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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240039/an-overview-of-low-back-pain-and-occupational-exposures-to-whole-body-vibration-and-mechanical-shocks
#1
Massimo Bovenzi, Marianne Schust, Marcella Mauro
This paper offers an overview of the relation of low back pain (LBP) to occupational exposures to whole-body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shocks. LBP is a condition of multifactorial origin and is a very common health problem in the general population. Among occupational risk factors, epidemiological studies of driving occupations have provided evidence for strong associations between LBP and occupational exposures to WBV and mechanical shocks. Since it is hard to separate the contribution of WBV exposure to disorders in the lower back from that of other individual, ergonomic or psychosocial risk factors, a quantitative exposure-response relationship for WBV cannot be outlined precisely...
December 14, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238864/species-traits-do-not-converge-on-optimum-values-in-preferred-habitats
#2
Rachel M Mitchell, Justin P Wright, Greg M Ames
Plant trait expression is shaped by filters, which can alter trait means and variances, theoretically driving species toward an "optimum" trait value for a set of environmental conditions. Recent research has highlighted the ubiquity of intraspecific variation in functional traits, which can cause plants to diverge from a hypothesized "optimum". We examined whether species occurring in "core" habitats (where they occur frequently, abundantly, and consistently) express traits that are nearer to "optimum", as captured by the community-weighted mean (CWM)...
December 13, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236961/outlier-detection-for-improved-differential-splicing-quantification-from-rna-seq-experiments-with-replicates
#3
Scott Norton, Jorge Vaquero-Garcia, Nicholas F Lahens, Gregory R Grant, Yoseph Barash
Motivation: A key component in many RNA-Seq based studies is contrasting multiple replicates from different experimental conditions. In this setup, replicates play a key role as they allow to capture underlying biological variability inherent to the compared conditions, as well as experimental variability. However, what constitutes a "bad" replicate is not necessarily well defined. Consequently, researchers might discard valuable data or downstream analysis may be hampered by failed experiments...
December 11, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232567/mapping-network-connectivity-among-symptoms-of-social-anxiety-and-comorbid-depression-in-people-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#4
Alexandre Heeren, Payton J Jones, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depressive symptoms often covary. Yet, uncertainty still abounds vis-à-vis the individual symptom-to-symptom associations between these two disorders. Inspired by the network approach to psychopathology that conceptualizes comorbidity as a natural consequence arising from bridge symptoms that can transmit activation from one disorder to the other, we applied network analytic methods to characterize the associations among core symptoms of SAD-i...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232375/a-persistent-lack-of-international-representation-on-editorial-boards-in-environmental-biology
#5
Johanna Espin, Sebastian Palmas, Farah Carrasco-Rueda, Kristina Riemer, Pablo E Allen, Nathan Berkebile, Kirsten A Hecht, Kay Kastner-Wilcox, Mauricio M Núñez-Regueiro, Candice Prince, Constanza Rios, Erica Ross, Bhagatveer Sangha, Tia Tyler, Judit Ungvari-Martin, Mariana Villegas, Tara T Cataldo, Emilio M Bruna
The scholars comprising journal editorial boards play a critical role in defining the trajectory of knowledge in their field. Nevertheless, studies of editorial board composition remain rare, especially those focusing on journals publishing research in the increasingly globalized fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Using metrics for quantifying the diversity of ecological communities, we quantified international representation on the 1985-2014 editorial boards of 24 environmental biology journals...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231870/improving-the-care-and-treatment-of-monkeypox-patients-in-low-resource-settings-applying-evidence-from-contemporary-biomedical-and-smallpox-biodefense-research
#6
REVIEW
Mary G Reynolds, Andrea M McCollum, Beatrice Nguete, Robert Shongo Lushima, Brett W Petersen
Monkeypox is a smallpox-like illness that can be accompanied by a range of significant medical complications. To date there are no standard or optimized guidelines for the clinical management of monkeypox (MPX) patients, particularly in low-resource settings. Consequently, patients can experience protracted illness and poor outcomes. Improving care necessitates developing a better understanding of the range of clinical manifestations-including complications and sequelae-as well as of features of illness that may be predictive of illness severity and poor outcomes...
