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Essential amino acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777624/characterisation-of-a-putative-glutamate-5-kinase-from-leishmania-donovani
#1
Natasha Sienkiewicz, Han B Ong, Alan H Fairlamb
Previous metabolic studies have demonstrated that leishmania parasites are able to synthesise proline from glutamic acid and threonine from aspartic acid. The first committed step in both biosynthetic pathways involves an amino acid kinase, either a glutamate 5-kinase (EC 2.7.2.11) or an aspartokinase (EC 2.7.2.4). Bioinformatic analysis of multiple leishmania genomes identifies a single amino-acid-kinase gene (LdBPK 262740.1) variously annotated as either a putative glutamate or aspartate kinase. To establish the catalytic function of this Leishmania donovani gene product, we have determined the physical and kinetic properties of the recombinant enzyme purified from Escherichia coli...
May 19, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775751/expression-pattern-and-functional-analysis-of-the-two-ring-box-protein-rbx-in-spermatogenesis-of-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#2
Jia-Shun Zhang, Xue-Jie Li, Lei Yang, Wei-Wei Li, Qun Wang
Studies in E. sinensis have shown that ubiquitination mediated by Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) plays important roles in spermatogenesis. In other species, CRLs are also essential in cell cycle progression, DNA replication, signal transduction, gene transcription, and development. The catalytic RING component, the RING box protein, is an important part of CRLs. However, there have been few studies on CRLs in crustaceans. In this study, we cloned two RING box protein genes from the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, termed Es-RBX1 and Es-RBX2 The full length Es-RBX1 cDNA comprises 741 nucleotides, and encodes a protein of 124 amino acid residues, whereas the Es-RBX2 cDNA comprises 1325 nucleotides, and encodes a protein of 110 amino acid residues...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770867/dietary-supplementation-with-an-amino-acid-blend-enhances-intestinal-function-in-piglets
#3
Dan Yi, Baocheng Li, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Di Zhao, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Ying Zhou, Binying Ding, Guoyao Wu
The traditionally classified nutritionally non-essential amino acids are now known to be insufficiently synthesized for maximal growth and optimal health in piglets. This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend (AAB; glutamate:glutamine:glycine:arginine:N-acetylcysteine = 5:2:2:1:0.5) on piglet growth performance and intestinal functions. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.99% alanine (isonitrogenous control) or 1% AAB...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769719/klhl22-activates-amino-acid-dependent-mtorc1-signalling-to-promote-tumorigenesis-and-ageing
#4
Jie Chen, Yuhui Ou, Yanyan Yang, Wen Li, Ye Xu, Yuntao Xie, Ying Liu
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of cell growth that responds to a diverse set of environmental cues, including amino acids1,2 . Deregulation of mTORC1 has been linked with metabolic diseases, cancer and ageing2-4 . In response to amino acids, mTORC1 is recruited by the Rag GTPases to the lysosome, its site of activation5,6 . The GATOR1 complex, consisting of DEPDC5, NPRL3 and NPRL2, displays GAP activity to inactivate Rag GTPases under amino-acid-deficient conditions 7 ...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769718/ankrd16-prevents-neuron-loss-caused-by-an-editing-defective-trna-synthetase
#5
My-Nuong Vo, Markus Terrey, Jeong Woong Lee, Bappaditya Roy, James J Moresco, Litao Sun, Hongjun Fu, Qi Liu, Thomas G Weber, John R Yates, Kurt Fredrick, Paul Schimmel, Susan L Ackerman
Editing domains of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases correct tRNA charging errors to maintain translational fidelity. A mutation in the editing domain of alanyl tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) in Aars sti mutant mice results in an increase in the production of serine-mischarged tRNAAla and the degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Here, using positional cloning, we identified Ankrd16, a gene that acts epistatically with the Aars sti mutation to attenuate neurodegeneration. ANKRD16, a vertebrate-specific protein that contains ankyrin repeats, binds directly to the catalytic domain of AlaRS...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769291/key-transport-and-ammonia-recycling-genes-involved-in-aphid-symbiosis-respond-to-host-plant-specialization
#6
Dohyup Kim, Bushra F Minhas, Hongmei Li-Byarlay, Allison K Hansen
Microbes are known to influence insect-plant interactions; however, it is unclear if host-plant diet influences the regulation of nutritional insect symbioses. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , requires its nutritional endosymbiont, Buchnera , for the production of essential amino acids. We hypothesize that key aphid genes that regulate the nutritional symbioses respond to host-plant diet when aphids feed on a specialized (alfalfa) compared to a universal host-plant diet (fava), which vary in amino acid profiles...
May 16, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769004/regulatory-role-of-amino-acids-in-pigs-fed-on-protein-restricted-diets
#7
Sung Woo Kim, Hongyu Chen, Wanpuech Parnsen
The high inclusion of dietary protein and the imbalance of amino acid (AA) composition in animal husbandry result in inefficient utilization of protein resources and increased nitrogen excretion. Therefore, an efficient approach to alleviate the nitrogen excretion and increase the utilization of protein resources is to formulate the AA-balance protein-restricted diet with crystalline AA supplementation. Nowadays, it is essential to thoroughly understand the regulatory mechanisms of AAs on body metabolism and their vital roles in protein-restricted diets...
