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Water transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340415/uncertainty-analysis-for-effluent-trading-planning-using-a-bayesian-estimation-based-simulation-optimization-modeling-approach
#1
J L Zhang, Y P Li, G H Huang, B W Baetz, J Liu
In this study, a Bayesian estimation-based simulation-optimization modeling approach (BESMA) is developed for identifying effluent trading strategies. BESMA incorporates nutrient fate modeling with soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), Bayesian estimation, and probabilistic-possibilistic interval programming with fuzzy random coefficients (PPI-FRC) within a general framework. Based on the water quality protocols provided by SWAT, posterior distributions of parameters can be analyzed through Bayesian estimation; stochastic characteristic of nutrient loading can be investigated which provides the inputs for the decision making...
March 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339032/clc-7-ostm1-contribute-to-the-ability-of-tea-polyphenols-to-maintain-bone-homeostasis-in-c57bl-6-mice-protecting-against-fluorosis
#2
Bing-Yun Li, Yan-Hui Gao, Jun-Rui Pei, Yan-Mei Yang, Wei Zhang, Dian-Jun Sun
Epidemiological investigations indicate that certain ingredients in tea bricks can antagonize the adverse effects of fluoride. Tea polyphenols (TPs), the most bioactive ingredient in tea bricks, have been demonstrated to be potent bone-supporting agents. ClC‑7 is known to be crucial for osteoclast (OC) bone resorption. Thus, in this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of TPs against fluorosis using a mouse model and explored the underlying mechanisms with particular focus on ClC‑7...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338840/differences-in-functional-and-xylem-anatomical-features-allow-cistus-species-to-co-occur-and-cope-differently-with-drought-in-the-mediterranean-region
#3
José M Torres-Ruiz, Hervé Cochard, Elsa Fonseca, Eric Badel, Luiz Gazarini, Margarida Vaz
A significant increase in drought events frequency is predicted for the next decades induced by climate change, potentially affecting plant species mortality rates and distributions worldwide. The main trigger of plant mortality is xylem hydraulic failure due to embolism and induced by the low pressures at which water is transported through xylem. As the Mediterranean basin will be severely affected by climate change, the aim of this study was to provide novel information about drought resistance and tolerance of one of its most widely distributed and common genera as a case study: the genus Cistus...
February 27, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338800/a-steady-state-stomatal-model-of-balanced-leaf-gas-exchange-hydraulics-and-maximal-source-sink-flux
#4
Teemu Hölttä, Anna Lintunen, Tommy Chan, Annikki Mäkelä, Eero Nikinmaa
Trees must simultaneously balance their CO2 uptake rate via stomata, photosynthesis, the transport rate of sugars and rate of sugar utilization in sinks while maintaining a favourable water and carbon balance. We demonstrate using a numerical model that it is possible to understand stomatal functioning from the viewpoint of maximizing the simultaneous photosynthetic production, phloem transport and sink sugar utilization rate under the limitation that the transpiration-driven hydrostatic pressure gradient sets for those processes...
February 23, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338733/genetic-adaptation-and-phenotypic-plasticity-contribute-to-greater-leaf-hydraulic-tolerance-in-response-to-drought-in-warmer-climates
#5
Chris J Blackman, Michael J Aspinwall, David T Tissue, Paul D Rymer
The ability of plants to maintain an intact water transport system in leaves under drought conditions is intimately linked to survival and can been be seen as adaptive in shaping species climatic limits. Large differences in leaf hydraulic vulnerability to drought are known among species from contrasting climates, yet whether this trait varies among populations within a single species and, furthermore, whether it is altered by changes in growth conditions, remain unclear. We examined intraspecific variation in both leaf water transport capacity (Kleaf) and leaf hydraulic vulnerability to drought (P50leaf) among eight populations of Corymbia calophylla (R...
February 9, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338717/divergences-in-hydraulic-architecture-form-an-important-basis-for-niche-differentiation-between-diploid-and-polyploid-betula-species-in-ne-china
#6
Wei-Wei Zhang, Jia Song, Miao Wang, Yan-Yan Liu, Na Li, Yong-Jiang Zhang, N Michele Holbrook, Guang-You Hao
Habitat differentiation between polyploid and diploid plants are frequently observed, with polyploids usually occupying more stressed environments. In woody plants, polyploidization can greatly affect wood characteristics but knowledge of its influences on xylem hydraulics is scarce. The four Betula species in NE China, representing two diploids and two polyploids with obvious habitat differentiation, provide an exceptional study system for investigating the impact of polyploidization on environmental adaptation of trees from the point view of xylem hydraulics...
