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Water transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641182/unraveling-the-complexities-of-the-velocity-dependency-of-e-coli-retention-and-release-parameters-in-saturated-porous-media
#1
Salini Sasidharan, Scott A Bradford, Saeed Torkzaban, Xueyan Ye, Joanne Vanderzalm, Xinqiang Du, Declan Page
Escherichia coli transport and release experiments were conducted to investigate the pore-water velocity (v) dependency of the sticking efficiency (α), the fraction of the solid surface area that contributed to retention (Sf), the percentage of injected cells that were irreversibly retained (Mirr), and cell release under different (10-300mM) ionic strength (IS) conditions. Values of α, Sf, and Mirr increased with increasing IS and decreasing v, but the dependency on v was greatest at intermediate IS (30 and 50mM)...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640581/molecular-insight-of-water-desalination-across-multilayer-graphene-oxide-membranes
#2
Bo Chen, Haifeng Jiang, Xiang Liu, Xuejiao Hu
Transport of ionic solutions through graphene oxide (GO) membranes is a complicated issue because the complex and tortuous structure inside make it very hard to clarify. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we investigated the mechanism of water transport and ions movement across the multilayer graphene oxide. The significant flow rate is considerably influenced by the structural parameters of GO membranes. Due to the size effect on shrunken real flow area, there is disagreement between classical continuum model and nano-scaled flow...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636801/water-channels-and-barriers-formed-by-claudins
#3
REVIEW
Rita Rosenthal, Dorothee Günzel, Dian Theune, Carolina Czichos, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Michael Fromm
Physiological studies in leaky epithelia, like kidney proximal tubules and the small intestine, have documented water transport via both transcellular and paracellular pathways. The discovery of aquaporin water channels provided a molecular basis for transcellular water movement. In contrast, the contribution, or even existence, of a specific paracellular water pathway has been disputed for a long time, until the cation channel-forming tight junction protein claudin-2 was shown to also permit the paracellular passage of water through its pore...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636601/crystal-structure-of-the-potassium-importing-kdpfabc-membrane-complex
#4
Ching-Shin Huang, Bjørn Panyella Pedersen, David L Stokes
Cellular potassium import systems play a fundamental role in osmoregulation, pH homeostasis and membrane potential in all domains of life. In bacteria, the kdp operon encodes a four-subunit potassium pump that maintains intracellular homeostasis, cell shape and turgor under conditions in which potassium is limiting. This membrane complex, called KdpFABC, has one channel-like subunit (KdpA) belonging to the superfamily of potassium transporters and another pump-like subunit (KdpB) belonging to the superfamily of P-type ATPases...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636338/contributions-of-local-farming-to-urban-sustainability-in-the-northeast-united-states
#5
Benjamin P Goldstein, Michael Z Hauschild, John E Fernández, Morten Birkved
Food consumption is an important contributor to a city's environmental impacts (carbon emissions, land occupation, water use, etc.) Urban farming (UF) has been advocated as a means to increase urban sustainability by reducing food-related transport and tapping into local resources. Taking Boston as an illustrative Northeast U.S. city, we developed a novel method to estimate sub-urban, food-borne carbon and land footprints using multiregion-input-output modeling and nutritional surveys. Computer simulations utilizing primary data explored UF's ability to reduce these footprints using select farming technologies, building on previous city-scale UF assessments which have hitherto been dependent on proxy data for UF...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636050/photoelectrochemical-ion-concentration-polarization-membraneless-ion-filtration-based-on-light-driven-electrochemical-reactions
#6
Eunsoo Yoon, Collin D Davies, Tim A Hooper, Richard M Crooks
In this article we report a microelectrochemical system that is able to partially desalinate water. The underlying principles are similar to previous reports in which a local electric field resists passage of ions. However, in the present case, no membrane is required and, most interestingly, much of the power for desalination originates from light rather than electricity. This could greatly increase the power efficiency for desalination. The device is based on a TiO2 photoanode coupled to a Pt cathode. Illumination of the photoanode drives faradaic reactions at the cathode that lead to an ion depletion zone...
