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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543843/white-matter-biomarkers-from-fast-protocols-using-axially-symmetric-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging
#1
Brian Hansen, Ahmad R Khan, Noam Shemesh, Torben E Lund, Ryan Sangill, Simon F Eskildsen, Leif Østergaard, Sune N Jespersen
White matter tract integrity (WMTI) can characterize brain microstructure in areas with highly aligned fiber bundles. Several WMTI biomarkers have now been validated against microscopy and provided promising results in studies of brain development and aging, as well as in a number of brain disorders. Currently, WMTI is mostly used in dedicated animal studies and clinical studies of slowly progressing diseases, and has not yet emerged as a routine clinical tool. To this end, a less data intensive experimental method would be beneficial by enabling high resolution validation studies, and ease clinical applications by speeding up data acquisition compared with typical diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) protocols utilized as part of WMTI imaging...
May 22, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543652/what-s-the-use-disparate-purposes-of-u-s-federal-bioethics-commissions
#2
Jenny Dyck Brian, Robert Cook-Deegan
In the forty-year history of U.S. bioethics commissions, these government-sanctioned forums have often demonstrated their power to address pressing problems and to enable policy change. For example, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, established in 1974, left a legacy of reports that were translated into regulations and had an enormous practical impact. And the 1982 report Splicing Life, by the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, became the basis for the National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee as well as for the Food and Drug Administration's developing "Points to Consider" when contemplating the introduction of recombinant DNA into human beings...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541965/increasing-health-portal-utilization-in-cardiac-ambulatory-patients-a-pilot-project
#3
Carmen L Shaw, Gayle L Casterline, Dennis Taylor, Maureen Fogle, Bradi Granger
Increasing health portal participation actively engages patients in their care and improves outcomes. The primary aim for this project was to increase patient health portal utilization. Nurses used a tablet-based demo to teach patients how to navigate the health portal. Assigning health videos to the portal was a tactic used to increase utilization. Each patient participant was surveyed about health portal utilization at initial nurse navigator appointment, day of procedure, and 30 days after discharge. Seventy-three percent (n = 14) of the 19 selected patients received the intervention; 36% (n = 4) of patients reported using a health portal feature; meaningful use metric preintervention increased from 12% to 16% after the intervention; 16% and 18% of patients viewed assigned videos in their health portal prior to procedure and after hospital discharge...
May 25, 2017: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539947/development-of-a-diverse-learning-experience-for-diverse-psychiatry-resident-needs-a-four-year-biological-psychiatry-curriculum-incorporating-principles-of-neurobiology-psychopharmacology-and-evidence-based-practice
#4
Andrew J Muzyk, Jane P Gagliardi, Gopalkumar Rakesh, Michael R Jiroutek, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Chi-Un Pae, Prakash S Masand, Steven T Szabo
OBJECTIVE: A clinically relevant approach to patient care grounded in neurobiological constructs and evidence based practice which emphasizes a relevant psychopharmacology is needed to optimally train psychiatry residents. METHODS: We implemented a biological psychiatry course that now incorporates neurobiology, psychopharmacology, and evidence-based practice in conjunction with a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) perspective. A survey launched prior to course implementation and following each class session, served as the outcome metric of residents' attitudes toward the new curriculum and followed a baseline attitudinal survey designed to evaluate the program...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539083/patient-length-of-stay-and-mortality-prediction-a-survey
#5
Aya Awad, Mohamed Bader-El-Den, James McNicholas
Over the past few years, there has been increased interest in data mining and machine learning methods to improve hospital performance, in particular hospitals want to improve their intensive care unit statistics by reducing the number of patients dying inside the intensive care unit. Research has focused on prediction of measurable outcomes, including risk of complications, mortality and length of hospital stay. The length of stay is an important metric both for healthcare providers and patients, influenced by numerous factors...
May 2017: Health Services Management Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537814/a-human-oriented-framework-for-developing-assistive-service-robots
#6
Conor McGinn, Michael F Cullinan, Mark Culleton, Kevin Kelly
PURPOSE: Multipurpose robots that can perform a range of useful tasks have the potential to increase the quality of life for many people living with disabilities. Owing to factors such as high system complexity, as-yet unresolved research questions and current technology limitations, there is a need for effective strategies to coordinate the development process. METHOD: Integrating established methodologies based on human-centred design and universal design, a framework was formulated to coordinate the robot design process over successive iterations of prototype development...