May 16, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769003/influence-of-probiotics-on-dietary-protein-digestion-and-utilization-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#8
Jing Wang, Haifeng Ji
Protein is essential to growth and metabolism. Many factors influence dietary protein digestion and utilization in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics have attracted increasing attention in recent years owing to their broad health benefits, which may include a positive influence on the digestion and utilization of proteins. Several observations support their potential role in protein digestion. For example, probiotics can regulate the intestinal microflora and thereby influence intestinal bacteria related to proteolysis...
May 16, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768370/a-case-report-of-neurological-complications-owing-to-lately-diagnosed-hyperargininemia-emphasizing-the-role-of-national-neonatal-screening-policies-in-the-kingdom-of-bahrain
#9
Moiz Bakhiet, Aminah M I AlAwadi, Maryam M AlHammadi, Maryam F Ali, Noora Butti
INTRODUCTION: Arginine is an essential amino acid that plays an important role in various body functions including cell division, wound healing, removal of ammonia, immune function, and release of hormones. Hyperargininemia, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, is considered one of the least common urea cycle disorders. It rarely presents in the neonatal period but rather appears in children at the age between 2 and 4 years. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we demonstrate a case of a 14-year-old female who presented to the neurology clinic with several neurological complications, which were found to be a consequence of high levels of arginine discovered after performing a metabolic screening test...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767695/molybdenum
#10
Janet A Novotny, Catherine A Peterson
Molybdenum, a trace element essential for micro-organisms, plants, and animals, was discovered in 1778 by a Swedish chemist named Karl Scheele. Initially mistaken for lead, molybdenum was named after the Greek work molybdos, meaning lead-like. In the 1930s, it was recognized that ingestion of forage with high amounts of molybdenum by cattle caused a debilitating condition. In the 1950s, the essentiality of molybdenum was established with the discovery of the first molybdenum-containing enzymes. In humans, only 4 enzymes requiring molybdenum have been identified to date: sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime-reducing component (mARC)...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767155/responses-of-milk-production-of-dairy-cows-to-jugular-infusions-of-a-mixture-of-essential-amino-acids-with-or-without-exclusion-leucine-or-arginine
#11
Wen Tian, Tianyou Wu, Rui Zhao, Jinhao Xu, Yao He, Hongrong Wang
The purpose of this study was to determine effects of jugular infusion of either balanced or imbalanced amino acid mixture on milk production and composition in dairy cows. Eight mid-lactation Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 5-d continuous jugular infusions of saline (CTL), essential amino acid (EAA) mixture prepared on the profile of casein (CSN, 160 g/d), EAA mixture excluding leucine (Leu) (-Leu, 163 g/d) or EAA mixture excluding arginine (Arg) (-Arg, 158 g/d) in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 infusion periods separated by a 7-d interval period...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763665/selection-and-paucity-of-phylogenetic-signal-challenge-the-utility-of-alpha-tubulin-in-reconstruction-of-evolutionary-history-of-free-living-litostomateans-protista-ciliophora
#12
Ľubomír Rajter, Peter Vďačný
The class Litostomatea represents a highly diverse but monophyletic group, uniting both free-living and endosymbiotic ciliates. Ribosomal RNA genes and ITS-region sequences helped to recognize and define the main litostomatean lineages, but did not provide enough phylogenetic signal to unambiguously resolve their interrelationships. In this study, we attempted to improve the resolution among main free-living predatory lineages by adding the gene coding for alpha-tubulin. However, our phylogenetic analyses challenged the performance of alpha-tubulin in reconstruction of evolutionary history of free-living litostomateans...
May 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762790/dietary-supplementation-with-clostridium-butyricum-modulates-serum-lipid-metabolism-meat-quality-and-the-amino-acid-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-peking-ducks
#13
Yanhan Liu, Yiyu Li, Xiancheng Feng, Zhong Wang, Zhaofei Xia
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) on the performance, serum lipid metabolism, muscle morphology, meat quality, and fatty acid profiles of Peking ducks. A total of 1,500 Peking ducks were randomly divided into five groups with five replicates and were fed a non-antibiotic basal diet (Control) or a basal diet supplemented with either 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg of C. butyricum (2.0 × 109 CFU/g) or 150 mg of aureomycin/kg for 42 d. Compared with the control group, supplementation with C...
