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Tropical fever

Gabriella Maria Pitt Gameiro Sales, Izabel Crystine Pereira Barbosa, Laura Maia Sampaio Canejo Neta, Paloma Lopes de Melo, Raphael de Azevedo Leitão, Hugo Moura de Albuquerque Melo
INTRODUCTION: Chikungunya (CHIK) is a tropical arbovirus, transmitted by the female mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Brazil, there have been cases reported since 2014. The initial manifestations of this virus are sudden onset high fever, headache, chills, rashes, myalgia and intense joint pain. Usually, CHIK presents the acute and chronic phases, the latter characterized by bilateral polyarthralgia, which can last for months or even years. During this period, autoimmune diseases can be triggered, making the picture even more complicated...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Asmah Hamid, Farah Wahida Ibrahim, Teoh Hooi Ming, Mohd Nazir Nasrom, Norelina Eusoff, Khairana Husain, Mazlyzam Abdul Latif
BACKGROUND: Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith belongs to the Zingiberaceae family that is widely distributed throughout the tropics, particularly in Southeast Asia. It is locally known as 'Lempoyang' and traditionally used to treat fever, constipation and to relieve pain. It is also known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Based on these antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of ethyl-acetate extract of Z. zerumbet rhizomes against ethanol-induced brain damage in male Wistar rats...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Yen Thon Teoh, Sze Fui Hii, Stephen Graves, Robert Rees, John Stenos, Rebecca Justine Traub
BACKGROUND: Flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) caused by Rickettsia felis is an arthropod-borne zoonosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, primary species and genotype(s) of R. felis infecting fleas from dogs and cats. RESULTS: All fleas were identified as Ctenocephalides felis felis. All rickettsial DNA detected in fleas was identified as being 100% homologous to R. felis URRWXCal2, with positivity within tropical, subtropical and temperate regions noted at 6...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Theerapon Sukmark, Nuttha Lumlertgul, Sadudee Peerapornratana, Kamol Khositrangsikun, Kriang Tungsanga, Visith Sitprija, Nattachai Srisawat
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is one of the most important zoonosis in the tropics. Currently, specific laboratory diagnostic test for leptospirosis such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or direct culture cannot be applied at the primary care setting especially in the resource- limited countries. Therefore, clinical presentation and laboratory examination are still the primary diagnostic tools for leptospirosis. OBJECTIVES: To detect clinical factors for predicting leptospirosis in suspected cases, and to create a clinical prediction score (THAI-LEPTO) that is practical and easy to use in general practice while awaiting laboratory results...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Zachary Villarreal, Nicole Stephenson, Janet Foley
Increasing rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico underscore the importance of studying the ecology of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the vector in that region. This species is reported to comprise distinct tropical and temperate lineages which may differ in vectorial capacity for RMSF and which are hypothesized to be limited in their geographical range by climatic conditions. In this study, lineage was determined for ticks from nine locations in California, Arizona, and Mexico by DNA sequencing of 12S, 16S, and D-loop ribosomal RNA...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
José V J Silva, Thaísa R R Lopes, Edmilson F de Oliveira-Filho, Renato A S Oliveira, Ricardo Durães-Carvalho, Laura H V G Gil
Emerging and re-emerging viral infections transmitted by insect vectors (arthopode-borne viruses, arbovirus) are a serious threat to global public health. Among them, yellow fever (YFV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions. Although vector control is one of the most used prophylactic measures against arboviruses, it often faces obstacles, such as vector diversity, uncontrolled urbanization and increasing resistance to insecticides...
