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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930265/a-review-on-ethno-medicinal-and-pharmacological-activities-of-sphenocentrum-jollyanum-pierre
#1
REVIEW
Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola, Olumide Samuel Fadahunsi, Peter Adegbola
Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre is a member of a diverse family of plants known as Menispermaceae. They are famous for a plethora of important biological functions. S. jollyanum is a shrub native to the tropical forest zones of West Africa and thrives in deep shade. It is widely cultivated in Cameroun, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ghana, and Côte d'Ivoire. S. jollyanum is employed in folk medicine as a cure for wounds, fever, coughs, high blood pressure, breast tumor, constipation, and as an aphrodisiac. Phytochemical investigations revealed that the plant is a rich source of secondary metabolites such as annin, alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids...
July 3, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929534/emerging-arboviruses-in-rio-grande-do-sul-brazil-chikungunya-and-zika-outbreaks-2014-2016
#2
Tatiana Schäffer Gregianini, Tani Ranieri, Cátia Favreto, Zenaida Marion Alves Nunes, Gabriela Luchiari Tumioto Giannini, Nara Druck Sanberg, Marilda Tereza Mar da Rosa, Ana Beatriz Gorini da Veiga
QUESTIONS INVESTIGATED: The recent emergence of arboviruses such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has posed a threat to human health and to the country's economy. Outbreaks occur mainly in tropical areas; however, increasing number of cases have been observed in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the Southernmost state; therefore, surveillance of these arboviruses is essential for public health measures. DESIGN: In this study, we analyzed 1276 samples from patients with clinically suspected arboviral diseases between 2014 and 2016...
September 20, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922459/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-the-treatment-of-complicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-case-report
#3
Tsong-Yih Ou, Cheng-Yen Chuang, Chun-Da Chen, Chung-Yi Cheng
Severe falciparum malaria is associated with multiple organ dysfunction and a high rate of fatal outcome. Malaria is a world-wide disease in tropical areas through the bites of vector mosquitoes. Parasitic protozoans introduced by the mosquito's saliva to the blood travel to the liver then mature and reproduce. In humans, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax, and P. knowlesi, and P. falciparum causes most deaths. Typical malaria symptoms include fever, chills, fatigue, headache, nausea, and vomiting...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904127/therapeutic-effects-of-monoclonal-antibody-against-dengue-virus-ns1-in-a-stat1-knockout-mouse-model-of-dengue-infection
#4
Shu-Wen Wan, Pei-Wei Chen, Chin-Yu Chen, Yen-Chung Lai, Ya-Ting Chu, Chia-Yi Hung, Han Lee, Hsuan Franziska Wu, Yung-Chun Chuang, Jessica Lin, Chih-Peng Chang, Shuying Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Chiou-Feng Lin, Chien-Kuo Lee, Betty A Wu-Hsieh, Robert Anderson, Trai-Ming Yeh, Yee-Shin Lin
Dengue virus (DENV) is the causative agent of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome and is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Our previous studies showed the existence of epitopes in the C-terminal region of DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) which are cross-reactive with host Ags and trigger anti-DENV NS1 Ab-mediated endothelial cell damage and platelet dysfunction. To circumvent these potentially harmful events, we replaced the C-terminal region of DENV NS1 with the corresponding region from Japanese encephalitis virus NS1 to create chimeric DJ NS1 protein...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892964/dengue-haemorrhagic-encephalitis-rare-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#5
Aditya Singh Kutiyal, Chetanya Malik, Gitika Hyanki
Dengue is an endemic arboviral infection prevalent especially in tropical countries including Southern and Southeast Asia. Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement in dengue infection is uncommon. Haemorrhagic encephalitis is a rare presentation in dengue. This is a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with fever, petechial rash and altered sensorium. Dengue serology IgM was reactive and MRI brain was suggestive of haemorrhagic encephalitis. Patient was managed in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) but eventually succumbed to his illness...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890513/leptospirosis-cases-in-the-tokyo-metropolitan-area-japan
#6
Yoshikazu Mutoh, Nobuo Koizumi, Eriko Morino, Kayoko Hayakawa, Yasuyuki Kato, Norio Ohmagari
In Japan, 20-50 cases of leptospirosis are reported annually, typically involving farmers or returnees from tropical areas. Here, we report five indigenous leptospirosis cases that occurred in the Tokyo urban area. All cases were male (mean age 65.8 ± 4.7 years) and presented with clinical features including high fever, acute kidney injury, and jaundice. Three cases presented with pulmonary infiltration and ground glass opacity on admission. Two of the five patients were intubated and underwent continuous hemodiafiltration...
