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Essential amino acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341887/molecular-basis-of-substrate-polyspecificity-of-the-candida-albicans-mdr1p-multidrug-h-antiporter
#1
Archana Kumari Redhu, Atanu Banerjee, Abdul Haseeb Shah, Alexis Moreno, Manpreet Kaur Rawal, Remya Nair, Pierre Falson, Rajendra Prasad
The molecular basis of polyspecificity of Mdr1p, a major drug/H+ antiporter of Candida albicans, is not elucidated. We have probed the nature of the drug-binding pocket by performing systematic mutagenesis of the 12 transmembrane segments. Replacement of the 252 amino acid residues with alanine or glycine yielded 2/3 neutral mutations while 1/3 led to the complete or selective lost of resistance to drugs or substrates transported by the pump. Using the GlpT-based 3D-model of Mdr1p, we roughly categorized these critical residues depending on their type and localization 1°/ main structural impact ("S" group), 2°/ exposure to the lipid interface ("L" group), 3°/ buried but not facing the main central pocket, inferred as critical for the overall H+/drug antiport mechanism ("M" group) and finally 4°/ buried and facing the main central pocket ("B" group)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341872/a-cqferritin-protein-inhibits-white-spot-syndrome-virus-infection-via-regulating-iron-ions-in-red-claw-crayfish-cherax-quadricarinatus
#2
Xiao-Xiao Chen, Yan-Yao Li, Xue-Jiao Chang, Xiao-Lu Xie, Yu-Ting Liang, Ke-Jian Wang, Wen-Yun Zheng, Hai-Peng Liu
It is well known that iron is an essential element for all living organism. The intracellular iron availability is also important for the host's innate immune response to various pathogens, in which the iron homeostasis can be regulated by ferritin due to its iron storage property. In this study, a full-length cDNA sequence of ferritin (named as CqFerritin) was identified with 1410 bp from red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, which contained an open reading frame of 513 bp, encoding 170 amino acids with a conserved ferritin domain...
January 13, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341605/prediction-of-active-site-and-distal-residues-in-e-coli-dna-polymerase-iii-alpha-polymerase-activity
#3
Ramya Parasuram, Timothy A Coulther, Judith M Hollander, Elise Keston-Smith, Mary Jo Ondrechen, Penny J Beuning
The process of DNA replication is carried out with high efficiency and accuracy by DNA polymerases. The replicative polymerase in E. coli is DNA Pol III, which is a complex of 10 different subunits that coordinates simultaneous replication on the leading and lagging strands. The 1160-residue Pol III alpha subunit is responsible for the polymerase activity and copies DNA accurately, making one error per 105 nucleotide incorporations. The goal of this research is to determine the residues that contribute to the activity of the polymerase subunit...
January 17, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339430/simultaneous-binding-of-multiple-ef-tu-copies-to-translating-ribosomes-in-live-escherichia-coli
#4
Mainak Mustafi, James C Weisshaar
In bacteria, elongation factor Tu is a translational cofactor that forms ternary complexes with aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) and GTP. Binding of a ternary complex to one of four flexible L7/L12 units on the ribosome tethers a charged tRNA in close proximity to the ribosomal A site. Two sequential tests for a match between the aa-tRNA anticodon and the current mRNA codon then follow. Because one elongation cycle can occur in as little as 50 ms and the vast majority of aa-tRNA copies are not cognate with the current mRNA codon, this testing must occur rapidly...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338053/selenium-regulation-of-selenoprotein-enzyme-activity-and-transcripts-in-a-pilot-study-with-founder-strains-from-the-collaborative-cross
#5
Roger A Sunde
Rodents and humans have 24-25 selenoproteins, and these proteins contain the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, incorporated co-translationally into the peptide backbone in a series of reactions dependent on at least 6 unique gene products. In selenium (Se) deficiency, there is differential regulation of selenoprotein expression, whereby levels of some selenoproteins and their transcripts decrease dramatically in Se deficiency, but other selenoprotein transcripts are spared this decrease; the underlying mechanism, however, is not fully understood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338047/amino-acid-substitutions-affecting-aspartic-acid-605-and-valine-606-decrease-the-interaction-strength-between-the-influenza-virus-rna-polymerase-pb2-627-domain-and-the-viral-nucleoprotein
