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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916647/ppars-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Kim H H Liss, Brian N Finck
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver pathology ranging from simple steatosis to varying degrees of inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrosis. Without intervention it can progress to end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Given its close association with obesity, the prevalence of NAFLD has increased dramatically worldwide. Currently, there are no FDA-approved medications for the treatment of NAFLD and although lifestyle modifications with appropriate diet and exercise have been shown to be beneficial, this has been difficult to achieve and sustain for the majority of patients...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867096/ptgr1-expression-is-regulated-by-nrf2-in-rat-hepatocarcinogenesis-and-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-resistance-to-oxidative-stress
#2
Ricardo Sánchez-Rodríguez, Julia Esperanza Torres-Mena, Valeria Quintanar-Jurado, Victoria Chagoya-Hazas, Emilio Rojas Del Castillo, Luis Del Pozo Yauner, Saul Villa-Treviño, Julio Isael Pérez-Carreón
Prostaglandin reductase-1 (Ptgr1) is an alkenal/one oxidoreductase that is involved in the catabolism of eicosanoids and lipid peroxidation such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Recently, we reported that Ptgr1 is overexpressed in human clinical and experimentally induced samples of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, how the expression of this gene is regulated and its role in carcinogenesis are not yet known. Here, we studied parameters associated with antioxidant responses and the mechanisms underlying the induction of Ptgr1 expression by the activation of Nuclear Factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like-2 (NRF2)...
November 18, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863537/high-resolution-proteomic-and-lipidomic-analysis-of-exosomes-and-microvesicles-from-different-cell-sources
#3
Reka A Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John Leszyk, Scott A Shaffer, Hannah E Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R Narain, Marian DiFiglia, Michael A Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860262/ferroptosis-a-new-form-of-cell-death-and-its-relationships-with-tumourous-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Haitao Yu, Pengyi Guo, Xiaozai Xie, Yi Wang, Gang Chen
Ferroptosis is a newly discovered type of cell death that differs from traditional apoptosis and necrosis and results from iron-dependent lipid peroxide accumulation. Ferroptotic cell death is characterized by cytological changes, including cell volume shrinkage and increased mitochondrial membrane density. Ferroptosis can be induced by two classes of small-molecule substances known as class 1 (system Xc(-) inhibitors) and class 2 ferroptosis inducers [glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) inhibitors]. In addition to these small-molecule substances, a number of drugs (e...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847552/schisandrin-b-a-double-edged-sword-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Pou Kuan Leong, Kam Ming Ko
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver lesions ranging from hepatic steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The high global prevalence of NAFLD has underlined the important public health implications of this disease. The pathogenesis of NAFLD involves the abnormal accumulation of free fatty acids, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and a proinflammatory state in the liver. Schisandrin B (Sch B), an active dibenzooctadiene lignan isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (a traditional Chinese herb), was found to possess antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anti-ER stress, and anti-inflammatory activities in cultured hepatocytes in vitro and in rodent livers in vivo...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826559/immune-surveillance-of-liver-cancer-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-excess-lipids-cause-cd4-t-cells-loss-and-promote-hepatocellular-carcinoma-development
#6
EDITORIAL
Ralf Weiskirchen, Frank Tacke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825803/protective-effects-of-dieckol-on-n-nitrosodiethylamine-induced-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-rats
#7
Velayutham Sadeeshkumar, Arul Duraikannu, Samuthrapandian Ravichandran, Wilson Sylvester Fredrick, Ramar Sivaperumal, Paulrasu Kodisundaram
Dieckol (DEK) is a naturally occuring phlorotannins found in marine brown algae Ecklonia cava which is attributed with various pharmacological properties. This study was aimed to investigate the protective role of DEK on N-Nitrosdiethylamine (NDEA) induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. In this investigation 0.01% NDEA in drinking water for 15 weeks to induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). DEK was administered orally (10, 20 and 40mg/kg body weight) for 15 weeks with 0.01% NDEA through drinking water. Hepatocarcinogesis was measured by the increased activities of serum liver marker enzymes namely aspartate trasaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), α-fetoprotein (AFP) and total bilirubin along with increased elevation of cytochrome p450, lipid peroxidation markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (HP), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and conjugated dienes (CD)...
