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Topographical agnosia

Mitsouko van Assche, Valeria Kebets, Ursula Lopez, Arnaud Saj, Rachel Goldstein, Françoise Bernasconi, Patrik Vuilleumier, Frédéric Assal
The parahippocampal cortex (PHC) participates in both perception and memory. However, the way perceptual and memory processes cooperate when we navigate in our everyday life environment remains poorly understood. We studied a stroke patient presenting a brain lesion in the right PHC, which resulted in a mild and quantifiable topographic agnosia, and allowed us to investigate the role of this structure in overt place recognition. Photographs of personally familiar and unfamiliar places were displayed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hiroo Ichikawa
Stroke-like episodes are one of the cardinal features of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), and occur in 84-99% of the patients. The affected areas detected on neuroimaging do not have classical vascular distribution, and involve predominantly the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Thus, the neurological symptoms including higher brain dysfunction correlate with this topographical distribution. In association with the occipital lobe involvement, the most frequent symptom is cortical blindness...
February 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Yasutaka Kobayashi, Tomoko Muramatsu, Mamiko Sato, Hiromi Hayashi, Toyoaki Miura
A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for rehabilitation of topographical disorientation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarction in the right medial side of the occipital lobe. On neuropsychological testing, he scored low for the visual information-processing task; however, his overall cognitive function was retained. He could identify parts of the picture while describing the context picture of the Visual Perception Test for Agnosia but could not explain the contents of the entire picture, representing so-called simultanagnosia...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Jason J S Barton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the various types of visual dysfunction that can result from lesions of the cerebral regions beyond the striate cortex. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with dyschromatopsia can exhibit problems with color constancy. The apperceptive form of prosopagnosia is associated with damage to posterior occipital and fusiform gyri, and an associative/amnestic form is linked to damage to more anterior temporal regions. Pure alexia can be accompanied by a surface dysgraphia...
August 2014: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Lies Bouwmeester, Anja van de Wege, Rob Haaxma, Jos W Snoek
This paper describes the rehabilitation process of a patient with severe topographical disorientation. The study demonstrates the sustained effects of a tailor-made, meticulous rehabilitation programme based on the gradual development of compensatory strategies. The patient (RB) had a memory impairment specific to environmental landmarks. He was able to recognise objects in his environment, but was unable to identify any salient object as a landmark and was also unable to derive any directional information from a chosen landmark...
2015: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Liana Palermo, Laura Piccardi, Filippo Bianchini, Federico Nemmi, Vincenzo Giorgio, Chiara Incoccia, Umberto Sabatini, Cecilia Guariglia
Developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) is the presence of navigational deficits in the context of normal intellectual ability and in the absence of any perinatal, neurological, or psychiatric disorder. As only three cases of DTD have been fully described thus far, we are still unable to draw definitive conclusions about its nature and relationship with other visuospatial competencies, such as mental rotation. The case of Mr. L.A., a 38-year-old man with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders, sheds some light on these open questions...
2014: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Wei-Shih Tseng, Nian-Sheng Tzeng
We coined a new word, "dromosagnosia", from the Greek words, dromos ("way, road")+agnosia, to describe the loss of direction while driving, an orientation disorder similar to but different from pure topographic disorientation. Historically, human beings have moved more quickly, from using domesticated animals to high speed vehicles, and this may be beyond the brain's ability to react. Without the benefit of an automatic navigation system, automobiles are associated with more problems of dromosagnosia than are fast-moving aircraft or ships...
November 2013: Medical Hypotheses
Holly Bridge, Owen M Thomas, Loredana Minini, Cristiana Cavina-Pratesi, A David Milner, Andrew J Parker
Loss of shape recognition in visual-form agnosia occurs without equivalent losses in the use of vision to guide actions, providing support for the hypothesis of two visual systems (for "perception" and "action"). The human individual DF received a toxic exposure to carbon monoxide some years ago, which resulted in a persisting visual-form agnosia that has been extensively characterized at the behavioral level. We conducted a detailed high-resolution MRI study of DF's cortex, combining structural and functional measurements...
July 31, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ming-Chyi Pai, Chih-Chien Lee, Ya-Chi Yang, Yen-Ti Lee, Kuang-Chi Chen, Shu-Han Lin, Sheng-Siang Jheng, Pei-Wen Sun, Pei-Ju Cheng
We developed a Questionnaire on Everyday Navigational Ability (QuENA) to detect topographical disorientation (TD) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (PwAD). In the QuENA, 3 items were designed to assess landmark agnosia, 2 for egocentric disorientation, 3 for heading disorientation, and 2 for inattention. The PwAD and their caregivers rated QuENA according to which TD symptoms would occur. Regarding the construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the caregiver version of the QuENA fits the proposed TD model well but the patient version does not...
February 2012: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Nobuyoshi Takahashi
Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas...
August 2011: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Christina S Konen, Marlene Behrmann, Mayu Nishimura, Sabine Kastner
Cortical reorganization of visual and object representations following neural injury was examined using fMRI and behavioral investigations. We probed the visual responsivity of the ventral visual cortex of an agnosic patient who was impaired at object recognition following a lesion to the right lateral fusiform gyrus. In both hemispheres, retinotopic mapping revealed typical topographic organization and visual activation of early visual cortex. However, visual responses, object-related, and -selective responses were reduced in regions immediately surrounding the lesion in the right hemisphere, and also, surprisingly, in corresponding locations in the structurally intact left hemisphere...
