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Topographical disorientation

Giuseppe Iaria, Ford Burles
Developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) refers to the lifelong inability to orient in extremely familiar surroundings despite the absence of any acquired brain damage or neurological disorder. Here, we describe the findings of this newly discovered condition, and highlight how this phenomenon provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying human spatial navigation.
October 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Josée Rivest, Eva Svoboda, Jeff McCarthy, Morris Moscovitch
This study introduces an intervention that enabled a man (LH) with acquired topographical disorientation (TD) to travel independently without fear of getting lost. Adapting an errorless method, LH learned to use a smartphone to find his routes accurately and reliably. A time-series design (A1-B1-A2-B2) was used: In all phases, LH was given a printed map on which city locations were indicated. He had to walk to the indicated locations while naturalistic outcomes were recorded. In Phases A, he navigated without his smartphone, and in Phases B, with it...
March 30, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
M Cogné, M Taillade, B N'Kaoua, A Tarruella, E Klinger, F Larrue, H Sauzéon, P-A Joseph, E Sorita
INTRODUCTION: Spatial navigation, which involves higher cognitive functions, is frequently implemented in daily activities, and is critical to the participation of human beings in mainstream environments. Virtual reality is an expanding tool, which enables on one hand the assessment of the cognitive functions involved in spatial navigation, and on the other the rehabilitation of patients with spatial navigation difficulties. Topographical disorientation is a frequent deficit among patients suffering from neurological diseases...
March 23, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jeffrey C Corrow, Sherryse L Corrow, Edison Lee, Raika Pancaroglu, Ford Burles, Brad Duchaine, Giuseppe Iaria, Jason J S Barton
Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire...
March 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Hiroo Ichikawa
Stroke-like episodes are one of the cardinal features of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), and occur in 84-99% of the patients. The affected areas detected on neuroimaging do not have classical vascular distribution, and involve predominantly the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Thus, the neurological symptoms including higher brain dysfunction correlate with this topographical distribution. In association with the occipital lobe involvement, the most frequent symptom is cortical blindness...
February 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Virginie Descloux, Roland Maurer
There is currently no specific neuropsychological test assessing spatial orientation abilities, despite the fact that navigational deficits are heavily incapacitating in daily life. This lack of a specific test is probably due to theoretical vagueness of concepts in this field and important interindividual differences in spatial cognition. Here we propose a new standardized test assessing a fundamental component of spatial orientation-namely, mental imagery: Adequate mental visualization of the environment is indeed a necessary step in finding one's way...
2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Jiye G Kim, Elissa M Aminoff, Sabine Kastner, Marlene Behrmann
UNLABELLED: Developmental topographic disorientation (DTD) is a life-long condition in which affected individuals are severely impaired in navigating around their environment. Individuals with DTD have no apparent structural brain damage on conventional imaging and the neural mechanisms underlying DTD are currently unknown. Using functional and diffusion tensor imaging, we present a comprehensive neuroimaging study of an individual, J.N., with well defined DTD. J.N. has intact scene-selective responses in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), transverse occipital sulcus, and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), key regions associated with scene perception and navigation...
September 16, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yasutaka Kobayashi, Tomoko Muramatsu, Mamiko Sato, Hiromi Hayashi, Toyoaki Miura
A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for rehabilitation of topographical disorientation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarction in the right medial side of the occipital lobe. On neuropsychological testing, he scored low for the visual information-processing task; however, his overall cognitive function was retained. He could identify parts of the picture while describing the context picture of the Visual Perception Test for Agnosia but could not explain the contents of the entire picture, representing so-called simultanagnosia...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Virginie Descloux, Anne Bellmann, Roland Maurer
A right posterior cerebral lesion can lead to an inability to orient and can consequently interfere with daily-life autonomy. Despite the wide literature about navigation abilities, it is still difficult to assess topographical disorientation (TD) because of the interindividual specificity of spatial knowledge and the diversity of symptoms. We describe here a set of new tests evaluating spatial cognition in a patient with TD presenting difficulties in navigating inside the hospital and in his hometown more than 3 years after his diffuse ischemic right Sylvian stroke...
2015: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Federico Nemmi, Filippo Bianchini, Federica Piras, Patrice Péran, Liana Palermo, Laura Piccardi, Umberto Sabatini, Cecilia Guariglia
Developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) causes impaired spatial orientation and navigation from early childhood with no evidence of cerebral damage. Using fMRI and a landmark sequencing task, we investigated the hypothesis that Dr Wai's abnormal cerebral activation pattern was related to his peculiar behavioral profile. Although Dr Wai was able to correctly perform landmark sequencing, he showed a lack of activity in regions activated in all control subjects and activity in areas that were not activated in any control subject...
