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Topographical disorientation

Jessica Robin, Matthew X Lowe, Sara Pishdadian, Josée Rivest, Jonathan S Cant, Morris Moscovitch
Topographical disorientation (TD) is a neuropsychological condition characterized by an inability to find one's way, even in familiar environments. One common contributing cause of TD is landmark agnosia, a visual recognition impairment specific to scenes and landmarks. Although many cases of TD with landmark agnosia have been documented, little is known about the perceptual mechanisms which lead to selective deficits in recognizing scenes. In the present study, we test LH, a man who exhibits TD and landmark agnosia, on measures of scene perception that require selectively attending to either the configural or surface properties of a scene...
April 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Kazuhiro Ishii, Reiko Koide, Naomi Mamada, Akira Tamaoka
We here describe a patient showing topographical disorientation (TD) after infarction of the right medial occipital lobe; the lesion included the parahippocampal gyrus. Clinical and neuropsychological observations demonstrated a specific pattern of impairment in terms of visual and visuospatial (topographical) learning, and memory. He had no landmark agnosia. His defective route finding resulted from impaired allocentric and egocentric spatial representations. Drawing illustrations of both familial and unfamiliar place and orientation tasks in an egocentric coordination context is a useful means of recognizing the influence of egocentric and/or allocentric spatial disturbance...
April 3, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Sarah F Barclay, Ford Burles, Kendra Potocki, Kate M Rancourt, Mary Lou Nicolson, N Torben Bech-Hansen, Giuseppe Iaria
A variety of brain lesions may affect the ability to orient, resulting in what is termed "acquired topographical disorientation". In some individuals, however, topographical disorientation is present from childhood, with no apparent brain abnormalities and otherwise intact general cognitive abilities, a condition referred to as "developmental topographical disorientation" (DTD). Individuals affected by DTD often report relatives experiencing the same lifelong orientation difficulties. Here, we sought to assess the familial aggregation of DTD by investigating its occurrence in the families of DTD probands, and in the families of control probands who did not experience topographical disorientation...
October 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Ritsuo Hashimoto, Momoko Uechi, Wako Yumura, Noriyo Komori, Masako Abe
We recently developed a new clinical test named card placing test (CPT) which can assess a subject's ability to deal with visuospatial information. The CPT requires a subject to recreate an array of three cards, each of which was randomly placed on eight grids around the subject, before (CPT-A) and after the subject's rotation (CPT-B). With this design, the CPT can assess a subject's ability to represent visuospatial information either egocentrically (CPT-A) or allocentrically (CPT-B). We administered the test on two patients with topographical disorientation; one with egocentric disorientation and another with heading disorientation...
December 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Virginie Descloux, Roland Maurer
Topographical disorientation, the inability to orient in a well-known environment, is a very incapacitating syndrome. Despite its relatively high frequency after a right cerebral lesion, there is currently no specific neuropsychological test to assess it. We propose a completely new test, with preliminary normative data, assessing the subjects' ability to recall allocentric spatial information from their cognitive map. The subjects are asked to mentally compare distances and directions between landmarks in their familiar environment...
November 2, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Giuseppe Iaria, Ford Burles
Developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) refers to the lifelong inability to orient in extremely familiar surroundings despite the absence of any acquired brain damage or neurological disorder. Here, we describe the findings of this newly discovered condition, and highlight how this phenomenon provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying human spatial navigation.
October 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Josée Rivest, Eva Svoboda, Jeff McCarthy, Morris Moscovitch
This study introduces an intervention that enabled a man (LH) with acquired topographical disorientation (TD) to travel independently without fear of getting lost. Adapting an errorless method, LH learned to use a smartphone to find his routes accurately and reliably. A time-series design (A1-B1-A2-B2) was used: In all phases, LH was given a printed map on which city locations were indicated. He had to walk to the indicated locations while naturalistic outcomes were recorded. In Phases A, he navigated without his smartphone, and in Phases B, with it...
March 30, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
M Cogné, M Taillade, B N'Kaoua, A Tarruella, E Klinger, F Larrue, H Sauzéon, P-A Joseph, E Sorita
INTRODUCTION: Spatial navigation, which involves higher cognitive functions, is frequently implemented in daily activities, and is critical to the participation of human beings in mainstream environments. Virtual reality is an expanding tool, which enables on one hand the assessment of the cognitive functions involved in spatial navigation, and on the other the rehabilitation of patients with spatial navigation difficulties. Topographical disorientation is a frequent deficit among patients suffering from neurological diseases...
March 23, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jeffrey C Corrow, Sherryse L Corrow, Edison Lee, Raika Pancaroglu, Ford Burles, Brad Duchaine, Giuseppe Iaria, Jason J S Barton
Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire...
March 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Hiroo Ichikawa
Stroke-like episodes are one of the cardinal features of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), and occur in 84-99% of the patients. The affected areas detected on neuroimaging do not have classical vascular distribution, and involve predominantly the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Thus, the neurological symptoms including higher brain dysfunction correlate with this topographical distribution. In association with the occipital lobe involvement, the most frequent symptom is cortical blindness...