November 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825759/pegylated-polypeptide-lipid-nanocapsules-to-enhance-the-anticancer-efficacy-of-erlotinib-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Jeonghwan Kim, Thiruganesh Ramasamy, Ju Yeon Choi, Ssang Tae Kim, Yu Seok Youn, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
In this study, a core-shell type polypeptide-based lipid nanocapsule was developed to enhance anticancer efficacy of erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancers. Mean particle size of PEGylated polypeptide-lipid nanocapsules (PLN) for erlotinib (ERL) delivery was ∼200nm with an effective surface charge of -20mV. Protective PEGylated polypeptide layer acted as a molecular fence and effectively controlled the diffusion of erlotinib from the lipid nanocapsule core, whereas pH-responsiveness of poly(L-aspartic acid) accelerated the release of erlotinib in acidic conditions...
November 2, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822768/pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-the-rise-of-a-lethal-disease-among-mexican-american-hispanic-children
#9
REVIEW
Monica M Betancourt-Garcia, Armando Arguelles, Jorge Montes, Ambrosio Hernandez, Manish Singh, R Armour Forse
Hispanic children of Mexican origin have a high incidence of NAFLD. Susceptibility has been linked to a combination of factors including an increasing epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents, an allele substitution in the PNPLA3 gene that reduces hepatic lipid catabolism, and an altered microbiome that may increase hepatic endotoxins. The combination of NAFLD and portal vein toxins secondary to an indigenous gut microbiome appear to lead to the early occurrence of NASH, which progresses to cirrhosis and early hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 7, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821715/a-novel-diet-induced-murine-model-of-steatohepatitis-with-fibrosis-for-screening-and-evaluation-of-drug-candidates-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
Chieko Ejima, Haruna Kuroda, Sonoko Ishizaki
Many animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis have been reported. While these models exhibit mild onset of hepatitis and fibrosis, induction is often slow. For faster screening of drug candidates, there is a compelling need for convenient animal models of steatohepatitis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in which fatty liver and hepatitis are stably induced within a short period. Here, we analyzed the hepatic lipid composition in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and used this information to successfully establish a murine model where steatohepatitis is induced within only 1 week using a novel diet (steatohepatitis-inducing high-fat diet, STHD-01) high in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815465/protective-effect-of-morus-alba-leaf-extract-on-n-nitrosodiethylamine-induced-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-rats
#11
Małgorzata Kujawska, Małgorzata Ewertowska, Teresa Adamska, Ewa Ignatowicz, Ewa Flaczyk, Monika Przeor, Monika Kurpik, Jadwiga Jodynis Liebert
BACKGROUND/AIM: The leaves of white mulberry (Morus alba L.) contain various polyphenolic compounds possessing strong antioxidant activity and anticancer potential. This study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive effect of aqueous extract of mulberry leaves against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced liver carcinogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, mulberry extract-treated, NDEA-treated, and mulberry extract plus NDEA-treated...
November 2016: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806083/integrated-multiple-omics-data-reveal-subtypes-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Gang Liu, Chuanpeng Dong, Lei Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most heterogeneous cancers, as reflected by its multiple grades and difficulty to subtype. In this study, we integrated copy number variation, DNA methylation, mRNA, and miRNA data with the developed "cluster of cluster" method and classified 256 HCC samples from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) into five major subgroups (S1-S5). We observed that this classification was associated with specific mutations and protein expression, and we detected that each subgroup had distinct molecular signatures...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789285/the-role-of-micrornas-in-liver-injury-at-the-crossroad-between-hepatic-cell-death-and-regeneration
#13
Volker M Lauschke, Souren Mkrtchian, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg
The liver fulfills critical metabolic functions, such as controlling blood sugar and ammonia levels, and is of central importance for lipid metabolism and detoxification of environmental and chemical agents, including drugs. Liver injuries of different etiology can elicit a spectrum of responses. Some hepatocytes initiate molecular programs resulting in cell death, whereas others undergo cellular divisions to regenerate the damaged organ. Interestingly, recent research indicates that microRNAs serve as very rapid as well as long-term regulators in these processes...