December 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230385/urinary-microbiome-and-psychological-factors-in-women-with-overactive-bladder
#7
Peng Wu, Yang Chen, Jie Zhao, Guihao Zhang, Jiawei Chen, Junpeng Wang, Huijian Zhang
Objectives: Emerging evidence indicates that alterations to the urinary microbiome are related to lower urinary tract symptoms. Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common disorder with complex etiologies and usually accompanied by psychological diseases. More information concerning the urinary microbiome and psychological factors in OAB is required. The aim of this study was to characterize the female urinary microbiome associated with OAB and investigate the relationships between urinary microbiome and psychological factors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229592/a-human-centered-platform-for-hiv-infection-reduction-in-new-york-development-and-usage-analysis-of-the-ending-the-epidemic-ete-dashboard
#8
Ashish Joshi, Chioma Amadi, Benjamin Katz, Sarah Kulkarni, Denis Nash
BACKGROUND: Dashboards have been increasingly used in clinic-based interventions, such as clinical performance improvement and monitoring risk of hospital readmissions, and are now gaining traction in population-based interventions, especially in disease assessment. OBJECTIVE: We describe the design, development, and usage analysis of a geovisualization dashboard, the Ending the Epidemic (ETE) Dashboard. The ETE dashboard is a tool developed to track New York's progress towards achieving the goal of its ETE Initiative, to reduce new HIV infections from 3000 per year to 750 per year by the end of 2020...
December 11, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228839/validation-of-fatigue-impact-scale-with-various-item-sets-a-rasch-analysis
#9
Åsa Lundgren-Nilsson, Alan Tennant, Sofie Jakobsson, Magnus Simrén, Charles Taft, Anna Dencker
PURPOSE: Fatigue is a symptom in patients with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases. Different instruments have been developed to assess the severity of fatigue and the 40-item Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) is among the most widely used. Shorter versions of FIS include the 21-item Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), and an eight-item version for everyday use. The study aimed to assess construct validity, reliability, and sufficiency of the raw score of the original FIS with 40 items, and examine the sufficiency of the 21 items from the Modified scale and the eight items of the Daily Fatigue Impact Scale (D-FIS), all of which are embedded in the 40-item scale...
December 12, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228314/demodifying-rna-for-transcriptomic-analyses-of-archival-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-samples
#10
Leah C Wehmas, Charles E Wood, Remi Gagne, Andrew Williams, Carole Yauk, Mark M Gosink, Deidre Dalmas, Ruixin Hao, Raegan O'Lone, Susan Hester
Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples offer a vast but largely untapped resource for genomic research. The primary technical issues limiting use of FFPE samples are RNA yield and quality. In this study, we evaluated methods to demodify RNA highly fragmented and crosslinked by formalin fixation. Primary endpoints were RNA recovery, RNA-sequencing quality metrics, and transcriptional responses to a reference chemical (phenobarbital, PB). Frozen mouse liver samples from control and PB groups (n = 6/group) were divided and preserved for 3 months as follows: frozen (FR); 70% ethanol (OH); 10% buffered formalin for 18 hours followed by ethanol (18F); or 10% buffered formalin (3F)...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219858/the-precision-of-ecap-thresholds-derived-from-amplitude-growth-functions
#11
Jan Dirk Biesheuvel, Jeroen J Briaire, Johan H M Frijns
OBJECTIVE: An amplitude growth function (AGF) shows the amplitude of an electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) as a function of the stimulation current. AGFs can be used to derive the eCAP threshold, which represents the minimum amount of current needed to elicit a measurable eCAP. eCAP thresholds have been widely used clinically to, for example, assist with sound processor programming. However, no eCAP precision has been included to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the precision of eCAP thresholds and determine whether they are precise enough for clinical use...
December 6, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218267/radiomics-in-precision-medicine-for-lung-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Julie Constanzo, Lise Wei, Huan-Hsin Tseng, Issam El Naqa
With the improvement of external radiotherapy delivery accuracy, such as intensity-modulated and stereotactic body radiation therapy, radiation oncology has recently entered in the era of precision medicine. Despite these precise irradiation modalities, lung cancers remain one of the most aggressive human cancers worldwide, possibly because of diverse genotypic alterations that drive and maintain lung tumorigenesis. It has been long recognized that imaging could aid in the diagnosis, tumor delineation, and monitoring of lung cancer...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217733/sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-preclinical-imaging-research-initial-observations-with-18f-fluorothymidine
#13
Szeman Ruby Chan, Kelley Salem, Justin Jeffery, Ginny L Powers, Yongjun Yan, Kooresh I Shoghi, Aparna M Mahajan, Amy M Fowler
The study objective was to investigate whether sex influences 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) uptake and tissue distribution in mouse models of cancer. Methods:18F-FLT biodistribution was measured in three strains of male and female mice (129S6/SvEv, athymic nude, and BALB/c). 18F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose (18F-FDG) biodistribution was performed for comparison. 18F-FLT uptake was also measured in female 129S6/SvEv mice bearing estrogen-dependent SSM3 mouse mammary tumors, male athymic nude mice bearing androgen-dependent CWR22 prostate cancer xenografts, and male and female athymic nude mice bearing estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214626/a-descriptive-analysis-of-data-from-the-department-of-defense-joint-trauma-system-prehospital-trauma-registry
#14
Stephen G Schauer, Michael D April, Jason F Naylor, Joshua J Oliver, Cord W Cunningham, Andrew D Fisher, Russ S Kotwal
The active battlefield is an environment of chaos and confusion. Depending on the scale of combat, the chaos and confusion often extend into the prehospital combat setting with multiple personnel and units involved in the chain of care of casualties. The chaos of the prehospital combat setting has led to limitations in the availability of data for performance improvement and research. The Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Trauma System (JTS) Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) was developed in conjunction with the updated Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) card and a TCCC after action report (AAR), and currently serves as the prehospital repository and module of the DoD Trauma Registry (DoDTR)...
