecedented performance (i...
March 2, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333983/alterations-in-amino-acid-status-in-cats-with-feline-dysautonomia
#7
Bruce C McGorum, Herb W Symonds, Clare Knottenbelt, Tom A Cave, Susan J MacDonald, Joanna Stratton, Irene Leon, Judith A Turner, R Scott Pirie
Feline dysautonomia (FD) is a multiple system neuropathy of unknown aetiology. An apparently identical disease occurs in horses (equine grass sickness, EGS), dogs, rabbits, hares, sheep, alpacas and llamas. Horses with acute EGS have a marked reduction in plasma concentrations of the sulphur amino acids (SAA) cyst(e)ine and methionine, which may reflect exposure to a neurotoxic xenobiotic. The aim of this study was to determine whether FD cats have alterations in amino acid profiles similar to those of EGS horses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333211/glutathione-affects-the-transport-activity-of-rhizobium-leguminosarum-3841-and-is-essential-for-efficient-nodulation
#8
Guojun Cheng, Ramakrishnan Karunakaran, Alison K East, Olaya Munoz-Azcarate, Philip S Poole
As glutathione (GSH) plays an essential role in growth and symbiotic capacity of rhizobia, a glutathione synthetase (gshB) mutant of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae 3841 (Rlv3841) was characterised. It fails to efficiently utilise various compounds as a sole carbon source, including glucose, succinate, glutamine and histidine, and shows 60-69% reduction in uptake rates of glucose, succinate and the non-metabolisable substrate α-amino isobutyric acid (AIB). The defect in glucose uptake can be overcome by addition of exogenous GSH, indicating GSH, but not its bacterial synthesis, is required for efficient transport...
February 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331060/proximal-tubule-glutamine-synthetase-expression-is-necessary-for-the-normal-response-to-dietary-protein-restriction
#9
Hyun-Wook Lee, Gunars Osis, Mary E Handlogten, Jill W Verlander, I David Weiner
Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during changes in dietary protein intake. Dietary protein restriction decreases endogenous acid production and ¬decreases urinary ammonia excretion, a major component of net acid excretion. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the reaction of NH4+ and glutamate, which regenerates the essential amino acid glutamine and decreases net ammonia generation...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330875/lysine300-is-essential-for-stability-but-not-for-electrogenic-transport-of-the-e-coli-nhaa-na-h-antiporter
#10
Octavian Călinescu, Manish Dwivedi, Miyer Patiño-Ruiz, Etana Padan, Klaus Fendler
Na(+)/H(+) antiporters are located in the cytoplasmic and intracellular membranes and play crucial roles in regulating intracellular pH, Na(+), and volume. The NhaA antiporter of Escherichia coli is the best studied member of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger family and a model system for all related Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, including eukaryotic representatives. Several amino acid residues are important for the transport activity of NhaA, including Lys300, a residue that has recently been proposed to carry one of the two H(+) that NhaA exchanges for one Na(+) ion during one transport cycle...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330158/a-simple-and-efficient-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-mediated-plant-transformation-of-brassica-rapa-ssp-pekinensis
#11
Venkidasamy Baskar, Baniekal H Gangadhar, Se Won Park, Shivraj Hariram Nile
The present study aims to investigate the numerous factors influencing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Factors affecting transformation efficiency, such as age of explants, Agrobacterium concentration, and effect of acetosyringone, pre-cultivation, infection and co-cultivation time of Agrobacterium were examined. The pre-cultured hypocotyls from young seedlings prior to exposure to Agrobacterium showed higher shoot regeneration. The plant transformation with the modest A...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328998/combinatorial-selection-for-replicable-rna-by-q%C3%AE-replicase-while-maintaining-encoded-gene-function
#12
Mio Yumura, Natsuko Yamamoto, Katsushi Yokoyama, Hirotada Mori, Tetsuya Yomo, Norikazu Ichihashi
Construction of a complex artificial self-replication system is challenging in the field of in vitro synthetic biology. Recently, we developed a translation-coupled RNA replication system, wherein an artificial genomic RNA replicates with the Qβ RNA replicase gene encoded on itself. The challenge is to introduce additional genes into the RNA to develop a complex system that mimics natural living systems. However, most RNA sequence encoding genes are not replicable by the Qβ replicase owing to its requirement for strong secondary structures throughout the RNA sequence that are absent in most genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327087/nt5c2-novel-splicing-variant-expands-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-spastic-paraplegia-spg45-case-report-of-a-new-member-of-thin-corpus-callosum-spg-subgroup
#13
Mahmoud F Elsaid, Khalid Ibrahim, Nader Chalhoub, Ahmed Elsotouhy, Noora El Mudehki, Alice Abdel Aleem
BACKGROUND: Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases. Thin Corpus Callosum (TCC) associated HSP is a distinguished subgroup of complex forms. Purines and pyrimidine, the basic DNA and RNA components, are regulating the cell metabolism, having roles in signal transduction, energy preservation and cellular repair. Genetic defects in nucleotide metabolism related genes have been only recently implicated in brain and neurodegenerative diseases' pathogenesis...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326292/acne-located-on-the-trunk-whey-protein-supplementation-is-there-any-association
#14
Fatma Pelin Cengiz, Bengu Cevirgen Cemil, Nazan Emiroglu, Anil Gulsel Bahali, Nahide Onsun
Whey protein is a source of protein that was isolated from milk. Whey proteins are composed of higher levels of essential amino acids. The role of diet in acne etiology has been investigated for several years. It was established that milk and milk products can trigger acneiform lesions, and recent evidence supports the role of whey protein supplements in acne. Herein, we report 6 healthy male adolescent patients developing acne located only to the trunk after the consumption of whey protein supplements for faster bodybuilding...