June 21, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635638/antibiotic-concentrations-decrease-during-wastewater-treatment-but-persist-at-low-levels-in-reclaimed-water
#7
Prachi Kulkarni, Nathan D Olson, Greg A Raspanti, Rachel E Rosenberg Goldstein, Shawn G Gibbs, Amir Sapkota, Amy R Sapkota
Reclaimed water has emerged as a potential irrigation solution to freshwater shortages. However, limited data exist on the persistence of antibiotics in reclaimed water used for irrigation. Therefore, we examined the fate of nine commonly-used antibiotics (ampicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, linezolid, oxacillin, oxolinic acid, penicillin G, pipemidic acid, and tetracycline) in differentially treated wastewater and reclaimed water from two U.S. regions. We collected 72 samples from two Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest treatment plants, as well as one Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634153/beyond-basic-feedback-in-mobile-brief-interventions-designing-sms-message-content-for-delivery-to-young-adults-during-risky-drinking-events
#8
Cassandra J C Wright, Paul M Dietze, Megan S C Lim
BACKGROUND: Brief interventions can reduce alcohol consumption in young people through screening and delivery of personally relevant feedback. Recently, Web and mobile platforms have been harnessed to increase the reach of brief interventions. Existing literature on mobile-based alcohol brief interventions indicates mixed use of theory in developing interventions. There is no research available to guide the development of SMS text messaging (short message service, SMS) interventions delivered during risky drinking events...
June 20, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633839/permeability-recovery-of-damaged-water-sensitive-core-using-ultrasonic-waves
#9
Nasir Khan, Chunsheng Pu, Xu Li, Yanlong He, Lei Zhang, Cheng Jing
It is imperative to recover the well productivity lose due to formation damage nearby wellbore during variant well operations. Some indispensable issues in conventional techniques make ultrasonic technology more attractive due to simple, reliable, favorable, cost-effective, and environment friendly nature. This study proposes the independent and combined use of ultrasonic waves and chemical agents for the treatment of already damaged core samples caused by exposure to distilled water. Results elucidate that ultrasonic waves with optimum (20kHz, 1000W) instead of maximum frequency and power worked well in the recovery owing to peristaltic transport caused by matching of natural frequency with acoustic waves frequency...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633427/genotypic-variation-in-tolerance-to-drought-stress-is-highly-coordinated-with-hydraulic-conductivity-photosynthesis-interplay-and-aquaporin-expression-in-field-grown-mulberry-morus-spp
#10
Kanubothula Sitarami Reddy, Kalva Madhana Sekhar, Attipalli Ramachandra Reddy
Hydraulic conductivity quantifies the efficiency of a plant to transport water from root to shoot and is a major constriction on leaf gas exchange physiology. Mulberry (Morus spp.) is the most economically important crop for sericulture industry. In this study, we demonstrate a finely coordinated control of hydraulic dynamics on leaf gas exchange characteristics in 1-year-old field-grown mulberry genotypes (Selection-13 (S13); Kollegal Local (KL) and Kanva-2 (K2)) subjected to water stress by withholding water for 20 days and subsequent recovery for 7 days...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633134/peritoneal-water-transport-characteristics-of-diabetic-patients-undergoing-peritoneal-dialysis-a-longitudinal-study
#11
Ana Fernandes, Roi Ribera-Sanchez, Ana Rodríguez-Carmona, Antía López-Iglesias, Natacha Leite-Costa, Miguel Pérez Fontán
BACKGROUND: Volume overload is frequent in diabetics undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), and may play a significant role in the excess mortality observed in these patients. The characteristics of peritoneal water transport in this population have not been studied sufficiently. METHOD: Following a prospective, single-center design we made cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of peritoneal water transport in 2 relatively large samples of diabetic and nondiabetic PD patients...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633068/multi-electrode-system-for-measurement-of-transmembrane-ion-fluxes-through-living-epithelial-cells
#12
Mirosław Zając, Andrzej Lewenstam, Krzysztof Dolowy
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal human genetic disease. It is caused by the defect in a single anion channel protein which affects ion and water transport across the epithelial tissue. A flat multi-electrode platform of diameter 12mm, allowing for measurement of four ions: sodium, potassium, hydrogen and chloride by exchangeable/replaceable ion-selective electrodes is described. The measurement is possible owing to the architecture of the platform which accommodates all the electrodes and inlets/outlets...
