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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166670/age-related-differences-in-the-respiratory-microbiota-of-chickens
#1
Laura Glendinning, Gerry McLachlan, Lonneke Vervelde
In this era of next generation sequencing technologies it is now possible to characterise the chicken respiratory microbiota without the biases inherent to traditional culturing techniques. However, little research has been performed in this area. In this study we characterise and compare buccal, nasal and lung microbiota samples from chickens in three different age groups using 16S rRNA gene analysis. Buccal and nasal swabs were taken from birds aged 2 days (n = 5), 3 weeks (n = 5) and 30 months (n = 6). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were also collected alongside reagent only controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166392/intestinal-ralstonia-pickettii-augments-glucose-intolerance-in-obesity
#2
Shanthadevi D Udayappan, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Guido J Bakker, Stefan R Havik, Hilde Herrema, Patrice D Cani, Kristien E Bouter, Clara Belzer, Julia J Witjes, Anne Vrieze, Noor de Sonnaville, Alice Chaplin, Daniel H van Raalte, Steven Aalvink, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Hans G H J Heilig, Göran Bergström, Suzan van der Meij, Bart A van Wagensveld, Joost B L Hoekstra, Frits Holleman, Erik S G Stroes, Albert K Groen, Fredrik Bäckhed, Willem M de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp
An altered intestinal microbiota composition has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Low grade inflammation, potentially initiated by the intestinal microbiota, has been suggested to be a driving force in the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Here, we report that bacterial DNA is present in mesenteric adipose tissue of obese but otherwise healthy human subjects. Pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that DNA from the Gram-negative species Ralstonia was most prevalent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166176/microbiological-quality-assessment-of-game-meats-at-retail-in-japan
#3
Hiroshi Asakura, Jun Kawase, Tetsuya Ikeda, Mioko Honda, Yoshimasa Sasaki, Masashi Uema, Hidenori Kabeya, Hiromu Sugiyama, Shizunobu Igimi, Shinji Takai
In this study, we examined the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and the distribution of indicator bacteria in 248 samples of game meats (120 venison and 128 wild boar) retailed between November 2015 and March 2016 in Japan. No Salmonella spp. were detected in any of the samples, whereas Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotype OUT:H25 (stx2d(+), eae(-)) was isolated from one deer meat sample, suggesting a possible source for human infection. Plate count assays indicated greater prevalence of coliforms and E...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165845/wolbachia-infection-alters-the-relative-abundance-of-resident-bacteria-in-adult-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-but-not-larvae
#4
Michelle D Audsley, Andrei Seleznev, D Albert Joubert, Megan Woolfit, Scott L O'Neill, Elizabeth A McGraw
Insect-symbiont interactions are known to play key roles in host functions and fitness. The common insect endosymbiont Wolbachia can reduce the ability of several human pathogens, including arboviruses and the malaria parasite, to replicate in insect hosts. Wolbachia does not naturally infect Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus, but transinfected Ae. aegypti have anti-dengue virus properties and are currently being trialled as a dengue biocontrol strategy. Here, we assess the impact of Wolbachia infection of Ae...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164717/antibiotics-reduce-genetic-diversity-of-core-species-in-the-honeybee-gut-microbiome
#5
Kasie Raymann, Louis-Marie Bobay, Nancy A Moran
The gut microbiome plays a key role in animal health, and perturbing it can have detrimental effects. One major source of perturbation to microbiomes, in humans and human-associated animals, is exposure to antibiotics. Most studies of how antibiotics affect the microbiome have used amplicon sequencing of highly conserved 16S rRNA sequences, as in a recent study showing that antibiotic treatment severely alters the species-level composition of the honeybee gut microbiome. But because the standard 16S rRNA-based methods cannot resolve closely related strains, strain-level changes could not be evaluated...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164486/adaptation-and-probiotic-potential-of-lactobacilli-isolated-from-the-oral-cavity-and-intestines-of-healthy-people
#6
Yulia Chervinets, Vyacheslav Chervinets, Boris Shenderov, Ekaterina Belyaeva, Andrey Troshin, Sergey Lebedev, Valery Danilenko
The present study shows that, from 300 Lactobacillus strains isolated from the oral cavity and large intestine of 600 healthy people, only 9 had high antagonistic activity against pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. All antagonistic strains of lactobacilli have been identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and assigned to four species: Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei. In addition, these lactobacilli appeared to be nonpathogenic and had some probiotic potential: the strains produced lactic acid and bacteriocins, showed high sensitivity to broad-spectrum antibiotics, and were capable of forming biofilms in vitro...
November 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164291/bacterial-diversity-in-traditional-doogh-in-comparison-to-industrial-doogh
#7
Hamid Reza Sayevand, Farzaneh Bakhtiary, Angelika Pointner, Marlene Remely, Berit Hippe, Hedayat Hosseini, Alexander Haslberger
Forty-four samples of traditional Doogh and yoghurt were collected from 13 regions of 4 provinces in west of Iran (13 area) and analyzed using molecular methods including PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA, and sequencing. Moreover, collected samples as well as samples from industrially Doogh were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequences of Doogh samples could be allocated to the presence of Lactobacillus spp. The typical yoghurt starter culture bacteria included four different Lactobacillus species with possible probiotic properties, L...