July 14, 2011: Neuron
Keisuke Iwanaga, Akira Satoh, Hideyo Satoh, Makiko Seto, Makoto Ochi, Mitsuhiro Tsujihata
A 66-year-old, right-handed male, was admitted to our hospital with difficulty in recognizing faces and colors. He had suffered a stroke in the right occipital region three years earlier that had induced left homonymous hemianopsia, but not prosopagnosia. A neurological examination revealed prosopagnosia, color agnosia, constructional apraxia, and topographical disorientation, but not either hemineglect or dressing apraxia. The patient was unable to distinguish faces of familiar persons such as his family and friends, as well as those of unfamiliar persons such as doctors and nurses...
May 2011: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Simona Gardini, Letizia Concari, Salvatrice Pagliara, Caterina Ghetti, Annalena Venneri, Paolo Caffarra
This study investigated the cognitive profile and the cerebral perfusion pattern in a highly educated 70 year old gentleman with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). Visuo-perceptual abilities, spatial memory, spatial representation and navigation, visuo-spatial mental imagery, semantic and episodic-autobiographical memory were assessed. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was imaged with SPECT. Cognitive testing showed visual-perceptual impairment, apperceptive visual and landmark agnosia, topographical disorientation with way-finding deficits, impaired map learning and poor mental image generation...
2011: Behavioural Neurology
Jason J S Barton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Both monkey and human neuroimaging studies show that visual processing beyond the striate cortex involves a highly complex network of regions with modular functions. Lesions within this network lead to specific clinical syndromes. In this review we discuss studies on blindsight, which is the ability of remaining regions to support vision in the absence of striate cortex or visual awareness, recent work on 'ventral stream' syndromes such as object agnosia, alexia, prosopagnosia, and topographagnosia, which follow damage to medial occipitotemporal structures, and simultanagnosia, the classic 'dorsal stream' deficit related to bilateral occipitoparietal lesions...
February 2011: Current Opinion in Neurology
David C Plaut
A long-standing debate regarding the representation of semantic knowledge is whether such knowledge is represented in a single, amodal system or whether it is organised into multiple subsystems based on modality of input or type of information. The current paper presents a distributed connectionist model of semantics that constitutes a middle ground between these unitary- versus multiple-semantics accounts. In the model, semantic representations develop under the pressure of learning to mediate between multiple input and output modalities in performing various tasks...
October 1, 2002: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Taku Rokutanda, Yuichiro Inatomi, Toshiro Yonehara, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Teruyuki Hirano, Makoto Uchino
A 53-year-old man was admitted to our hospital after suffering four attacks with loss of consciousness and/or topographic agnosia. Three months after the first attack, the cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed no abnormal findings. IgG-autoantibodies and IgM-autoantibodies against glutamate receptor epsilon2 (GluRepsilon2) were detected in cerebrospinal fluid and serum respectively. At that time, we diagnosed him as having limbic encephalopathy. Brain MRI revealed a high intensity lesion on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in the medial regions of the bilateral temporal lobes and splenium...
July 2008: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Francesca Morganti, Maria Luisa Rusconi, Anna Paladino, Giuliano Geminiani, Antonella Carassa
Due to their interactivity and to the sense of presence they afford, virtual environments constitute an interesting opportunity to study spatial cognition. In accordance with this perspective, we aimed to introduce a spatial test in virtual simulation in order to investigate the survey spatial ability in patients with topographical disorientation. To do this, we used the "planning in advance task" in a virtual environment that constitutes an effective procedure to experimentally evaluate survey maps. With this procedure we present the single case of a woman, with a right medial temporal lobe lesion, who shows a selective impairment in the acquisition of new spatial relationships...
2008: Behavioural Neurology
Ilana J Hepner, Armin Mohamed, Michael J Fulham, Laurie A Miller
According to Consolidation Theory (Squire, 1992, Psychological Review, 99, 195; Squire & Alvarez, 1995, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 5, 169), the mesial temporal lobes have a time-limited role in the maintenance, storage and retrieval of retrograde declarative memories, such that they are not necessary for recalling remote memories. In contrast, proponents of the Multiple Trace Theory (Fuji, Moscovitch, & Nadel, 2000, Handbook of neuropsychology, 2nd ed., p 223, Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier; Nadel & Moscovitch, 1999, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 7, 217) posit that the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) is necessary for remembering detailed autobiographical and topographical material from all time periods...
April 2007: Neurocase
Ruth Brunsdon, Lyndsey Nickels, Max Coltheart, Pamela Joy
Topographical disorientation refers to individuals who are unable to find their way around large-scale environments in a normal manner. Childhood topographical disorientation is rarely investigated or reported. Treatment of topographical disorientation is also rare with only one reported treatment study in an adult (Davis & Coltheart, 1999) and no known description of treatment in a child. This paper reports a detailed case analysis of CA, a 6-year-old child with topographical disorientation, and a description of a treatment programme focused on training orientation in the school environment...
January 2007: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Howard S Kirshner, Patrick J M Lavin
Posterior cortical atrophy is a striking clinical syndrome in which a dementing illness begins with visual symptoms. Initially, the problem may seem to be loss of elementary vision, but over time the patient develops features of visual agnosia, topographical difficulty, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, ocular apraxia (Balint's syndrome), alexia, acalculia, right-left confusion, and agraphia (Gerstmann's syndrome), and later a more generalized dementia. Occasional patients have visual hallucinations and signs of Parkinson's disease or Lewy body dementia...
November 2006: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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