March 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
Carolina de la Guardia, David E Stephens, Hang T Dang, Mario Quijada, Oleg V Larionov, Ricardo Lleonart
Dengue virus causes dengue fever, a debilitating disease with an increasing incidence in many tropical and subtropical territories. So far, there are no effective antivirals licensed to treat this virus. Here we describe the synthesis and antiviral activity evaluation of two compounds based on the quinoline scaffold, which has shown potential for the development of molecules with various biological activities. Two of the tested compounds showed dose-dependent inhibition of dengue virus serotype 2 in the low and sub micromolar range...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
N D B Ehelepola, A N Abayagunawardana, T N Sudusinghe
BACKGROUND: Hemolysis can occur in people with G6PD deficiency under oxidative stress. Acalypha indica is a tropical plant used as a medicinal plant as well as a vegetable. There are a few reported cases of Acalypha indica ingestion induced hemolysis in G6PD deficient people. All except one of them are from Sri Lanka. The information available at present (2017) about G6PD deficiency prevalence and variants of the G6PD gene among Sri Lankans is very sparse. There are no past reports on hemolytic crisis in a G6PD deficient person presenting mimicking leptospirosis...
March 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Khansoudaphone Phakhounthong, Pimwadee Chaovalit, Podjanee Jittamala, Stuart D Blacksell, Michael J Carter, Paul Turner, Kheng Chheng, Soeung Sona, Varun Kumar, Nicholas P J Day, Lisa J White, Wirichada Pan-Ngum
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a re-emerging viral disease commonly occurring in tropical and subtropical areas. The clinical features and abnormal laboratory test results of dengue infection are similar to those of other febrile illnesses; hence, its accurate and timely diagnosis for providing appropriate treatment is difficult. Delayed diagnosis may be associated with inappropriate treatment and higher risk of death. Early and correct diagnosis can help improve case management and optimise the use of resources such as hospital staff, beds, and intensive care equipment...
March 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Natalia Rodriguez-Valero, Helena Moza Moriñigo, Miguel J Martínez, Aida Peiró, Ines Oliveira, Marta Bodro, Joan Gómez-Junyent, Joaquim Gascon, Jose Muñoz
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis worldwide, nevertheless is often poor recognized in non tropical settings. In Thailand is becoming an emerging disease and Chiang Mai could become a popular spot to acquire the disease amongst travelers. METHODS: We describe three cases of imported leptospirosis undifferentiated fever after travelling to Thailand during the summer of 2015 diagnosed at two Spanish hospitals. RESULTS: Our three patients probably acquired leptospirosis while swimming in freshwater around Chiang Mai, a Thailand's northern region with moderate incidence of leptopirosis...
March 8, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
G Theillet, A Rubens, F Foucault, P Dalbon, C Rozand, I Leparc-Goffart, F Bedin
The incidence of flavivirus infections has increased dramatically in recent decades in tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people each year. Dengue viruses are typically transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause a wide range of symptoms from flu-like fever to organ impairment and death. Although conventional diagnostic tests can provide early diagnosis of acute dengue infections, access to these tests is often limited in developing countries. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop affordable, simple, rapid, and robust diagnostic tools that can be used at 'Point of Care' settings...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
Bouchra Kitab, Michinori Kohara, Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara
Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in humans and leads to significant morbidity and socioeconomic burden in tropical and subtropical areas. Dengue is caused by infection with any of the four closely related serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) and usually manifests as a mild febrile illness, but may develop into fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. There are no specific antiviral therapies against dengue because understanding of DENV biology is limited. A tetravalent chimeric dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia, has finally been licensed for use, but its efficacy was significantly lower against DENV-2 infections and in dengue-naïve individuals...
March 8, 2018: Archives of Virology
Malinee Chittaganpitch, Sunthareeya Waicharoen, Thitipong Yingyong, Prabda Praphasiri, Somchai Sangkitporn, Sonja J Olsen, Kim A Lindblade
BACKGROUND: Information on the burden, characteristics and seasonality of non-influenza respiratory viruses is limited in tropical countries. OBJECTIVES: Describe the epidemiology of selected non-influenza respiratory viruses in Thailand between June 2010 and May 2014 using a sentinel surveillance platform established for influenza. METHODS: Patients with influenza-like illness (ILI; history of fever or documented temperature >38°C, cough, not requiring hospitalization) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI; history of fever or documented temperature >38°C, cough, onset <10 days, requiring hospitalization) were enrolled from 10 sites...