May 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761930/multiple-phosphorylation-sites-on-%C3%AE-tubulin-are-essential-and-contribute-to-the-biogenesis-of-basal-bodies-in-tetrahymena
#14
Ewa Joachimiak, Maria Jerka-Dziadosz, Łucja Krzemień-Ojak, Ewa Wacławek, Katarzyna Jedynak, Paulina Urbanska, Wojciech Brutkowski, Hanna Sas-Nowosielska, Hanna Fabczak, Jacek Gaertig, Dorota Wloga
The mechanisms that regulate γ-tubulin, including its post-translational modifications, are poorly understood. γ-Tubulin is important for the duplication of centrioles and structurally similar basal bodies (BBs), organelles which contain a ring of nine triplet microtubules. The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila carries hundreds of cilia in a single cell and provides an excellent model to specifically address the role of γ-tubulin in the BBs assembly and maintenance. The genome of Tetrahymena contains a single γ-tubulin gene...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760946/sequence-determinants-of-specific-pattern-recognition-of-bacterial-ligands-by-the-naip-nlrc4-inflammasome
#15
Jingyi Yang, Yue Zhao, Peng Li, Yi Yang, Ejuan Zhang, Maohua Zhong, Yaoming Li, Dihan Zhou, Yuan Cao, Mengji Lu, Feng Shao, Huimin Yan
The NLR apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) function as specific cytosolic receptors for bacterial ligands to form the NAIP-NLRC4 inflammasome for anti-bacterial defenses. In mice, NAIP5/6 and NAIP2 recognize bacteria flagellin and the rod protein of the type III secretion system (T3SS), respectively. However, molecular mechanism for specific ligand pattern-recognition by the NAIPs is largely unknown. Here, through extensive domain swapping and truncation analyses, three structural domains, the pre-BIR, BIR1, and HD1, in NAIP2 and NAIP5 are identified, that are important for specific recognition of their respective ligand(s)...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760498/hierarchical-mechanism-of-amino-acid-sensing-by-the-t-box-riboswitch
#16
Krishna C Suddala, Javier Cabello-Villegas, Malgorzata Michnicka, Collin Marshall, Edward P Nikonowicz, Nils G Walter
In Gram-positive bacteria, T-box riboswitches control gene expression to maintain the cellular pools of aminoacylated tRNAs essential for protein biosynthesis. Co-transcriptional binding of an uncharged tRNA to the riboswitch stabilizes an antiterminator, allowing transcription read-through, whereas an aminoacylated tRNA does not. Recent structural studies have resolved two contact points between tRNA and Stem-I in the 5' half of the T-box riboswitch, but little is known about the mechanism empowering transcriptional control by a small, distal aminoacyl modification...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759035/a-novel-missense-mutation-in-slc5a5-gene-in-a-sudanese-family-with-congenital-hypothyroidism
#17
Yui Watanabe, Reham Shareef Ebrhim, Mohamed A Abdullah, Roy E Weiss
Thyroid hormone synthesis requires the presence of iodide. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is a glycoprotein which mediates the active uptake of iodide from the blood stream into the thyroid grand. NIS defects due to SLC5A5 gene mutations are known to cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The proposita is a 28-year-old female whose origin is the North Sudan where neonatal screening for CH is not available. She presented with severe constipation and a goiter at the age of 40 days. Laboratory testing confirmed CH and she was started on levothyroxine (L-T4)...
May 15, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758013/selenium-dependent-antioxidant-enzymes-actions-and-properties-of-selenoproteins
#18
REVIEW
Evangelos Zoidis, Isidoros Seremelis, Nikolaos Kontopoulos, Georgios P Danezis
Unlike other essential trace elements that interact with proteins in the form of cofactors, selenium (Se) becomes co-translationally incorporated into the polypeptide chain as part of 21st naturally occurring amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), encoded by the UGA codon. Any protein that includes Sec in its polypeptide chain is defined as selenoprotein. Members of the selenoproteins family exert various functions and their synthesis depends on specific cofactors and on dietary Se. The Se intake in productive animals such as chickens affect nutrient utilization, production performances, antioxidative status and responses of the immune system...
May 14, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757407/transcriptome-and-metabolome-analysis-provide-insights-into-root-and-root-released-organic-anion-responses-to-phosphorus-deficiency-in-oat
#19
Yanliang Wang, Erik Lysøe, Tegan Armarego-Marriott, Alexander Erban, Lisa Paruch, Andre van Eerde, Ralph Bock, Jihong Liu-Clarke
Root and root-released organic anions play important roles in uptake of phosphorus (P), an essential macronutrient for food production. Oat, ranking sixth in the world's cereal production, contains valuable nutritional compounds and can withstand poor soil conditions. Our aim was to investigate root transcriptional and metabolic responses of oat grown under P-deficient and P-sufficient conditions. We conducted a hydroponic experiment and measured root morphology and organic anion exudation, and analysed changes in the transcriptome and metabolome...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756644/metabolic-and-gene-expression-hallmarks-of-seed-germination-uncovered-by-sodium-butyrate-in-medicago-truncatula
#20
Andrea Pagano, Susana de Sousa Araújo, Anca Macovei, Daniele Dondi, Simone Lazzaroni, Alma Balestrazzi
Since high-quality seeds are essential for successful crop production in challenging environments, understanding the molecular bases of seed vigor will lead to advances in seed technology. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, promoting histone hyperacetylation, are used as tools to explore aspects still uncovered of the abiotic stress response in plants. The aim of this work was to investigate novel signatures of seed germination in Medicago truncatula, using the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB) as stress agent...
May 14, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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