June 13, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633064/an-innovative-approach-to-bioremediation-of-mercury-contaminated-soils-from-industrial-mining-operations
#13
Damien McCarthy, Grant C Edwards, Mae S Gustin, Andrew Care, Matthieu B Miller, Anwar Sunna
Soils contaminated with mercury (Hg) have proved expensive and logistically difficult to remediate. Research continues into finding suitable environmentally-friendly and efficient ways of achieving this end. Bioremediation is an option, which employs the strategies microorganisms have evolved to deal with Hg. One microbial strategy involves uptake and intracellular volatilisation of mercuric ions, which passively diffuse from the cell and back into the atmosphere. In this work, Pseudomonas veronii cells grown to stationary phase were immobilised in a xanthan gum-based biopolymer via encapsulation...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632458/aquaporins-novel-targets-for-age-related-ocular-disorders
#14
Rajkumar Patil, Haishan Wang, Najam A Sharif, Alok Mitra
Aquaporins (AQPs), a large family of membrane protein channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes, play important roles in physiological functions and human diseases. Up till now, 13 types of AQPs, numbered 0 through 12, have been identified in various mammalian tissues. Homologous genes for AQPs in amphibians, insects, and bacteria highlight the evolutionary conservation and, thus, the importance of these membrane channels. Many members of the AQP family are expressed in the eye. AQP1, which is a water-selective channel, is expressed in the anterior chamber (cornea, ciliary body, trabecular meshwork) and posterior chamber (retina and microvessels in choroid), controlling the fluid homeostasis in the eye...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631831/spatial-and-temporal-trends-and-flow-dynamics-of-glyphosate-and-other-pesticides-within-an-agricultural-watershed-in-argentina
#15
Débora J Pérez, Elena Okada, Eduardo De Gerónimo, Mirta L Menone, Virginia C Aparicio, José L Costa
In the present study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal trends of current use pesticides in surface water and sediments and to determine its relation with hydrological stream dynamics within the agricultural watershed of El Crespo stream. We sampled two contrasting sites: Site 1 (upstream) surrounded by agricultural lands, and Site 2 (downstream) surrounded by natural grasslands. Most of the applied pesticides (i.e. glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine, tebuconazole and imidacloprid) were detected in high frequencies in surface water samples at both sites...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631264/targeted-use-of-leds-in-improvement-of-production-efficiency-through-phytochemical-enrichment
#16
REVIEW
E Taulavuori, K Taulavuori, J K Holopainen, R Julkunen-Tiitto, C Acar, I Dincer
Based on available literature, ecology and economy of LED (light emitting diode) lights in plant foods production were assessed and compared to HPS (high pressure sodium) and CFL (compact fluorescent light) lamps. The assessment summarises that LEDs are superior compared to other lamp types. LEDs are ideal in luminous efficiency, life span and electricity usage. Mercury, carbon dioxide and heat emissions are also lowest in comparison to HPS and CFL lamps. This indicates that LEDs are indeed economic and eco-friendly lighting devices...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630638/cichorium-intybus-l-promotes-intestinal-uric-acid-excretion-by-modulating-abcg2-in-experimental-hyperuricemia
#17
Yu Wang, Zhijian Lin, Bing Zhang, Anzheng Nie, Meng Bian
BACKGROUND: Excessive production and/or reduced excretion of uric acid could lead to hyperuricemia, which could be a major cause of disability. Hyperuricemia has received increasing attention in the last few decades due to its global prevalence. Cichorium intybus L., commonly known as chicory, is a perennial herb of the asteraceae family. It was previously shown to exert potent hypouricemic effects linked with decreasing uric acid formation in the liver by down-regulating the activity of xanthine oxidase, and increasing uric acid excretion by up-regulating the renal OAT3 mRNA expression...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628819/dissolved-gaseous-mercury-formation-and-mercury-volatilization-in-intertidal-sediments
#18
Rute Cesário, Laurier Poissant, Martin Pilote, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Ana M Mota, João Canário
Intertidal sediments of Tagus estuary regularly experiences complex redistribution due to tidal forcing, which affects the cycling of mercury (Hg) between sediments and the water column. This study quantifies total mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MMHg) concentrations and fluxes in a flooded mudflat as well as the effects on water-level fluctuations on the air-surface exchange of mercury. A fast increase in dissolved Hg and MMHg concentrations was observed in overlying water in the first 10min of inundation and corresponded to a decrease in pore waters, suggesting a rapid export of Hg and MMHg from sediments to the water column...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627708/alterations-in-aqp4-expression-and-polarization-in-the-course-of-motor-neuron-degeneration-in-sod1g93a-mice
#19
Jiaying Dai, Weihao Lin, Minying Zheng, Qiang Liu, Baixuan He, Chuanming Luo, Xilin Lu, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su, Xiaoli Yao
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. The disease progression is associated with the astrocytic environment. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels are the most abundant AQPs expressed in astrocytes, exerting important influences on central nervous system homeostasis. The present study aimed to characterize the alterations in AQP4 expression and loca-lization in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) G93A transgenic mice...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627526/polymeric-carbon-nitride-for-solar-hydrogen-production
#20
Xiaobo Li, Anthony F Masters, Thomas Maschmeyer
If solar hydrogen production from water is to be a realistic candidate for industrial hydrogen production, the development of photocatalysts, which avoid the use of expensive and/or toxic elements is highly desirable from a scalability, cost and environmental perspective. Metal-free polymeric carbon nitride is an attractive material that can absorb visible light and produce hydrogen from water. This article reviews recent developments in polymeric carbon nitride as used in photocatalysis and then develops the discussion focusing on the three primary processes of a photocatalytic reaction: light-harvesting, carrier generation/separation/transportation and surface reactions...
June 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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