September 11, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890510/circulating-genotypes-of-dengue-1-virus-in-south-west-india-2014-2015
#7
Shetty Pooja, Sasidharanpillai Sabeena, Bhaskar Revti, Ramachandran Sanjay, Aithal Anjali, Kumar Rajendra, Sushama Aswathyraj, Dsouza Giselle, Maity Hindol, Govindakarnavar Arunkumar
Dengue is found to be the most prevalent arboviral disease affecting humans. Tropical and subtropical regions are at high risk of dengue virus infections. The clinical manifestations often range from mild fever to fever with hemorrhagic manifestations and shock. Since 2010, India is witnessing a marked increase in the number of Dengue Virus Serotype 1(DENV-1) apart from Dengue Virus 2 (DENV-2) and Dengue Virus 3 (DENV-3) Serotypes. The present study was undertaken to understand the circulating genotypes of DENV-1 in South West India by sequencing the envelope gene of DENV-1 samples representative of the time period 2014-2015...
September 11, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886023/geographic-patterns-and-environmental-factors-associated-with-human-yellow-fever-presence-in-the-americas
#8
Patricia Najera Hamrick, Sylvain Aldighieri, Gustavo Machado, Deise Galan Leonel, Luz Maria Vilca, Sonia Uriona, Maria Cristina Schneider
BACKGROUND: In the Americas, yellow fever virus transmission is a latent threat due to the proximity between urban and wild environments. Although yellow fever has nearly vanished from North and Central America, there are still 13 countries in the Americas considered endemic by the World Health Organization. Human cases usually occur as a result of the exposure to sylvatic yellow fever in tropical forested environments; but urban outbreaks reported during the last decade demonstrate that the risk in this environment still exists...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879600/infections-and-the-kidney-a-tale-from-the-tropics
#9
Nivedita Kamath, Arpana Iyengar
Tropical infections are caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses and parasitic organisms across varying geographical regions and are more often reported in adults than in children. Most of the infections are acute, presenting as a febrile illness with involvement of multiple organ systems, including the kidney. The gamut of renal manifestations extends from asymptomatic urinary abnormalities to acute kidney injury and-albeit rarely-chronic kidney disease. Tropical infections can involve the glomerular, tubulointerstitial and vascular compartments of the kidney...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860602/gene-expression-analysis-of-whole-blood-rna-from-pigs-infected-with-low-and-high-pathogenic-african-swine-fever-viruses
#10
Crystal Jaing, Raymond R R Rowland, Jonathan E Allen, Andrea Certoma, James B Thissen, John Bingham, Brenton Rowe, John R White, James W Wynne, Dayna Johnson, Natasha N Gaudreault, David T Williams
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a macrophage-tropic virus responsible for ASF, a transboundary disease that threatens swine production world-wide. Since there are no vaccines available to control ASF after an outbreak, obtaining an understanding of the virus-host interaction is important for developing new intervention strategies. In this study, a whole transcriptomic RNA-Seq method was used to characterize differentially expressed genes in pigs infected with a low pathogenic ASFV isolate, OUR T88/3 (OURT), or the highly pathogenic Georgia 2007/1 (GRG)...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859342/developing-research-in-infectious-and-tropical-diseases-in-africa-the-paradigm-of-senegal
#11
Cheikh Sokhna, Oumar Gaye, Ogobara Doumbo
Infectious diseases represent one of the greatest potential barriers to achievement of the third Sustainable Development Goals in African countries and around the world because they continue to pose major public health challenges. The surveillance of infectious diseases has recently assumed greater importance in most African countries, both because of the emergence of infectious diseases and because strains of pathogens that cause tuberculosis, malaria, cholera, dysentery, and pneumonia have developed resistance to common and inexpensive antimicrobial drugs...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855810/influence-of-the-mixtures-composed-of-slow-release-insecticide-formulations-against-aedes-aegypti-mosquito-larvae-reared-in-pond-water
#12
Naser A Alkenani
Vector borne diseases remain the major source of illness and death worldwide. Aedes aegypti is the primary carrier of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever in many developing countries in the tropical world. Because A. aegypti populations are becoming more and more resistant to conventional and non conventional insecticides, alternative strategies have to be rapidly implemented in the future for dengue vector control. The present study aimed to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of slow-release formulations (SRFs) of bacterial insecticide Bactimos briquets blended with tow insect growth regulators (IGRs), Altosid XR - briquets and Dudim DT tablet respectively, against mosquito larvae of A...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853599/pyomyositis-of-the-pectineus-muscle-in-an-adolescent-male
#13
J Hiddema, S Hassan, N Mangat, N Siddiqui
The 'irritable hip' continues to pose a challenge for clinicians. Even with predictive clinical algorithms, decision making can be difficult. Emergency treatment is required if septic arthritis is suspected. Other differential diagnoses such as transient synovitis, pyomyositis of the pelvic girdle muscles and osteomyelitis must be considered in order to help guide appropriate investigations and allow early treatment. We report the case of a 13-year-old boy presenting to our institution with an acutely painful left hip but still able to weight bear...