May 24, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535449/the-center-for-epidemiological-studies-depression-scale-ces-d-measurement-equivalence-across-gender-groups-in-hispanic-college-students
#7
Consuelo Arbona, Andrea Burridge, Norma Olvera
BACKGROUND: This study examined among Hispanic college students the factor structure and gender measurement invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The CES-D's original 20 item four-factor model was compared to a recently proposed 14 item, three-factor model. METHODS: Participants included 858 Hispanic undergraduates at an ethnically diverse, major research, urban, public university in the Southwest United States (U.S.). Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and structural equation modeling were used to examine the factor structure, gender invariance, and construct validity of the CES-D scores...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534606/standardized-reporting-of-functioning-information-on-icf-based-common-metrics
#8
Birgit Prodinger, Alan Tennant, Gerold Stucki
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice and research a variety of clinical data collection tools are used to collect information on people's functioning for clinical practise and research and National Health Information Systems. Reporting on ICF-based common metrics enables standardized documentation of functioning information in national health information systems. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this methodological note on applying the ICF in rehabilitation is to demonstrate how to report functioning information collected with a data collection tool on ICF-based common metrics...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532571/age-and-sex-related-differences-in-masseter-size-and-its-role-in-oral-functions
#9
Chia-Shu Lin, Ching-Yi Wu, Shih-Yun Wu, Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Hsiao-Han Lin, Dong-Hui Cheng, Wen-Liang Lo
BACKGROUND: The masseter muscle plays a key structural and functional role in the stomatognathic system. Researchers' cumulative evidence has suggested that the variation in the size of a person's masseter muscle may be a critical factor related to individual differences in oral functions. However, researchers have not yet investigated systematically the effect of a person's age and sex on masseter muscle size and the association of masseter muscle size with other clinical metrics, including masticatory performance (MP) and salivary flow rate (SFR)...
May 20, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532417/instrumented-balance-and-walking-assessments-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-show-strong-test-retest-reliability
#10
Jordan J Craig, Adam P Bruetsch, Sharon G Lynch, Fay B Horak, Jessie M Huisinga
BACKGROUND: There is a need for objective movement assessment for clinical research trials aimed at improving gait and balance in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Wireless inertial sensors can accurately measure numerous walking and balance parameters but these measures require evaluation of reliability in PwMS. The current study determined the test-retest reliability of wireless inertial sensor measures obtained during an instrumented standing balance test and an instrumented Timed Up and Go test in PwMS...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529187/multiple-outcomes-and-analyses-in-clinical-trials-create-challenges-for-interpretation-and-research-synthesis
#11
Evan Mayo-Wilson, Nicole Fusco, Tianjing Li, Hwanhee Hong, Joe Canner, Kay Dickersin
OBJECTIVE: To identify variations in outcomes and results across public and non-public reports of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Eligible RCTs examined gabapentin for neuropathic pain and quetiapine for bipolar depression, reported in public (e.g., journal articles) and non-public sources (e.g., clinical study reports) available by 2015. We recorded pre-specified outcome domains. We considered outcomes "defined" if they included the domain, measure, metric, method of aggregation, and time-point...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528663/explaining-variation-in-ventral-and-inguinal-hernia-repair-outcomes-a-population-based-analysis
#12
Christopher T Aquina, Fergal J Fleming, Adan Z Becerra, Zhaomin Xu, Bradley J Hensley, Katia Noyes, John R T Monson, Todd A Jusko
BACKGROUND: No study has evaluated the relative importance of patient, surgeon, and hospital-level factors on surgeon and hospital variation in hernia reoperation rates. This population-based retrospective cohort study evaluated factors associated with variation in reoperation rates for recurrence after initial ventral hernia repair and inguinal hernia repair. METHODS: The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System identified initial ventral hernia repairs and inguinal hernia repairs in New York state from 2003-2009...