October 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214150/the-physiocam-a-novel-non-contact-sensor-to-measure-heart-rate-variability-in-clinical-and-field-applications
#15
Maria I Davila, Gregory F Lewis, Stephen W Porges
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable indicator of health status and a sensitive index of autonomic stress reactivity. Stress negatively affects physical and psychological wellness by decreasing cardiovascular health and reducing quality of life. Wearable sensors have made it possible to track HRV during daily activity, and recent advances in mobile technology have reduced the cost and difficulty of applying this powerful technique. Although advances have made sensors smaller and lighter, some burden on the subject remains...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213234/cognitive-mapping-based-on-conjunctive-representations-of-space-and-movement
#16
Taiping Zeng, Bailu Si
It is a challenge to build robust simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) system in dynamical large-scale environments. Inspired by recent findings in the entorhinal-hippocampal neuronal circuits, we propose a cognitive mapping model that includes continuous attractor networks of head-direction cells and conjunctive grid cells to integrate velocity information by conjunctive encodings of space and movement. Visual inputs from the local view cells in the model provide feedback cues to correct drifting errors of the attractors caused by the noisy velocity inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212731/clinical-activity-of-pazopanib-in-patients-with-advanced-desmoplastic-small-round-cell-tumor
#17
Brian A Menegaz, Branko Cuglievan, Jalen Benson, Pamela Camacho, Salah-Eddine Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Cheuk Hong Leung, Carla L Warneke, Winston Huh, Vivek Subbiah, Robert S Benjamin, Shreyaskumar Patel, Najat Daw, Andrea Hayes-Jordan, Joseph A Ludwig
BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is an aggressive, often fatal soft tissue sarcoma that lacks an optimal salvage regimen. We retrospectively reviewed data from 29 pretreated DSRCT patients who received pazopanib at MD Anderson Cancer Center after failure of standard chemotherapies. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: Medical records of patients treated from January 2012 to December 2016 were reviewed and regression analyses were performed. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences in survival were assessed by a log-rank test...
December 6, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211623/quality-of-care-improves-for-patients-with-diabetes-in-medicare-shared-savings-accountable-care-organizations-organizational-characteristics-associated-with-performance
#18
Taressa K Fraze, Valerie A Lewis, Emily Tierney, Carrie H Colla
Accountable care organizations (ACOs), a primary care-centric delivery and payment model, aim to promote integrated population health, which may improve care for those with chronic conditions such as diabetes. Research has shown that, overall, the ACO model is effective at reducing costs, but there is substantial variation in how effective different types of ACOs are at impacting costs and improving care delivery. This study examines how ACO organizational characteristics - such as composition, staffing, care management, and experiences with health reform - were associated with quality of care delivered to patients with diabetes...
December 6, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209603/sensitivity-specificity-and-predictive-values-foundations-pliabilities-and-pitfalls-in-research-and-practice
#19
Robert Trevethan
Within the context of screening tests, it is important to avoid misconceptions about sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. In this article, therefore, foundations are first established concerning these metrics along with the first of several aspects of pliability that should be recognized in relation to those metrics. Clarification is then provided about the definitions of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values and why researchers and clinicians can misunderstand and misrepresent them. Arguments are made that sensitivity and specificity should usually be applied only in the context of describing a screening test's attributes relative to a reference standard; that predictive values are more appropriate and informative in actual screening contexts, but that sensitivity and specificity can be used for screening decisions about individual people if they are extremely high; that predictive values need not always be high and might be used to advantage by adjusting the sensitivity and specificity of screening tests; that, in screening contexts, researchers should provide information about all four metrics and how they were derived; and that, where necessary, consumers of health research should have the skills to interpret those metrics effectively for maximum benefit to clients and the healthcare system...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209254/psychometric-properties-of-multi-dimensional-scale-of-perceived-social-support-in-chinese-parents-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#20
Yongli Wang, Qin Wan, Zhaoming Huang, Li Huang, Feng Kong
The Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) is one of the most extensively used instruments to assess social support. The purpose of this research was to test the reliability, factorial validity, concurrent validity and measurement invariance across gender groups of the MSPSS in Chinese parents of children with cerebral palsy. A total of 487 participants aged 21-55 years were recruited to complete the Chinese MSPSS and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF). Composite reliability was calculated as the internal consistency of the Chinese MSPSS and a (multi-group) confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the factorial validity and measurement invariance across gender...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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