#6
Ho-Pan Hsia, Yin-Hua Yang, Wun-Chung Szeto, Benjamin E Nilsson, Chun-Yeung Lo, Andy Ka-Leung Ng, Ervin Fodor, Pang-Chui Shaw
The influenza virus RNA genome is transcribed and replicated in the context of the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex by the viral RNA polymerase. The nucleoprotein (NP) is the structural component of the vRNP providing a scaffold for the viral RNA. In the vRNP as well as during transcription and replication the viral polymerase interacts with NP but it is unclear which parts of the polymerase and NP mediate these interactions. Previously the C-terminal '627' domain (amino acids 538-693) of PB2 was shown to interact with NP...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337668/solving-manufacturing-problems-for-l-carnitine-l-tartrate-to-improve-the-likelihood-of-successful-product-scale-up
#7
Aliaa A Badawi, Mahmoud M Hegazy, Dina Louis, Mohammed A Eldegwy
L-carnitine-L-tartrate, a non-essential amino acid, is hygroscopic. This causes a problem in tablet production due to pronounced adhesion of tablets to punches. A 33 full factorial design was adopted to suggest a tablet formulation. Three adsorbents were suggested (Aerosil 200, Aerosil R972, talc) to reduce stickiness at three concentrations (1, 3 and 5 %), and three fillers (mannitol, Avicel PH 101, Dibasic calcium phosphate) were chosen to prepare 27 formulations. Micromeritic properties of formulations were studied, and tablets were prepared by wet granulation...
December 20, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337136/as-extracellular-glutamine-levels-decline-asparagine-becomes-an-essential-amino-acid
#8
Natalya N Pavlova, Sheng Hui, Jonathan M Ghergurovich, Jing Fan, Andrew M Intlekofer, Richard M White, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Craig B Thompson, Ji Zhang
When mammalian cells are deprived of glutamine, exogenous asparagine rescues cell survival and growth. Here we report that this rescue results from use of asparagine in protein synthesis. All mammalian cell lines tested lacked cytosolic asparaginase activity and could not utilize asparagine to produce other amino acids or biosynthetic intermediates. Instead, most glutamine-deprived cell lines are capable of sufficient glutamine synthesis to maintain essential amino acid uptake and production of glutamine-dependent biosynthetic precursors, with the exception of asparagine...
January 10, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337129/effect-of-amino-acid-substitution-of-caprice-on-cell-to-cell-movement-ability-in-arabidopsis-root-epidermis
#9
Rumi Tominaga-Wada, Takuji Wada
An R3-type MYB transcription factor, CAPRICE (CPC), is known to promote root hair cell differentiation in Arabidopsis root epidermis. The CPC protein moves from non-hair cells to the neighboring cells, and acts as an inducer of root hair formation. In contrast, we previously showed that the CPC homolog, ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1), does not move between the root epidermal cells. To clarify the critical difference in the cell-to-cell movement ability of CPC and ETC1 proteins, we generated five different chimeras of CPC and ETC1...
January 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336947/characterization-of-goose-spms-molecular-characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-spms-in-the-goose-ovary
#10
Bo Kang, Qilin Xu, Ziyu Chen, Yongsheng Wu, Su Yang, Xicheng Yang, Zhao Zhang, Dongmei Jiang
Spermine synthase (SPMS), which converts spermidine into spermine, is essential for normal cell growth and development processes in humans and other mammals, but the molecular characterization and expression profiling of the SPMS gene remain undetermined in goose tissues and ovarian follicles. In this study, the SPMS cDNA sequence of the Sichuan white goose was cloned and analysed, and SPMS mRNA expression was profiled in various tissues and ovarian follicles. The results showed that the open reading frame of the SPMS cDNA sequence was 1092 bp in length, encoding 363 amino acids with a molecular weight of 41 kDa...
