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Essential amino acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161329/comparative-metabolomics-profiling-of-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-lead-to-a-strategy-that-improving-%C3%AE-carotene-production-by-acetate-supplementation
#1
Xiao Bu, Liang Sun, Fei Shang, Guoliang Yan
A comparative metabolomic analysis was conducted on recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain producing β-carotene and the parent strain cultivated with glucose as carbon source using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based approach. The results showed that most of the central intermediates associated with amino acids, carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle intermediates (acetic acid, glycerol, citric acid, pyruvic acid and succinic acid), fatty acids, ergosterol and energy metabolites were produced in a lower amount in recombinant strain, as compared to the parent strain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160025/development-of-a-specific-fluorescent-phage-endolysin-for-in%C3%A2-situ-detection-of-clostridium-species-associated-with-cheese-spoilage
#2
Natalia Gómez-Torres, Matthew Dunne, Sonia Garde, Rob Meijers, Arjan Narbad, Marta Ávila, Melinda J Mayer
Late blowing defect (LBD) is a major cause of spoilage in cheeses, caused by the growth of Clostridium spp. in the cheese matrix. We investigated the application of CTP1L, a bacteriophage endolysin active against Clostridium tyrobutyricum, and its enzymatically active and cell wall-binding domains (EAD and CBD) attached to green fluorescent protein (GFP) to detect dairy-related Clostridium species by fluorescence microscopy. GFP-CTP1L and GFP-CBD demonstrated specificity for Clostridium spp. by labelling 15 and 17 of 20 Clostridium strains, respectively, but neither bound to other members of the cheese microbiota...
November 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158702/novel-essential-amino-acid-sulfanilamide-hybrid-as-safe-anti-ulcerogenic-agent-with-anti-helicobacter-pylori-activity
#3
Amani S Awaad, Ahmed M Alafeefy, Fatmah A S Alasmary, Reham M El-Meligy, M E Zain, Saleh I Alqasoumi
A novel and safe essential amino acid (Leucine) incorporating sulfanilamide was synthesized, and evaluated for its anti-ulcerogenic activity and in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. The new molecule showed a dose dependent activity against absolute ethanol-induced ulcer in rats, it produced percent protection of control ulcer by 66.7 at dose 100 mg/kg. In addition it showed a potent anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro against 7 clinically isolated strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 12...
November 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158640/a-sucrose-non-fermenting-1-related-protein-kinase-1-gene-from-potato-stsnrk1-regulates-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-transgenic-tobacco
#4
Feibing Wang, Yuxiu Ye, Xinhong Chen, Jizhong Wang, Zhiyuan Chen, Qing Zhou
Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) has been shown to play an essential role in regulating saccharide metabolism and starch biosynthesis of plant. The regulatory role of StSnRK1 from potato in regulating carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation has not been investigated. In this work, a cDNA encoding the SnRK1 protein, named StSnRK1, was isolated from potato. The open reading frame contained 1545 nucleotides encoding 514 amino acids. Subcellular localization analysis in onion epidermal cells indicated that StSnRK1 protein was localized to the nucleus...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156143/identification-of-nuclear-localization-signals-in-the-human-homeoprotein-msx1
#5
Akio Shibata, Junichiro Machida, Seishi Yamaguchi, Masashi Kimura, Tadashi Tatematsu, Hitoshi Miyachi, Atsuo Nakayama, Kazuo Shimozato, Yoshihito Tokita
MSX1 is one of the homeoproteins with the homeodomain (HD) sequence, which regulates proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal cells. In this study, we investigated the nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the MSX1 HD by deletion and amino acid substitution analyses. The web-based tool NLStradamus predicted two putative basic motifs in the N- and C-termini of the MSX1 HD. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimera studies revealed that NLS1 (<sub>161</sub>RKHKTNRKPR<sub>170</sub>) and NLS2 (<sub>216</sub>NRRAKAKR<sub>223</sub>) were independently insufficient for robust nuclear localization...
November 20, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155070/cytosolic-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases-unanticipated-relocations-for-unexpected-functions
#6
Nathaniel Yakobov, Sylvain Debard, Frédéric Fischer, Bruno Senger, Hubert Dominique Becker
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytosolic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are essentially known for their conventional function of generating the full set of aminoacyl-tRNA species that are needed to incorporate each organism's repertoire of genetically-encoded amino acids during ribosomal translation of messenger RNAs. However, bacterial and eukaryotic cytosolic aaRSs have been shown to exhibit other essential nonconventional functions. Here we review all the subcellular compartments that prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytosolic aaRSs can reach to exert either a conventional or nontranslational role...