November 21, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164082/acute-septic-arthritis-of-the-knee-caused-by-kingella-kingae-in-a-5-year-old-cameroonian-boy
#8
Nawal El Houmami, Dimitri Ceroni, Karine Codjo Seignon, Jean-Christophe Pons, Cédric Lambert, Guillaume André Durand, Philippe Minodier, Léopold Lamah, Philippe Bidet, Jacques Schrenzel, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Kingella kingae is an important cause of invasive infections in young children from Western countries. Although increasing reports indicate that this organism is the leading agent of bone and joint infections in early childhood, data on K. kingae infections from resource-limited settings are scarce, and none has yet been reported in Africa. We herein report the diagnostic and epidemiological investigations of the first case of K. kingae arthritis identified in a child from sub-Saharan Africa. A 5-year-old Cameroonian boy presented with a sudden painful limp which appeared in the course of a mild rhinopharyngitis...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163646/prevalence-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-in-captive-wildlife-species-of-india
#9
A A Prince Milton, R K Agarwal, G B Priya, M Saminathan, M Aravind, A Reddy, C K Athira, Anjay, T P Ramees, K Dhama, A K Sharma, A Kumar
Campylobacteriosis is an important zoonotic disease and the prevalence of Campylobacter is largely unknown in the wildlife of India. A total of 370 samples, comprising of 314 fresh faecal samples from apparently healthy captive wild animals and birds, 30 stool swabs from animal care takers and 26 samples of the animals' food and water were collected from G. B. Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital, Kanpur Zoo, Wildlife Park, IVRI and the Post Graduate Research Institute in Animal Sciences (PGRIAS), Chennai, Tamilnadu from August 2014 to May 2015...
2017: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163454/low-molecular-weight-chitosan-supplementation-increases-the-population-of-prevotella-in-the-cecal-contents-of-weanling-pigs
#10
Ting Yu, Yu Wang, Shicheng Chen, Min Hu, Zhiling Wang, Guozhong Wu, Xianyong Ma, Zhuang Chen, Chuntian Zheng
Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LC) promoted growth in weaned piglets as an alternative to feed-grade antibiotics. To investigate the influence of LC supplementation on piglets' gut microbiome and compare the differences in community composition between LC and antibiotics with ZnO addition, we assessed the cecal microbial community by 16S rRNA gene sequencing with three treatments consisting of basal diet (CTR group), basal diet with low-molecular-weight chitosan (LC group), and basal diet with antibiotic and ZnO (AZ group)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163453/an-integrated-insight-into-the-relationship-between-soil-microbial-community-and-tobacco-bacterial-wilt-disease
#11
Hongwu Yang, Juan Li, Yunhua Xiao, Yabing Gu, Hongwei Liu, Yili Liang, Xueduan Liu, Jin Hu, Delong Meng, Huaqun Yin
The soil microbial communities play an important role in plant health, however, the relationship between the below-ground microbiome and above-ground plant health remains unclear. To reveal such a relationship, we analyzed soil microbial communities through sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 15 different tobacco fields with different levels of wilt disease in the central south part of China. We found that plant health was related to the soil microbial diversity as plants may benefit from the diverse microbial communities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163444/progressive-colonization-of-bacteria-and-degradation-of-rice-straw-in-the-rumen-by-illumina-sequencing
#12
Yanfen Cheng, Ying Wang, Yuanfei Li, Yipeng Zhang, Tianyi Liu, Yu Wang, Thomas J Sharpton, Weiyun Zhu
The aim of this study was to improve the utilization of rice straw as forage in ruminants by investigating the degradation pattern of rice straw in the dairy cow rumen. Ground up rice straw was incubated in situ in the rumens of three Holstein cows over a period of 72 h. The rumen fluid at 0 h and the rice straw at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h were collected for analysis of the bacterial community and the degradation of the rice straw. The bacterial community and the carbohydrate-active enzymes in the rumen fluid were analyzed by metagenomics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163432/stratified-bacterial-and-archaeal-community-in-mangrove-and-intertidal-wetland-mudflats-revealed-by-high-throughput-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing
#13
Zhichao Zhou, Han Meng, Yang Liu, Ji-Dong Gu, Meng Li
The stratified distribution of bacterial and archaeal communities has been detected in many sediment profiles from various natural environments. A better understanding of microbial composition and diversity pattern in coastal mangrove wetlands in relation to physicochemical and spatial-temporal influences could provide more insights into the ecological functions of microbes in coastal wetlands. In this study, seasonal variations of microbial communities within sediment profiles from two sediment types (mangrove forest and intertidal mudflats) at three sampling locations in coastal Mai Po wetland were characterized using MiSeq high throughput sequencing and 16S rRNA quantitative PCR methods...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163431/camelina-seed-supplementation-at-two-dietary-fat-levels-change-ruminal-bacterial-community-composition-in-a-dual-flow-continuous-culture-system
#14
Xiaoxia Dai, Paul J Weimer, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Virginia L N Brandao, Garret Suen, Antonio P Faciola