September 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842341/the-genus-psiadia-review-of-traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology
#14
REVIEW
Keshika Mahadeo, Isabelle Grondin, Hippolyte Kodja, Joyce Soulange Govinden, Sabina Jhaumeer Laulloo, Michel Frederich, Anne Gauvin-Bialecki
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Psiadia Jacq. ex. Willd. belongs to the Asteraceae family and includes more than 60 species. This genus grows in tropical and subtropical regions, being especially well represented in Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (La Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues). Several Psiadia species have been used traditionally for their medicinal properties in Africa and the Mascarene Islands. Based on traditional knowledge, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806786/an-economic-evaluation-of-vector-control-in-the-age-of-a-dengue-vaccine
#15
Christopher Fitzpatrick, Alexander Haines, Mathieu Bangert, Andrew Farlow, Janet Hemingway, Raman Velayudhan
INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a rapidly emerging vector-borne Neglected Tropical Disease, with a 30-fold increase in the number of cases reported since 1960. The economic cost of the illness is measured in the billions of dollars annually. Environmental change and unplanned urbanization are conspiring to raise the health and economic cost even further beyond the reach of health systems and households. The health-sector response has depended in large part on control of the Aedes aegypti and Ae...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799301/rickettsial-infections-in-goa-not-just-scrub-typhus
#16
Kedareshwar Narvencar, Gurleen Kaur, Savio Rodrigues
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Rickettsial infections are an important cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in tropics. While scrub typhus was reported from Goa, other rickettsial infections have not been reported earlier. The present study was planned to identify pattern of rickettsial infections in Goa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with undiagnosed acute febrile illness were recruited over a two-year period. Other causes of febrile illness were ruled out by appropriate tests...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796789/multiple-introductions-of-the-dengue-vector-aedes-aegypti-into-california
#17
Evlyn Pless, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Benjamin R Evans, Vicki Kramer, Bethany G Bolling, Walter J Tabachnick, Jeffrey R Powell
The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti inhabits much of the tropical and subtropical world and is a primary vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Breeding populations of A. aegypti were first reported in California (CA) in 2013. Initial genetic analyses using 12 microsatellites on collections from Northern CA in 2013 indicated the South Central US region as the likely source of the introduction. We expanded genetic analyses of CA A. aegypti by: (a) examining additional Northern CA samples and including samples from Southern CA, (b) including more southern US populations for comparison, and (c) genotyping a subset of samples at 15,698 SNPs...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794811/a-rare-case-of-schistosomiasis-bilharzia-of-the-bladder-in-a-non-endemic-area
#18
Haresh G Thummar, Hemen I Vithlani, Pokhraj P Suthar, Deepa Regina John, Nisha Thummar, Harendra Chauhan
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis or snail fever is an endemic parasitic infection caused by various trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. People acquire the disease through contact with water containing infected snails. It is one of the most widespread human parasitic infections in tropical and subtropical regions of the world such as Africa, South America, the Middle East, Asia and the Caribbean. In 1996, the World Health Organisation estimated that more than 200 million people living in rural areas are affected by this disease...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780738/john-p-craig-md-mph-physician-scientist-educator-and-mentor-1923-2016
#19
M A Haseeb, Pascal James Imperato
John P. Craig (1923-2016) was an eminent physician-scientist, gifted educator, and greatly valued mentor. Born in West Liberty, Ohio on 29 November 1923, he attended Oberlin College, and received his medical degree from Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine. This was followed by an internship at Yale University Medical Center, and then service in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. He was a battalion surgeon, preventive medicine officer, and epidemiologist. While in Korea, he conducted important investigations of hemorrhagic fever among American troops...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776302/management-of-chikungunya-arthritis
#20
J Kennedy Amaral Pereira, Robert T Schoen
Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is an emerging viral infection that has spread widely, along with its Aedes vectors, throughout the tropics and beyond, causing explosive epidemics of both acute illness and persistent disabling arthritis. There is an urgent need to mitigate the devastating impact of this illness, through vector control, personal protection, and possibly vaccine development. There is also a need to improve treatment for both acute illness and chronic arthritis. In this review, we will review the emergence of CHIK, what is known about pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, and then focus on current understanding of how to treat individual patients, in particular, those who develop chronic arthritis...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
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