January 11, 2018: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335505/perk-mediated-translational-control-is-required-for-collagen-secretion-in-chondrocytes
#11
Satoshi Hisanaga, Masato Miyake, Shusuke Taniuchi, Miho Oyadomari, Masatoshi Morimoto, Ryosuke Sato, Jun Hirose, Hiroshi Mizuta, Seiichi Oyadomari
As chondrocytes are highly secretory and they experience a variety of stresses, physiological unfolded protein response (UPR) signalling is essential for extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion and chondrogenesis. In the three branches of the UPR pathway, PERK governs the translational attenuation and transcriptional upregulation of amino acid and redox metabolism and induction of apoptosis. It was previously demonstrated that a defect of the PERK branch of the UPR signalling pathway causes the accumulation of unfolded proteins, leading to cell death without perturbing endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport in pancreatic β cells...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335453/engineering-yarrowia-lipolytica-to-simultaneously-produce-lipase-and-single-cell-protein-from-agro-industrial-wastes-for-feed
#12
Jinyong Yan, Bingnan Han, Xiaohua Gui, Guilong Wang, Li Xu, Yunjun Yan, Catherine Madzak, Dujie Pan, Yaofeng Wang, Genhan Zha, Liangcheng Jiao
Lipases are scarcely exploited as feed enzymes in hydrolysis of lipids for increasing energy supply and improving nutrient use efficiency. In this work, we performed homologous overexpression, in vitro characterization and in vivo assessment of a lipase from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for feed purpose. Simultaneously, a large amount of yeast cell biomass was produced, for use as single cell protein, a potential protein-rich feed resource. Three kinds of low cost agro-industrial wastes were tested as substrates for simultaneous production of lipase and single cell protein (SCP) as feed additives: sugarcane molasses, waste cooking oil and crude glycerol from biodiesel production...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334409/climate-driven-mitochondrial-selection-a-test-in-australian-songbirds
#13
Annika Mae Lamb, Han Ming Gan, Chris Greening, Leo Joseph, Yin Peng Lee, Alejandra Morán-Ordóñez, Paul Sunnucks, Alexandra Pavlova
Diversifying selection between populations that inhabit different environments can promote lineage divergence within species and ultimately drive speciation. The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) encodes essential proteins of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system and can be a strong target for climate-driven selection (i.e. associated with inhabiting different climates). We investigated whether Pleistocene climate changes drove mitochondrial selection and evolution within Australian birds. First, using phylogeographic analyses of the mitochondrial ND2 gene for 17 songbird species, we identified mitochondrial clades (mitolineages)...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333047/assessment-of-nutritional-quality-and-global-antioxidant-response-of-banana-musa-sp-cv-nanjangud-rasa-bale-pseudostem-and-flower
#14
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, K R Anilakumar, Shivasharanappa Nayakavadi, Farhan Zameer, B L Dhananjaya, M N Nagendra Prasad
Background: The assessment of the nutritional composition and phytochemical screening of banana pseudostem (PB) and flower (FB) advocate this nonconventional food source for routine consumption, considering its various health benefits. Objectives: The aim is to assess the proximate nutrient composition, fatty acids, minerals, amino acid profile, and global antioxidant response (GAR) of PB and FB. Methods: Standard analytical procedures were used to determine the nutritional quality and GAR of PB and FB...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332049/free-heme-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-a-fatal-liaison-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Elisabeth Chiziane, Henriette Telemann, Martin Krueger, Juliane Adler, Jürgen Arnhold, A Alia, Jörg Flemmig
While the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown, an increased formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and oxidative processes are major pathological mechanism of the disease. The interaction of Aβ with free heme leads to the formation of peroxidase-active Aβ-heme complexes. However, enzyme-kinetic data and systematic mutational studies are still missing. These aspects were addressed in this study to evaluate the role of Aβ-heme complexes in AD. The enzyme-kinetic measurements showed peroxidase-specific pH- and H2O2-dependencies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331124/characterizing-protein-conformations-by-correlation-analysis-of-coarse-grained-contact-matrices