This experiment aimed to determine the effects of camelina seed (CS) supplementation at different dietary fat levels on ruminal bacterial community composition and how it relates to changes in ruminal fermentation in a dual-flow continuous culture system. Diets were randomly assigned to 8 fermenters (1,200-1,250 mL) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with four 10-day experimental periods that consisted of 7 days for diet adaptation and 3 days for sample collection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163423/microbial-community-composition-and-functional-capacity-in-a-terrestrial-ferruginous-sulfate-depleted-mud-volcano
#15
Tzu-Hsuan Tu, Li-Wei Wu, Yu-Shih Lin, Hiroyuki Imachi, Li-Hung Lin, Pei-Ling Wang
Terrestrial mud volcanoes (MVs) are an important natural source of methane emission. The role of microbial processes in methane cycling and organic transformation in such environments remains largely unexplored. In this study, we aim to uncover functional potentials and community assemblages across geochemical transitions in a ferruginous, sulfate-depleted MV of eastern Taiwan. Geochemical profiles combined with 16S rRNA gene abundances indicated that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) mediated by ANME-2a group coincided with iron/manganese reduction by Desulfuromonadales at shallow depths deprived of sulfate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163420/microbial-diversity-and-community-structure-of-sulfate-reducing-and-sulfur-oxidizing-bacteria-in-sediment-cores-from-the-east-china-sea
#16
Yu Zhang, Xungong Wang, Yu Zhen, Tiezhu Mi, Hui He, Zhigang Yu
Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) have been studied extensively in marine sediments because of their vital roles in both sulfur and carbon cycles, but the available information regarding the highly diverse SRB and SOB communities is not comprehensive. High-throughput sequencing of functional gene amplicons provides tremendous insight into the structure and functional potential of complex microbial communities. Here, we explored the community structure, diversity, and abundance of SRB and SOB simultaneously through 16S rRNA, dsrB and soxB gene high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR analyses of core samples from the East China Sea...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163411/diversity-within-italian-cheesemaking-brine-associated-bacterial-communities-evidenced-by-massive-parallel-16s-rrna-gene-tag-sequencing
#17
Marilena Marino, Nadia Innocente, Michela Maifreni, Jérôme Mounier, José F Cobo-Díaz, Emmanuel Coton, Lisa Carraro, Barbara Cardazzo
This study explored the bacterial diversity of brines used for cheesemaking in Italy, as well as their physicochemical characteristics. In this context, 19 brines used to salt soft, semi-hard, and hard Italian cheeses were collected in 14 commercial cheese plants and analyzed using a culture-independent amplicon sequencing approach in order to describe their bacterial microbiota. Large NaCl concentration variations were observed among the selected brines, with hard cheese brines exhibiting the highest values...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163397/functionality-of-root-associated-bacteria-along-a-salt-marsh-primary-succession
#18
Miao Wang, Erqin Li, Chen Liu, Alexandre Jousset, Joana F Salles
Plant-associated bacteria are known for their high functional trait diversity, from which many are likely to play a role in primary and secondary succession, facilitating plant establishment in suboptimal soils conditions. Here we used an undisturbed salt marsh chronosequence that represents over 100 years of soil development to assess how the functional traits of plant associated bacteria respond to soil type, plant species and plant compartment. We isolated and characterized 808 bacterial colonies from the rhizosphere soil and root endosphere of two salt marsh plants, Limonium vulgare and Artemisia maritima, along the chronosequence...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163394/cadaver-thanatomicrobiome-signatures-the-ubiquitous-nature-of-clostridium-species-in-human-decomposition
#19
Gulnaz T Javan, Sheree J Finley, Tasia Smith, Joselyn Miller, Jeremy E Wilkinson
Human thanatomicrobiome studies have established that an abundant number of putrefactive bacteria within internal organs of decaying bodies are obligate anaerobes, Clostridium spp. These microorganisms have been implicated as etiological agents in potentially life-threatening infections; notwithstanding, the scale and trajectory of these microbes after death have not been elucidated. We performed phylogenetic surveys of thanatomicrobiome signatures of cadavers' internal organs to compare the microbial diversity between the 16S rRNA gene V4 hypervariable region and V3-4 conjoined regions from livers and spleens of 45 cadavers undergoing forensic microbiological studies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163386/evaluating-production-of-cyclopentyl-tetraethers-by-marine-group-ii-euryarchaeota-in-the-pearl-river-estuary-and-coastal-south-china-sea-potential-impact-on-the-tex86-paleothermometer
#20
Jin-Xiang Wang, Wei Xie, Yi Ge Zhang, Travis B Meador, Chuanlun L Zhang
TEX86 [TetraEther indeX of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) with 86 carbon atoms] has been widely applied to reconstruct (paleo-) sea surface temperature. Marine Group I (MG-I) Thaumarchaeota were thought to be the primary source of GDGTs constituting the TEX86 formula; however, recent research has suggested that Marine Group II (MG-II) Euryarchaeota may also contribute significantly to the GDGT pool in the ocean. Little is known regarding the potential impact of MG-II Euryarchaeota-derived GDGTs on TEX86 values recorded in marine sediments...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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