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Water transport

Bin Hua, John Yang, Fengjing Liu, Guocheng Zhu, Baolin Deng, Jingdong Mao
Characterization of dissolved organic matter/nitrogen (DOM/DON) is critical in water quality assessment and nutrient management in watershed or ecosystem. This study was to investigate the link between DOM/DON and its source using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Water samples were collected from various aquatic systems in a watershed located in central Missouri, including rural watershed with various land use and land cover (LULC), landfill, and constructed wetland...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Hendrik Göddeke, M Hadi Timachi, Cedric A Hutter, Laura Galazzo, Markus A Seeger, Mikko Karttunen, Enrica Bordignon, Lars V Schäfer
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ATP-driven molecular machines, in which ATP binding and hydrolysis in the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) is chemo-mechanically coupled to large-scale, alternating access conformational changes in the transmembrane domains (TMDs), ultimately leading to the translocation of substrates across biological membranes. The precise nature of the structural dynamics behind the large-scale conformational transition as well as the coupling of NBD and TMD motions is still unresolved...
March 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jiaye Su, Yunzhen Zhao, Chang Fang
Graphene is a versatile 2D material and attracts increasing attentions from a broad scientific community, including novel nanofluidic devices. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the pressure driven water transport through graphene layers, focusing on the pore size homogeneity, realized by the arrangement of two pore sizes. For a given layer number, we find the water flux exhibits an excellent linear behavior with the pressure, in agreement with the prediction of Hagen-Poiseuille equation...
March 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Daoping Zha, Ying Li, Cunman Yang, Chi Yao
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been detected in the surface water, suspended sediments, and river sediments from the Yangtze River in China. A modified polar organic chemical integrative sampler (m-POCIS) was successfully used to quantify the OPFR concentrations in surface water. The OPFR concentrations estimated by the field m-POCIS at six sampling locations ranged from 8.99 to 112.45 ng/L with an average concentration of 47.04 ng/L. The OPFR concentrations in suspended sediments were related to the sediment particle size distribution...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Raúl Cassia, Macarena Nocioni, Natalia Correa-Aragunde, Lorenzo Lamattina
Here, we review information on how plants face redox imbalance caused by climate change, and focus on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this response. Life on Earth is possible thanks to greenhouse effect. Without it, temperature on Earth's surface would be around -19°C, instead of the current average of 14°C. Greenhouse effect is produced by greenhouse gasses (GHG) like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxides (Nx O) and ozone (O3 ). GHG have natural and anthropogenic origin. However, increasing GHG provokes extreme climate changes such as floods, droughts and heat, which induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
J D Drummond, F Boano, E R Atwill, X Li, T Harter, A I Packman
Rivers are a means of rapid and long-distance transmission of pathogenic microorganisms from upstream terrestrial sources. Pathogens enter streams and rivers via overland flow, shallow groundwater discharge, and direct inputs. Of concern is the protozoal parasite, Cryptosporidium, which can remain infective for weeks to months under cool and moist conditions, with the infectious stage (oocysts) largely resistant to chlorination. We applied a mobile-immobile model framework to assess Cryptosporidium transport and retention in streams, that also accounts for inactivation...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
A G Ramos, V J García-Garrido, A M Mancho, S Wiggins, J Coca, S Glenn, O Schofield, J Kohut, D Aragon, J Kerfoot, T Haskins, T Miles, C Haldeman, N Strandskov, B Allsup, C Jones, J Shapiro
Transoceanic Gliders are Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for which there is a developing and expanding range of applications in open-seas research, technology and underwater clean transport. Mature glider autonomy, operating depth (0-1000 meters) and low energy consumption without a CO2 footprint enable evolutionary access across ocean basins. Pursuant to the first successful transatlantic glider crossing in December 2009, the Challenger Mission has opened the door to long-term, long-distance routine transoceanic AUV missions...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
E A R Engku Nur Syafirah, A B Nurul Najian, Phiaw Chong Foo, Mohammad Ridhuan Mohd Ali, Maizan Mohamed, Chan Yean Yean
Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae is a foodborne disease that frequently reported in food and water related outbreak. Rapid diagnosis of cholera infection is important to avoid potential spread of disease. Among available diagnostic platforms, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is regarded as a potential diagnostic tool due to its rapidity, high sensitivity and specificity and independent of sophisticated thermalcycler. However, the current LAMP often requires multiple pipetting steps, hence is susceptible to cross contamination...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Yijun Pan, Jennifer L Short, Stephanie A Newman, Kwok H C Choy, Durgesh Tiwari, Christopher Yap, Danielle Senyschyn, William A Banks, Joseph A Nicolazzo
Epidemiological evidence suggests that people with bipolar disorder prescribed lithium exhibit a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) relative to those prescribed other mood-stabilizing medicines. Lithium chloride (LiCl) reduces brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels, and the brain clearance of Aβ is reduced in AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether the cognitive benefits of LiCl are associated with enhanced brain clearance of exogenously-administered Aβ. The brain clearance of intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered125 I-Aβ42 was assessed in male Swiss outbred mice administered daily oral NaCl or LiCl (300 mg/kg for 21 days)...
March 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Andrew M Holmes, Christopher J Emmans, Robert Coleman, Tessa E Smith, Charlotte A Hosie
Understanding the immediate and longer-term effects of transportation and re-housing in a laboratory species is crucial in order to refine the transfer process, enable the optimal introduction of new animals to a novel environment and to provide a sufficient acclimatisation period before usage. Whilst consideration of animal welfare in most model vertebrate species has received attention, little quantitative evidence exists for the optimal care of the common laboratory amphibian Xenopus laevis. Techniques for the non-invasive welfare assessment of amphibians are also limited and here a non-invasive physiological assay was developed to investigate the impacts of transportation, transport medium and re-housing on X...