2017: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324658/mitochondrial-respiration-links-tor-complex-2-signaling-to-calcium-regulation-and-autophagy
#15
Ariadne Vlahakis, Nerea Lopez Muniozguren, Ted Powers
The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved regulator of cell growth and functions within 2 different protein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, where TORC2 positively controls macroautophagy/autophagy during amino acid starvation. Under these conditions, TORC2 signaling inhibits the activity of the calcium-regulated phosphatase calcineurin and promotes the general amino acid control (GAAC) response and autophagy. Here we demonstrate that TORC2 regulates calcineurin by controlling the respiratory activity of mitochondria...
March 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323968/impaired-glycine-mia-in-type-2-diabetes-and-potential-mechanisms-contributing-to-glucose-homeostasis
#16
Richard Yan-Do, Patrick E MacDonald
The onset and/or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be prevented if intervention is early enough. As such, much effort has been placed on the search for indicators predictive of pre-diabetes and disease onset or progression. An increasing body of evidence suggests that changes in plasma glycine may be one such biomarker. Circulating glycine levels are consistently low in patients with T2D. Levels of this non-essential amino acid correlate negatively with obesity and insulin resistance. Plasma glycine correlates positively with glucose disposal, and rises with interventions such as exercise and bariatric surgery that improve glucose homeostasis...
March 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323032/metabolic-re-wiring-of-isogenic-breast-epithelial-cell-lines-following-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#17
Skarphedinn Halldorsson, Neha Rohatgi, Manuela Magnusdottir, Kumari Sonal Choudhary, Thorarinn Guðjónsson, Erik Knutsen, Anna Barkovskaya, Bylgja Hilmarsdottir, Maria Perander, Gunhild M Mælandsmo, Steinn Gudmundsson, Óttar Rolfsson
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has implications in tumor progression and metastasis. Metabolic alterations have been described in cancer development but studies focused on the metabolic re-wiring that takes place during EMT are still limited. We performed metabolomics profiling of a breast epithelial cell line and its EMT derived mesenchymal phenotype to create genome-scale metabolic models descriptive of both cell lines. Glycolysis and OXPHOS were higher in the epithelial phenotype while amino acid anaplerosis and fatty acid oxidation fueled the mesenchymal phenotype...
March 16, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323014/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-the-activator-gene-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-co-type-nitrile-hydratase-from-aurantimonas-manganoxydans
#18
Xiaolin Pei, Zhengfei Yang, Anming Wang, Lirong Yang, Jianping Wu
Nitrile hydratase (NHase) has attracted considerable attention to synthesize valuable amides. Here, the gene cluster of Co-type NHase from Aurantimonas manganoxydans ATCC BAA-1229 (NHase1229) was identified through Edman degradation and recombinant expression, including α-subunit, β-subunit, and activator. The activator gene contained 408 bases, which was essential for the biosynthesis of NHase1229 in Escherichia coli. The activator gene can be substituted by Co-type activator from Pseudonocardia thermophila JCM3095 and Pseudomonas putida 5B to assist in the functional expression of NHase1229, not by that of Fe-type NHase from Pseudomonas putida F1...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320885/identification-of-the-lyso-form-n-acyl-intramolecular-transferase-in-low-gc-firmicutes
#19
Krista M Armbruster, Timothy C Meredith
Bacterial lipoproteins are embedded in the cell membrane of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria where they serve numerous functions central to cell envelope physiology. Lipoproteins are tethered to the membrane by an N-acyl-S-(mono/di)-acyl-glyceryl-cysteine anchor that is variably acylated depending on genera. In several low-GC Gram-positive Firmicutes, a monoacyl-glyceryl-cysteine with an N-terminal fatty acid (known as the lyso form) has been reported, though how it is formed is unknown. Here, through an intergenic complementation rescue assay in Escherichia coli, we report the identification of a common orthologous transmembrane protein in both Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus capable of forming lyso-form lipoproteins...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320871/essential-roles-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-in-syncytiotrophoblast-development-by-presenting-fusogenic-4f2hc
#20
Ryuichi Ohgaki, Takahiro Ohmori, Saori Hara, Saya Nakagomi, Masami Kanai-Azuma, Kazuko Kaneda-Nakashima, Suguru Okuda, Shushi Nagamori, Yoshikatsu Kanai
Layer(s) of epithelial syncytium, syncytiotrophoblast, differentiates from chorionic trophoblasts via cell fusion and separates maternal and fetal circulations in hemochorial placentas. L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and its covalently-linked ancillary subunit 4F2hc are colocalized on both maternal and fetal surface of syncytiotrophoblasts, implying their roles in amino acid transfer through the placental barrier. In this study, LAT1 knockout, in addition, revealed a novel role of LAT1 in syncytiotrophoblast development...
March 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
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