November 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154812/under-stressful-conditions-activation-of-the-ionotropic-p2x7-receptor-differentially-regulates-gaba-and-glutamate-release-from-nerve-terminals-of-the-rat-cerebral-cortex
#7
Aurora R Barros-Barbosa, Ângela Oliveira, M Graça Lobo, J Miguel Cordeiro, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) are the main inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS), respectively. Fine tuning regulation of extracellular levels of these amino acids is essential for normal brain activity. Recently, we showed that neocortical nerve terminals from patients with epilepsy express higher amounts of the non-desensitizing ionotropic P2X7 receptor. Once activated by ATP released from neuronal cells, the P2X7 receptor unbalances GABAergic vs...
November 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152582/the-genomic-landscape-of-the-fungus-specific-swi-snf-complex-subunit-snf6-in-candida-albicans
#8
Faiza Tebbji, Yaolin Chen, Adnane Sellam, Malcolm Whiteway
SWI/SNF is an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex that is required for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. While most of the fungal SWI/SNF components are evolutionarily conserved with those of the metazoan SWI/SNF, subunits such as Snf6 are specific to certain fungi and thus represent potential antifungal targets. We have characterized the role of the Snf6 protein in Candida albicans. Our data showed that although there was low conservation of its protein sequence with other fungal orthologs, Snf6 was copurified with bona fide SWI/SNF complex subunits...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152581/the-candida-albicans-tor-activating-gtpases-gtr1-and-rhb1-coregulate-starvation-responses-and-biofilm-formation
#9
Peter R Flanagan, Ning-Ning Liu, Darren J Fitzpatrick, Karsten Hokamp, Julia R Köhler, Gary P Moran
Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is an essential regulator of metabolism in eukaryotic cells and in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans regulates morphogenesis and nitrogen acquisition. Gtr1 encodes a highly conserved GTPase that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates nitrogen sensing and TORC1 activation. Here, we characterize the role of C. albicans GTR1 in TORC1 activation and compare it with the previously characterized GTPase Rhb1. A homozygous gtr1/gtr1 mutant exhibited impaired TORC1-mediated phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and increased susceptibility to rapamycin...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151400/review-optimizing-ruminant-conversion-of-feed-protein-to-human-food-protein
#10
G A Broderick
Ruminant livestock have the ability to produce high-quality human food from feedstuffs of little or no value for humans. Balanced essential amino acid composition of meat and milk from ruminants makes those protein sources valuable adjuncts to human diets. It is anticipated that there will be increasing demand for ruminant proteins in the future. Increasing productivity per animal dilutes out the nutritional and environmental costs of maintenance and rearing dairy animals up to production. A number of nutritional strategies improve production per animal such as ration balancing in smallholder operations and small grain supplements to ruminants fed high-forage diets...
November 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150981/systematic-proteomic-analysis-of-protein-methylation-in-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes-revealed-distinct-substrate-specificity
#11
Min Zhang, Jun-Yu Xu, Hao Hu, Bang-Ce Ye, Minjia Tan
The studies of protein methylation mainly focus on lysine and arginine residues due to their diverse roles in essential cellular processes from gene expression to signal transduction. Nevertheless, atypical protein methylation occurring on amino acid residues, such as glutamine and glutamic acid, was largely neglected until recently. In addition, the systematic analysis for the distribution of methylation on different amino acids in various species is still lacking, which hinders our understanding of its functional roles...
November 18, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150514/sinorhizobium-meliloti-glutathione-reductase-is-required-for-both-redox-homeostasis-and-symbiosis
#12
Guirong Tang, Ningning Li, Yumin Liu, Liangliang Yu, Junhui Yan, Li Luo
Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine; GSH), one of the key antioxidants in Sinorhizobium meliloti, is required for the development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nitrogen-fixing nodules. Glutathione exists either in a reduced form (GSH) or an oxidized form (GSSG), and its content is regulated by two pathways in S. meliloti The first pathway is the de novo synthesis of glutathione from its constituent amino acids, namely, Glu, Cys, and Gly, catalyzed by γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GshA) and glutathione synthetase (GshB)...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150487/dynamin-inhibitors-block-mtorc1-activation-by-amino-acids-independently-of-dynamin
#13
Persaud Avinash, Cormerais Yann, Pouyssegur Jacques, Rotin Daniela
mTORC1 plays a critical role in protein synthesis and cell proliferation and growth. It is activated by growth factors and amino acids, including essential amino acid (EAA), such as Leu; Leu enters cells via the Leu transporter LAT1-4F2hc and potentially via endocytosis. Here we investigated the contribution of the different routes of Leu entry into cells to mTORC1 activation using pharmacological inhibitors and cells that lack LAT1 or dynamin1/2/3. Our results show that LAT1 is the major route of Leu entry into cells and mTORC1 activation (∼70%), while dynamin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis contribute minimally to both (5-15%)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150190/metabolic-adaptation-of-intracellular-bacteria-and-fungi-to-macrophages