2015: Neurocase
Jamshid Faraji, Nabiollah Soltanpour, Reza Moeeini, Shabnam Roudaki, Nasrin Soltanpour, Ali-Akbar Abdollahi, Gerlinde A S Metz
Silent focal ischemic mini infarcts in the brain are thought to cause no clinically overt symptoms. Some populations of hippocampal cells are particularly sensitive to ischemic events, however, rendering hippocampal functions especially vulnerable to ischemia-induced deficits. The present study investigated whether an otherwise silent ischemic mini infarct in the hippocampus (HPC) can produce impairments in spatial performance in rats. Spatial performance was assessed in the ziggurat task (ZT) using a 10-trial spatial learning protocol for 4 days prior to undergoing hippocampal ischemic lesion or sham surgery...
2014: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jason J S Barton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the various types of visual dysfunction that can result from lesions of the cerebral regions beyond the striate cortex. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with dyschromatopsia can exhibit problems with color constancy. The apperceptive form of prosopagnosia is associated with damage to posterior occipital and fusiform gyri, and an associative/amnestic form is linked to damage to more anterior temporal regions. Pure alexia can be accompanied by a surface dysgraphia...
August 2014: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Giuseppe Iaria, Aiden E G F Arnold, Ford Burles, Irene Liu, Edward Slone, Sarah Barclay, Torben N Bech-Hansen, Richard M Levy
Developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) is a newly discovered cognitive disorder in which individuals experience a lifelong history of getting lost in both novel and familiar surroundings. Recent studies have shown that such a selective orientation defect relies primarily on the inability of the individuals to form cognitive maps, i.e., mental representations of the surrounding that allow individuals to get anywhere from any location in the environment, although other orientation skills are additionally affected...
November 2014: Hippocampus
Silvia Serino, Pietro Cipresso, Francesca Morganti, Giuseppe Riva
A great effort has been made to identify crucial cognitive markers that can be used to characterize the cognitive profile of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because topographical disorientation is one of the earliest clinical manifestation of AD, an increasing number of studies have investigated the spatial deficits in this clinical population. In this systematic review, we specifically focused on experimental studies investigating allocentric and egocentric deficits to understand which spatial cognitive processes are differentially impaired in the different stages of the disease...
July 2014: Ageing Research Reviews
F Bianchini, A Di Vita, L Palermo, L Piccardi, C Blundo, C Guariglia
The aim of this study was to determine whether an egocentric topographical working memory (WM) deficit is present in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with respect to other forms of visuospatial WM. Further, we would investigate whether this deficit could be present in patients having AD without topographical disorientation (TD) signs in everyday life assessed through an informal interview to caregivers. Seven patients with AD and 20 healthy participants performed the Walking Corsi Test and the Corsi Block-Tapping Test...
December 2014: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Lies Bouwmeester, Anja van de Wege, Rob Haaxma, Jos W Snoek
This paper describes the rehabilitation process of a patient with severe topographical disorientation. The study demonstrates the sustained effects of a tailor-made, meticulous rehabilitation programme based on the gradual development of compensatory strategies. The patient (RB) had a memory impairment specific to environmental landmarks. He was able to recognise objects in his environment, but was unable to identify any salient object as a landmark and was also unable to derive any directional information from a chosen landmark...
2015: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Liana Palermo, Laura Piccardi, Filippo Bianchini, Federico Nemmi, Vincenzo Giorgio, Chiara Incoccia, Umberto Sabatini, Cecilia Guariglia
Developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) is the presence of navigational deficits in the context of normal intellectual ability and in the absence of any perinatal, neurological, or psychiatric disorder. As only three cases of DTD have been fully described thus far, we are still unable to draw definitive conclusions about its nature and relationship with other visuospatial competencies, such as mental rotation. The case of Mr. L.A., a 38-year-old man with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders, sheds some light on these open questions...
2014: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Pierre Mégevand, David M Groppe, Matthew S Goldfinger, Sean T Hwang, Peter B Kingsley, Ido Davidesco, Ashesh D Mehta
In recent years, functional neuroimaging has disclosed a network of cortical areas in the basal temporal lobe that selectively respond to visual scenes, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA). Beyond the observation that lesions involving the PPA cause topographic disorientation, there is little causal evidence linking neural activity in that area to the perception of places. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings to delineate place-selective cortex in a patient implanted with stereo-EEG electrodes for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy...
April 16, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
M Scarpa, P Sorgato
A patient with a severe amnesic syndrome following a glioma of the splenium of the corpus callosum is reported. The long-term memory deficit involved anterograde as well as retrograde events dating back to 40 years and causing topographical disorientation. Short-term memory test performance was in the normal range, with the exception of tactile memory which was severely impaired.The patient also showed disconnection symptoms, due to severing of occipito-parietal and parieto-temporal connections, while parieto-parietal connections were undamaged...
1990: Behavioural Neurology
Francesca Morganti, Stefano Stefanini, Giuseppe Riva
The ability to orient in space constitutes a main sign of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Presently, a peculiar aspect of topographical disorientation in AD linked with spatial reference frame congruence appears to have been only minimally investigated. We aim to study whether there is a decline in performing the allo- to egocentric translation of spatial knowledge during different types of wayfinding in AD patients. We introduced two virtual reality tasks, the VR-Maze and VR-Road Map tasks, in which we compared 26 AD and 26 healthy, elderly subjects...
2013: Cognitive Neuroscience
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