February 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336531/vasopressin-induced-serine-269-phosphorylation-reduces-sipa111-signal-induced-proliferation-associated-1-like-1-mediated-aquaporin-2-endocytosis
#7
Po-Jen Wang, Shu-Ting Lin, Shao-Hsuan Liu, Kuang-Ting Kuo, Chun-Hua Hsu, Mark A Knepper, Ming-Jiun Yu
The abundance of integral membrane proteins in the plasma membrane is determined by a dynamic balance between exocytosis and endocytosis, which can often be regulated by physiological stimuli. Here, we describe a mechanism that accounts for the ability of the peptide hormone vasopressin to regulate water excretion via a phosphorylation-dependent modulation of the PDZ domain-ligand interactions involving the water channel protein aquaporin-2. We discovered that the PDZ domain-containing protein Sipa1l1 (signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 like 1) binds to the cytoplasmic PDZ-ligand motif of aquaporin-2 and accelerates its endocytosis in the absence of vasopressin...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336089/cold-lake-blend-diluted-bitumen-toxicity-to-the-early-development-of-japanese-medaka
#8
Barry N Madison, Peter V Hodson, Valerie S Langlois
Diluted bitumen (dilbit) from Alberta oil sands (Canada) is transported across major continental watersheds, yet little is known about its toxicity to fish if spilled into aquatic environments. The toxicity of Cold Lake (CLB) dilbit was assessed for medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes) exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAF) and chemically-enhanced WAF (CEWAF) using Corexit(®)EC9500A as dispersant. The effects of CLB toxicity were similar to conventional crude oils and Access Western Blend (AWB) dilbit. The prevalence of malformations and cyp1a mRNA synthesis in hatched fish increased monotonically with concentration during WAF and CEWAF treatments and provided a novel indicator of dilbit PAH toxicity...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335603/molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-water-transport-mechanisms-through-nanoporous-boron-nitride-and-graphene-multilayers
#9
Majid Shahbabaei, Daejoong Kim
In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate water transport mechanisms through hourglass-shaped pore structure in nanoporous boron nitride (BN) and graphene multilayers. An increase in water flux is evidenced as the gap between the layers increases, reaching a maximum of 41 and 43 at d=6 Å in BN and graphene multilayers, respectively. Moreover, the BN multilayer exhibits less flux compared to graphene due to large friction force and energy barrier. In BN, the friction force dramatically increases when the layers are strongly stacked (d=3...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335344/a-targeted-nanoprobe-based-on-carbon-nanotubes-natural-biopolymer-chitosan-composites
#10
Baoyan Wu, Na Zhao
A novel targeting theranostic nanoprobe based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-natural biopolymer chitosan composites was developed for cancer cell targeting imaging and fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy. First, chitosan was respectively conjugated with a tumor-homing molecule folic acid, or a photosensitizing drug pyropheophorbide a using a water-soluble carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Chitosan was fluorescently labeled by fluorescein isothiocyanate via the covalently linkage of the isothiocyanate group with the amino group...
November 17, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334811/causes-and-predictors-of-neonatal-post-neonatal-and-maternal-deaths-in-india-analysis-of-a-nationwide-district-level-household-survey-4-dlhs-4-2012-13
#11
Jaya P Tripathy, Sanskruti Mishra
Introduction: There is lack of reliable mortality estimates in India about maternal, neonatal and infant deaths. As we move towards achieving the targets under Sustainable Development Goals, information on cause of death is essential to prioritize our resources and planning. Therefore, the present study describes the causes and characteristics of neonatal, post-neonatal and maternal deaths in India. Methods: The study analysed nationwide District-Level Household Survey-4 conducted by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, in 2014...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334530/morphology-and-doping-engineering-of-sn-doped-hematite-nanowire-photoanodes
#12
Mingyang Li, Yi Yang, Yichuan Ling, Weitao Qiu, Fuxin Wang, Tianyu Liu, Yu Song, Xiao-Xia Liu, Ping-Ping Fang, Yexiang Tong, Yat Li
High temperature activation has been commonly used to boost the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of hematite nanowires for water oxidation, by inducing Sn diffusion from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate into hematite. Yet, hematite nanowires thermally annealed at high temperature suffer from two major drawbacks that negatively affect their performance. First, the structural deformation reduces light absorption capability of nanowire. Second, this "passive" doping method leads to non-uniform distribution of Sn dopant in nanowire and limits the Sn doping concentration...