#16
Richard J Lindsay, Jan Siess, David P Lohry, Trevor S McGee, Jordan S Ritchie, Quentin R Johnson, Tongye Shen
We have developed a method to capture the essential conformational dynamics of folded biopolymers using statistical analysis of coarse-grained segment-segment contacts. Previously, the residue-residue contact analysis of simulation trajectories was successfully applied to the detection of conformational switching motions in biomolecular complexes. However, the application to large protein systems (larger than 1000 amino acid residues) is challenging using the description of residue contacts. Also, the residue-based method cannot be used to compare proteins with different sequences...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330702/ptac10-an-s1-domain-containing-component-of-the-transcriptionally-active-chromosome-complex-is-essential-for-plastid-gene-expression-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-is-phosphorylated-by-chloroplast-targeted-casein-kinase-ii
#17
Qing-Bo Yu, Tuan-Tuan Zhao, Lin-Shan Ye, Ling Cheng, Ying-Qian Wu, Chao Huang, Zhong-Nan Yang
In higher plant chloroplasts, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) consists of four catalytic subunits and numerous nuclear-encoded accessory proteins, including pTAC10, an S1-domain-containing protein. In this study, pTAC10 knockout lines were characterized. Two ptac10 mutants had an albino phenotype and severely impaired chloroplast development. The pTAC10 genomic sequence fused to a four-tandem MYC tag driven by its own promoter functionally complemented the ptac10-1 mutant phenotype. pTAC10 was present in both the chloroplast stroma and thylakoids...
January 12, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330525/distinct-modulation-of-inactivation-by-a-residue-in-the-pore-domain-of-voltage-gated-na-channels-mechanistic-insights-from-recent-crystal-structures
#18
Rene Cervenka, Peter Lukacs, Vaibhavkumar S Gawali, Song Ke, Xaver Koenig, Lena Rubi, Touran Zarrabi, Karlheinz Hilber, Walter Sandtner, Anna Stary-Weinzinger, Hannes Todt
Inactivation of voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSC) is essential for the regulation of cellular excitability. The molecular rearrangement underlying inactivation is thought to involve the intracellular linker between domains III and IV serving as inactivation lid, the receptor for the lid (domain III S4-S5 linker) and the pore-lining S6 segements. To better understand the role of the domain IV S6 segment in inactivation we performed a cysteine scanning mutagenesis of this region in rNav 1.4 channels and screened the constructs for perturbations in the voltage-dependence of steady state inactivation...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330181/a-novel-l-glutamate-exporter-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#19
Yu Wang, Guoqiang Cao, Deyu Xu, Liwen Fan, Xinyang Wu, Xiaomeng Ni, Shuxin Zhao, Ping Zheng, Jibin Sun, Yanhe Ma
Besides metabolic pathways and regulatory networks, transport systems are also pivotal for cellular metabolism and hyper-production of biochemicals using microbial cell factories. Identification and characterization of transporters are therefore of great significance for understanding and engineering of transport reactions. Herein, a novel l-glutamate exporter MscCG2 that extensively exists in Corynebacterium glutamicum strains but is distinct from the only known l-glutamate exporter MscCG was discovered in an industrial l-glutamate producing C...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326168/cyclic-di-adenosine-monophosphate-c-di-amp-is-required-for-osmotic-regulation-in-staphylococcus-aureus-but-dispensable-for-viability-in-anaerobic-conditions
#20
Merve S Zeden, Christopher F Schuster, Lisa Bowman, Qiyun Zhong, Huw D Williams, Angelika Gründling
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered signaling molecule important for the survival of Firmicutes, a large bacterial group that includes notable pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. However, the exact role of this molecule has not been identified. dacA, the S. aureus gene encoding the diadenylate cyclase enzyme required for c-di-AMP production, cannot be deleted when bacterial cells are grown in rich medium, indicating that c-di-AMP is required for growth in this condition...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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