February 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Virginie Descloux, Roland Maurer
There is currently no specific neuropsychological test assessing spatial orientation abilities, despite the fact that navigational deficits are heavily incapacitating in daily life. This lack of a specific test is probably due to theoretical vagueness of concepts in this field and important interindividual differences in spatial cognition. Here we propose a new standardized test assessing a fundamental component of spatial orientation-namely, mental imagery: Adequate mental visualization of the environment is indeed a necessary step in finding one's way...
2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Jiye G Kim, Elissa M Aminoff, Sabine Kastner, Marlene Behrmann
UNLABELLED: Developmental topographic disorientation (DTD) is a life-long condition in which affected individuals are severely impaired in navigating around their environment. Individuals with DTD have no apparent structural brain damage on conventional imaging and the neural mechanisms underlying DTD are currently unknown. Using functional and diffusion tensor imaging, we present a comprehensive neuroimaging study of an individual, J.N., with well defined DTD. J.N. has intact scene-selective responses in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), transverse occipital sulcus, and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), key regions associated with scene perception and navigation...
September 16, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yasutaka Kobayashi, Tomoko Muramatsu, Mamiko Sato, Hiromi Hayashi, Toyoaki Miura
A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for rehabilitation of topographical disorientation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarction in the right medial side of the occipital lobe. On neuropsychological testing, he scored low for the visual information-processing task; however, his overall cognitive function was retained. He could identify parts of the picture while describing the context picture of the Visual Perception Test for Agnosia but could not explain the contents of the entire picture, representing so-called simultanagnosia...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Virginie Descloux, Anne Bellmann, Roland Maurer
A right posterior cerebral lesion can lead to an inability to orient and can consequently interfere with daily-life autonomy. Despite the wide literature about navigation abilities, it is still difficult to assess topographical disorientation (TD) because of the interindividual specificity of spatial knowledge and the diversity of symptoms. We describe here a set of new tests evaluating spatial cognition in a patient with TD presenting difficulties in navigating inside the hospital and in his hometown more than 3 years after his diffuse ischemic right Sylvian stroke...
2015: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Federico Nemmi, Filippo Bianchini, Federica Piras, Patrice Péran, Liana Palermo, Laura Piccardi, Umberto Sabatini, Cecilia Guariglia
Developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) causes impaired spatial orientation and navigation from early childhood with no evidence of cerebral damage. Using fMRI and a landmark sequencing task, we investigated the hypothesis that Dr Wai's abnormal cerebral activation pattern was related to his peculiar behavioral profile. Although Dr Wai was able to correctly perform landmark sequencing, he showed a lack of activity in regions activated in all control subjects and activity in areas that were not activated in any control subject...
2015: Neurocase
Jamshid Faraji, Nabiollah Soltanpour, Reza Moeeini, Shabnam Roudaki, Nasrin Soltanpour, Ali-Akbar Abdollahi, Gerlinde A S Metz
Silent focal ischemic mini infarcts in the brain are thought to cause no clinically overt symptoms. Some populations of hippocampal cells are particularly sensitive to ischemic events, however, rendering hippocampal functions especially vulnerable to ischemia-induced deficits. The present study investigated whether an otherwise silent ischemic mini infarct in the hippocampus (HPC) can produce impairments in spatial performance in rats. Spatial performance was assessed in the ziggurat task (ZT) using a 10-trial spatial learning protocol for 4 days prior to undergoing hippocampal ischemic lesion or sham surgery...
2014: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jason J S Barton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the various types of visual dysfunction that can result from lesions of the cerebral regions beyond the striate cortex. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with dyschromatopsia can exhibit problems with color constancy. The apperceptive form of prosopagnosia is associated with damage to posterior occipital and fusiform gyri, and an associative/amnestic form is linked to damage to more anterior temporal regions. Pure alexia can be accompanied by a surface dysgraphia...
August 2014: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Giuseppe Iaria, Aiden E G F Arnold, Ford Burles, Irene Liu, Edward Slone, Sarah Barclay, Torben N Bech-Hansen, Richard M Levy
Developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) is a newly discovered cognitive disorder in which individuals experience a lifelong history of getting lost in both novel and familiar surroundings. Recent studies have shown that such a selective orientation defect relies primarily on the inability of the individuals to form cognitive maps, i.e., mental representations of the surrounding that allow individuals to get anywhere from any location in the environment, although other orientation skills are additionally affected...
November 2014: Hippocampus
Silvia Serino, Pietro Cipresso, Francesca Morganti, Giuseppe Riva
A great effort has been made to identify crucial cognitive markers that can be used to characterize the cognitive profile of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because topographical disorientation is one of the earliest clinical manifestation of AD, an increasing number of studies have investigated the spatial deficits in this clinical population. In this systematic review, we specifically focused on experimental studies investigating allocentric and egocentric deficits to understand which spatial cognitive processes are differentially impaired in the different stages of the disease...
July 2014: Ageing Research Reviews
F Bianchini, A Di Vita, L Palermo, L Piccardi, C Blundo, C Guariglia
The aim of this study was to determine whether an egocentric topographical working memory (WM) deficit is present in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with respect to other forms of visuospatial WM. Further, we would investigate whether this deficit could be present in patients having AD without topographical disorientation (TD) signs in everyday life assessed through an informal interview to caregivers. Seven patients with AD and 20 healthy participants performed the Walking Corsi Test and the Corsi Block-Tapping Test...
December 2014: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
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