March 8, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Arunkumar Subbiah, Soumita Bagchi, Dipankar Bhowmik, Sandeep Mahajan, R K Yadav, Yogesh Chhabra, Sanjay Agarwal
BACKGROUND: There are annual outbreaks of Dengue infection in tropical and subtropical countries. This retrospective study aimed to assess the clinical manifestation of dengue and outcome in renal transplant recipients. METHODS: Renal transplant recipients diagnosed with dengue in the nephrology department during the outbreak from August 2015 to December 2015 were included in the study. RESULTS: Twenty patients developed dengue presenting during the outbreak...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Jo Ee Sam, Teak Sheng Gee, Nasser Abdul Wahab
Dengue fever has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in subtropical and tropical countries. We report a rare case of severe dengue with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. A search of literature through PubMed revealed that the largest series analyzed so far only included five cases. A 47-year-old man presented with 7 days history of fever, headache, myalgia, and vomiting with hematemesis. On the day of presentation, he had reduced consciousness and an episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Hassan Vatandoost, Jalil Nejati, Abedin Saghafipour, Alireza Zahraei-Ramazani
Phlebotomine sand flies occur throughout the tropics and subtropics, as well as in temperate regions of the world. They are vectors of human and canine leishmaniasis and sand fly fevers caused by phleboviruses. This study was aimed to determine the geographic and ecological characteristics of phlebotomine sand flies as vectors of leishmaniasis and to prepare a checklist of phlebotomine sand flies. The study was conducted in Qom province, central Iran, between April and November 2016. Qom is located in latitude 34...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
N D B Ehelepola, R K G M Rajapaksha, D M U B Dhanapala, T D K Thennekoon, S Ponnamperuma
BACKGROUND: Concurrent presence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), tropical pyomyositis and septicemia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a previously healthy person has never been reported. These three conditions even individually are potentially fatal. "Here we describe a case of a patient contracting dengue and developing DHF along with concurrent pyomyositis likely to be due to MRSA, leading to MRSA septicemia with abscesses formed by MRSA". CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year old previously healthy Sinhalese man presented on day 3 of the illness with fever, headache, arthralgia and myalgia and watery loose stools...
February 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Laura Katharina Schenk, Hermann Pavenstädt, Philipp Kümpers
ANAMNESIS:  In winter, a 37-year old male patient consulted our outpatient clinic complaining about fever, malaise and headache. He had returned from vacation in Thailand 14 days earlier. EXAMINATIONS:  Clinical findings, laboratory examinations and apparative diagnostics revealed a pulmo-renal syndrom accompagnied by multi-organ failure. DIAGNOSIS:  Finally, we could confirm that our patient suffered from leptospirosis. TREATMENT:  The patient received a penicillin-based antibiotic treatment...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Marco A Lana-Peixoto, Denison Pedrosa, Natália Talim, Juliana M S S Amaral, Alice Horta, Rodrigo Kleinpaul
Dengue virus infection is a disease with high incidence in some tropical and subtropical countries. A variety of neurological complications of dengue fever (DF) has been described including two cases with the phenotype of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, aquaporin-4 serostatus was unknown or negative in these patients. We report two patients with NMOSD occurring in association with DF. The first patient presented with brainstem symptoms and the second one with isolated unilateral optic neuritis...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Pramod Kumar Maurya, Swati Singh, Ashutosh Mani
Antibiotic resistance is increasing rapidly in pathogenic organisms, creating more complications for treatment of diseases. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a neglected tropical disease in humans caused by Rickettsia rickettsii for which no effective therapeutic is available. Subtractive genomics methods facilitate the characterization of non-homologous essential proteins that could be targeted for the discovery of potential therapeutic compounds against R. rickettsii to combat RMSF. Present study followed an in-silico based methodology, involving scanning and filtering the complete proteome of Rickettsia rickettsii by using several prioritization parameters in the search of potential candidates for drug development...
February 20, 2018: Acta Tropica
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