March 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Nancy A Scott, Taryn Vian, Jeanette L Kaiser, Thandiwe Ngoma, Kaluba Mataka, Elizabeth G Henry, Godfrey Biemba, Mary Nambao, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends maternity waiting homes (MWH) as one intervention to improve maternal and newborn health. However, persistent structural, cultural and financial barriers in their design and implementation have resulted in mixed success in both their uptake and utilization. Guidance is needed on how to design a MWH intervention that is acceptable and sustainable. Using formative research and guided by a sustainability framework for health programs, we systematically collected data from key stakeholders and potential users in order to design a MWH intervention in Zambia that could overcome multi-dimensional barriers to accessing facility delivery, be acceptable to the community and be financially and operationally sustainable...
2018: PloS One
Maroua Ben Amira, Robin Mom, David Lopez, Hatem Chaar, Ali Khouaja, Valérie Pujade-Renaud, Boris Fumanal, Aurélie Gousset-Dupont, Gisèle Bronner, Philippe Label, Jean-Louis Julien, Mohamed Ali Triki, Daniel Auguin, Jean-Stéphane Venisse
Major intrinsic proteins (MIP) are characterized by a transmembrane pore-type architecture that facilitates transport across biomembranes of water and a variety of low molecular weight solutes. They are found in all parts of life, with remarkable protein diversity. Very little is known about MIP from fungi. And yet, it can legitimately be stated that MIP are pivotal molecular components in the privileged relationships fungi enjoy with plants or soil fauna in various environments. To date, MIP have never been studied in a mycoparasitism situation...
2018: PloS One
Paulina Duckic, Robert B Hayes
Buildup factors are dimensionless multiplicative factors required by the point kernel method to account for scattered radiation through a shielding material. The accuracy of the point kernel method is strongly affected by the correspondence of analyzed parameters to experimental configurations, which is attempted to be simplified here. The point kernel method has not been found to have widespread practical use for neutron shielding calculations due to the complex neutron transport behavior through shielding materials (i...
March 14, 2018: Health Physics
Yogesh Patil, Panayiotis Bilalis, Georgios Polymeropoulos, Sarah R Almahdali, Nikos Hadjichristidis, Valentin O Rodionov
A well-defined amphiphilic miktoarm polymer incorporating poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polystyrene (PS), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blocks was synthesized via a combination of atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), iodine transfer radical polymerization (ITP), and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Morphology and self-assembly of this star polymer were examined in organic solvents and in water. The aggregates formed in water were found to possess unusual frustrated topology due to immiscibility of PS and PVDF...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Youmin Hou, Miao Yu, Yuhe Shang, Peng Zhou, Ruyuan Song, Xiaonan Xu, Xuemei Chen, Zuankai Wang, Shuhuai Yao
Preventing or minimizing ice formation in supercooled water is of prominent importance in many infrastructures, transportation, and cooling systems. The overall phase change heat transfer on icephobic surfaces, in general, is intentionally sacrificed to suppress the nucleation of water and ice. However, in a condensation frosting process, inhibiting freezing without compromising the water condensation has been an unsolved challenge. Here we show that this conflict between anti-icing and efficient condensation cooling can be resolved by utilizing biphilic topography with patterned high-contrast wettability...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Paul M Barlow, Stanley A Leake, Michael N Fienen
The term capture, related to the source of water derived from wells, has been used in two distinct yet related contexts by the hydrologic community. The first is a water-budget context, in which capture refers to decreases in the rates of groundwater outflow and (or) increases in the rates of recharge along head-dependent boundaries of an aquifer in response to pumping. The second is a transport context, in which capture zone refers to the specific flowpaths that define the three-dimensional, volumetric portion of a groundwater flow field that discharges to a well...
March 15, 2018: Ground Water
Keisuke Usui, Keisuke Sasai, Koichi Ogawa
This study aimed to verify the validity of generating treatment plans for volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) for prostate cancer using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a dose calculation algorithm in Acuros XB (Eclipse version 13.6; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) based on deterministically solving the linear Boltzmann transport equations. Four different classes were applied to prostate MR images: MRW (all water equivalent); MRW+B (water and bone); MRS+B (soft tissue and bone); and MRS+B+G (soft tissue, bone, and rectal gas)...
March 14, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
Burak Ozgür, Lasse Saaby, Kristine Langthaler, Birger Brodin
The presented data are related to the research article entitled "Characterization of the IPEC-J2 MDR1 (iP-gp) cell line as a tool for identification of P-gp substrates" by Ozgur et al. (2017) [1]. This data report describes the challenges of investigating the concentration-dependent transport of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates with relatively low aqueous solubility. Thus, we provide solubility data on two prototypical P-gp substrates, digoxin and rhodamine 123, representing P-gp substrates with a relatively low- and high-aqueous solubility, respectively...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Cuimei Zhang, Shangli Shi
Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
E Damm, D Bauch, T Krumpen, B Rabe, M Korhonen, E Vinogradova, C Uhlig
Methane sources and sinks in the Arctic are poorly quantified. In particular, methane emissions from the Arctic Ocean and the potential sink capacity are still under debate. In this context sea ice impact on and the intense cycling of methane between sea ice and Polar surface water (PSW) becomes pivotal. We report on methane super- and under-saturation in PSW in the Eurasian Basin (EB), strongly linked to sea ice-ocean interactions. In the southern EB under-saturation in PSW is caused by both inflow of warm Atlantic water and short-time contact with sea ice...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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