#14
REVIEW
Marcel Sprenger, Lydia Kasper, Michael Hensel, Bernhard Hube
The mature phagosome of macrophages is a hostile environment for the vast majority of phagocytosed microbes. In addition to active destruction of the engulfed microbes by antimicrobial compounds, restriction of essential nutrients in the phagosomal compartment contributes to microbial growth inhibition and killing. However, some pathogenic microorganisms have not only developed various strategies to efficiently withstand or counteract antimicrobial activities, but also to acquire nutrients within macrophages for intracellular replication...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149435/equine-herpesvirus-type-1-orf51-encoding-ul11-as-an-essential-gene-for-replication-in-cultured-cells
#15
Yassien Badr, Ayaka Okada, Rania Abo-Sakaya, Emad Beshir, Kenji Ohya, Hideto Fukushi
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) UL11 is a 74-amino-acid tegument protein encoded by ORF51 of the EHV-1 genome. EHV-1 UL11 was previously reported by other researchers using the RacL22 and RacH strains to be nonessential for viral replication in cultured cells. Here, we constructed UL11 mutant viruses including a UL11 null mutant and three C-terminal truncated mutants, for further characterization of EHV-1 UL11 using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology based on the neuropathogenic strain Ab4p...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149235/isolated-complexes-of-the-amino-acid-arginine-with-polyether-and-polyamine-macrocycles-the-role-of-proton-transfer
#16
Juan Ramón Avilés-Moreno, Giel Berden, Jos Oomens, Bruno Martínez-Haya
The distinct basicity of the guanidinium side-group of arginine (Arg) sustains specific interactions involved in essential biochemical processes. The sensing of arginine is therefore key in modern biotechnology and bioanalysis. In this context, the development of molecular receptors based on crown ether building blocks has demonstrated great potential. We investigate the complexes formed by arginine with two benchmark macrocycles, 12-crown-4 (1,4,7,10-tetraoxacyclododecane) and its N-substituted analog cyclen (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane)...
November 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147085/a-comparison-of-the-essential-amino-acid-content-and-the-retention-rate-by-chicken-part-according-to-different-cooking-methods
#17
Honggyun Kim, Hyun Wook Do, Heajung Chung
This study set out to identify the changes in the nutrient contents during the chicken cooking process as basic data for the establishment of a national health nutrition policy. Samples were produced using 3 chicken parts (wing, breast, and leg) and 7 cooking methods (boiling, pancooking, pan-frying, deep-frying, steaming, roasting, and microwaving), and the essential amino acid contents, principal components, and retention rates were analyzed. Weight loss was observed in all chicken parts with all cooking methods...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146346/enhanced-functionality-of-pea-rice-protein-isolate-blends-through-direct-steam-injection-processing
#18
Ewa Pietrysiak, Denise M Smith, Brennan M Smith, Girish M Ganjyal
Direct steam injection (DSI) processing with pH adjustment was investigated to enhance the functionality of pea-rice protein isolate blends (PR). Protein slurries at concentration of 5%(w/w) of commercial pea and rice protein isolates in the ratio of 2:1(w/w) across a range of steam temperatures (66-107°C) and pH values (2-11) were studied. After DSI treatment, the PR were freeze-dried to obtain the final dry protein powder. Based on protein solubility profiles, the optimal DSI processing conditions were 107°C and pH 11...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145496/insights-into-soybean-transcriptome-reconfiguration-under-hypoxic-stress-functional-regulatory-structural-and-compositional-characterization
#19
Thiago J Nakayama, Fabiana A Rodrigues, Norman Neumaier, Juliana Marcolino-Gomes, Hugo B C Molinari, Thaís R Santiago, Eduardo F Formighieri, Marcos F Basso, José R B Farias, Beatriz M Emygdio, Ana C B de Oliveira, Ângela D Campos, Aluízio Borém, Frank G Harmon, Liliane M Mertz-Henning, Alexandre L Nepomuceno
Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic) or total (anoxic) oxygen deficiency is important component of flooding. Even when oxygen is externally available, oxygen deficiency frequently occurs in bulky, dense or metabolically active tissues such as phloem, meristems, seeds, and fruits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144540/biosynthetic-energy-cost-of-potentially-highly-expressed-proteins-vary-with-niche-in-selected-actinobacteria
#20
Indrani Sarkar, Louis S Tisa, Maher Gtari, Arnab Sen
Amino acid and protein biosynthesis requires a number of high energy phosphate bonds and includes a dual energy cost for the synthesis of chemical intermediates during the fueling reactions and the conversion of precursor molecules to final products. One popular hypothesis is that the proteins encoded by putative highly expressed genes (hence called PHXPs) generally utilize low energy consuming amino acids to reduce the biosynthetic cost of the essential proteins. In our study, we found that this idea was not supported in the case of actinobacteria...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
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