March 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333970/-epicatechin-3-o-%C3%AE-d-allopyranoside-from-davallia-formosana-prevents-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#13
Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Jin-Bin Wu, Jia-Ying Jian, Chun-Ching Shih
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanism of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-D-allopyranoside from Davallia formosana (BB) (also known as Gu-Sui-Bu) on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. This plant was demonstrated to display antioxidant activities and possess polyphenol contents. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and were given daily oral gavage doses of either BB (at three dosage levels), metformin (Metf) (at 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333448/role-of-oxygen-functionalities-in-graphene-oxide-architectural-laminates-goal-sub-nanometer-spacing-and-water-transport
#14
Carlo Alberto Amadei, Andrea Montessori, Julian P Kadow, Sauro Succi, Chad David Vecitis
Active research in nanotechnology contemplates the use of nanomaterials for environmental engineering applications. However, a primary challenge is understanding the effects of nanomaterial properties on industrial device performance and translating unique nanoscale properties to the macroscale. One emerging example is graphene oxide (GO) membranes for separation processes. Thus, here we investigate how individual GO properties, in particular the GO chemistry, can impact GO membrane characteristics and water permeability...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333199/effect-of-butyrate-and-lactobacillus-gg-on-a-butyrate-receptor-and-transporter-during-campylobacter-jejuni-exposure
#15
Gail A M Cresci, Paul C Mayer, Stuart A Thompson
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) frequently infects humans causing many gastrointestinal symptoms, fever, fatigue and several long-term debilitating diseases. Current treatment for campylobacteriosis includes rehydration and in some cases, antibiotic therapy. Probiotics are used to treat several gastrointestinal diseases. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid known to promote intestinal health. Interaction of butyrate with its respective receptor (HCAR2) and transporter (SLC5A8), both expressed in the intestine, is associated with water and electrolyte absorption as well as providing defense against colon cancer and inflammation...
February 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333068/effects-of-reactive-oxygen-species-on-tubular-transport-along-the-nephron
#16
REVIEW
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Jeffrey L Garvin
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are oxygen-containing molecules naturally occurring in both inorganic and biological chemical systems. Due to their high reactivity and potentially damaging effects to biomolecules, cells express a battery of enzymes to rapidly metabolize them to innocuous intermediaries. Initially, ROS were considered by biologists as dangerous byproducts of respiration capable of causing oxidative stress, a condition in which overproduction of ROS leads to a reduction in protective molecules and enzymes and consequent damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA...
March 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331791/one-dimensional-earth-abundant-nanomaterials-for-water-splitting-electrocatalysts
#17
REVIEW
Jun Li, Gengfeng Zheng
Hydrogen fuel acquisition based on electrochemical or photoelectrochemical water splitting represents one of the most promising means for the fast increase of global energy need, capable of offering a clean and sustainable energy resource with zero carbon footprints in the environment. The key to the success of this goal is the realization of robust earth-abundant materials and cost-effective reaction processes that can catalyze both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), with high efficiency and stability...
March 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331059/adaptive-changes-in-gfr-tubular-morphology-and-transport-in-subtotal-nephrectomized-kidneys-modeling-and-analysis
#18
Anita T Layton, Aurélie Edwards, Volker Vallon
Removal of renal mass stimulates anatomical and functional adaptations in the surviving nephrons, including elevation in single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) and tubular hypertrophy. A goal of this study is to assess the extent to which the concomitant increases in filtered load and tubular transport capacity preserve homeostasis of water and salt. To accomplish that goal, we developed computational models to simulate solute transport and metabolism along nephron populations in a uninephrectomized (UNX) rat and a 5/6-nephrectomized (5/6-NX) rat...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330553/physiological-and-molecular-insights-into-the-high-salinity-tolerance-of-pongamia-pinnata-l-pierre-a-potential-biofuel-tree-species
#19
Sureshbabu Marriboina, Debashree Sengupta, Sumit Kumar, Attipalli R Reddy
Soil salinity is gradually becoming a threat to the global economy by affecting agricultural productivity worldwide. Here, we analyze the salinity tolerance of Pongamia pinnata with an insight into the underlying physiological and molecular responses. Despite a reduction in net photosynthetic rate, P. pinnata efficiently maintained its leaf water potentials even at 500mM NaCl for 15days and displayed no visible stress symptoms. Na(+) localization analysis using CoroNa-Green AM revealed effective Na(+) sequestration in the roots when compared to leaves...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330456/genome-wide-expression-profiling-in-leaves-and-roots-of-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-exposed-to-salinity
#20
Mahmoud W Yaish, Himanshu V Patankar, Dekoum V M Assaha, Yun Zheng, Rashid Al-Yahyai, Ramanjulu Sunkar
BACKGROUND: Date palm, as one of the most important fruit crops in North African and West Asian countries including Oman, is facing serious growth problems due to salinity, arising from persistent use of saline water for irrigation. Although date palm is a relatively salt-tolerant plant species, its adaptive mechanisms to salt stress are largely unknown. RESULTS: In order to get an insight into molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance, RNA was profiled in leaves and roots of date palm seedlings subjected to NaCl for 10 days...
March 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
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