October 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788588/identification-of-circulating-protein-biomarkers-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-concomitantly-infected-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus
#14
Abdel-Hady Ali Abdel-Wahab, Medhat S El-Halawany, Ahmad A Emam, Ammar Elfiky, Zakaria Y Abd Elmageed
CONTEXT: The incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is higher in developing countries, and most cases are associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the circulating proteins as liver biomarkers for identification of HCC associated with HCV infection in Egyptian patients using LC-MS/MS analysis. METHODS: Blood sera were collected from 31 HCC patients and the fractionated proteins were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis...
October 28, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781386/hulc-an-oncogenic-long-non-coding-rna-in-human-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Xin Yu, Heyi Zheng, Matthew T V Chan, William Ka Kei Wu
Highly up-regulated in liver cancer (HULC) was originally identified as the most overexpressed long non-coding RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma. Since its discovery, the aberrant up-regulation of HULC has been demonstrated in other cancer types, including gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, osteosarcoma and hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer. Recent discoveries have also shed new light on the upstream molecular mechanisms underlying HULC deregulation. As an oncogene, HULC promotes tumorigenesis by regulating multiple pathways, such as down-regulation of EEF1E1, promotion of abnormal lipid metabolism, and up-regulation of sphingosine kinase 1...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767105/monoacylglycerol-lipase-a-novel-potential-therapeutic-target-and-prognostic-indicator-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Junyong Zhang, Zuojin Liu, Zhengrong Lian, Rui Liao, Yi Chen, Yi Qin, Jinlong Wang, Qing Jiang, Xiaobo Wang, Jianping Gong
Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism that is demonstrated to be involved in tumor progression through both energy supply of fatty acid (FA) oxidation and enhancing cancer cell malignance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MAGL could be a potential therapeutic target and prognostic indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To evaluate the relationship between MAGL levels and clinical characteristics, a tissue microarray (TMA) of 353 human HCC samples was performed...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757953/animal-models-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-current-perspectives-and-recent-advances
#17
Jennie Ka Ching Lau, Xiang Zhang, Jun Yu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a continuous spectrum of diseases characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. NAFLD progresses from simple liver steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and in more severe cases to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to its growing worldwide prevalence, various animal models that mirror both the histopathology and pathophysiology of each stage of human NAFLD have been developed. The selection of appropriate animal models continues to be one of the key questions faced in this field...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725175/fabrication-of-%C3%AE-chitosan-nanoparticles-and-its-anticancer-potential-against-human-hepatoma-cells
#18
Namasivayam Subhapradha, Annaian Shanmugam
β-Chitosan from the gladius was enzymatically depolymerized and utilized for the synthesis of β-chitosan nanoparticles using sodium tripolyphosphate by ionotropic gelation. The size and zeta potential of β-Chitosan nanoparticles (β-CNP) were determined. The structural features were evaluated by FT-IR and NMR spectral analysis. The morphological characterization, composition and surface topography of β-CNP were explored by SEM, EDAX and AFM techniques. The thermal and crystallographic nature of β-CNP was also studied...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720680/high-throughput-solid-phase-microextraction-a-new-alternative-for-analysis-of-cellular-lipidome
#19
Afsoon Pajand Birjandi, Barbara Bojko, Zhibin Ning, Daniel Figeys, Janusz Pawliszyn
A new SPME method for untargeted lipidomic study of cell line cultures was proposed for the first time. In this study the feasibility to monitor changes in lipid profile after external stimuli was demonstrated and compared to the conventional Bligh & Dyer method. The human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line was used as a model. The obtained results provided a list of up-regulated and down-regulated lipids through a comparison between control (non-stimulated) cells versus the group of cells treated with polyunsaturated fatty acid (20:5)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716246/effects-of-coenzyme-q10-supplementation-on-antioxidant-capacity-and-inflammation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-after-surgery-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Hsiao-Tien Liu, Yi-Chia Huang, Shao-Bin Cheng, Yin-Tzu Huang, Ping-Ting Lin
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation play a key role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after surgery. Coenzyme Q10 is an endogenous lipid-soluble antioxidant. To date, no intervention study has investigated coenzyme Q10 supplementation in HCC patients after surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes activity, and inflammation levels in HCC patients after surgery following administration of coenzyme Q10 (300 mg/day)...
October 6, 2016: Nutrition Journal
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