May 18, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526015/construction-and-implications-of-structural-equation-modeling-network-for-pediatric-cataract-a-data-mining-research-of-rare-diseases
#13
Erping Long, Shuangjuan Xu, Zhenzhen Liu, Xiaohang Wu, Xiayin Zhang, Jinghui Wang, Wangting Li, Runzhong Liu, Zicong Chen, Kexin Chen, Tongyong Yu, Dongxuan Wu, Xutu Zhao, Jingjing Chen, Zhuoling Lin, Qianzhong Cao, Duoru Lin, Xiaoyan Li, Jingheng Cai, Haotian Lin
BACKGROUND: The majority of rare diseases are complex diseases caused by a combination of multiple morbigenous factors. However, uncovering the complex etiology and pathogenesis of rare diseases is difficult due to limited clinical resources and conventional statistical methods. This study aims to investigate the interrelationship and the effectiveness of potential factors of pediatric cataract, for the exploration of data mining strategy in the scenarios of rare diseases. METHODS: We established a pilot rare disease specialized care center to systematically record all information and the entire treatment process of pediatric cataract patients...
May 19, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523282/comparative-study-of-computational-visual-attention-models-on-two-dimensional-medical-images
#14
Gezheng Wen, Brenda Rodriguez-Niño, Furkan Y Pecen, David J Vining, Naveen Garg, Mia K Markey
Computational modeling of visual attention is an active area of research. These models have been successfully employed in applications such as robotics. However, most computational models of visual attention are developed in the context of natural scenes, and their role with medical images is not well investigated. As radiologists interpret a large number of clinical images in a limited time, an efficient strategy to deploy their visual attention is necessary. Visual saliency maps, highlighting image regions that differ dramatically from their surroundings, are expected to be predictive of where radiologists fixate their gaze...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522667/baseline-survey-of-the-neuroradiology-work-environment-in-the-united-states-with-reported-trends-in-clinical-work-nonclinical-work-perceptions-of-trainees-and-burnout-metrics
#15
J Y Chen, F J Lexa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuroradiologists have faced continuously increasing clinical workloads. Our aim was to establish and report a baseline survey of the current neuroradiology work environment in the United States and of experiential changes in recent years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A voluntary survey was sent to practicing and out-of-training members of the American Society of Neuroradiology in the United States. Selected measures included workday volume and length, burnout symptoms, participation in academic and practice-building duties; effects on perceived interpretation quality, communication of abnormal results, and consideration of early retirement or career changes, among others...
May 18, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522086/correlates-of-sleep-quality-in-midlife-and-beyond-a-machine-learning-analysis
#16
Katherine A Kaplan, Prajesh P Hardas, Susan Redline, Jamie M Zeitzer
OBJECTIVES: In older adults, traditional metrics derived from polysomnography (PSG) are not well correlated with subjective sleep quality. Little is known about whether the association between PSG and subjective sleep quality changes with age, or whether quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) is associated with sleep quality. Therefore, we examined the relationship between subjective sleep quality and objective sleep characteristics (standard PSG and qEEG) across middle to older adulthood...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511696/variant-effect-prediction-tools-assessed-using-independent-functional-assay-based-datasets-implications-for-discovery-and-diagnostics
#17
Khalid Mahmood, Chol-Hee Jung, Gayle Philip, Peter Georgeson, Jessica Chung, Bernard J Pope, Daniel J Park
BACKGROUND: Genetic variant effect prediction algorithms are used extensively in clinical genomics and research to determine the likely consequences of amino acid substitutions on protein function. It is vital that we better understand their accuracies and limitations because published performance metrics are confounded by serious problems of circularity and error propagation. Here, we derive three independent, functionally determined human mutation datasets, UniFun, BRCA1-DMS and TP53-TA, and employ them, alongside previously described datasets, to assess the pre-eminent variant effect prediction tools...
May 16, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508921/latent-factor-structure-of-a-behavioral-economic-marijuana-demand-curve
#18
Elizabeth R Aston, Samantha G Farris, James MacKillop, Jane Metrik
RATIONALE: Drug demand, or relative value, can be assessed via analysis of behavioral economic purchase task performance. Five demand indices are typically obtained from drug purchase tasks. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this research was to determine whether metrics of marijuana reinforcement from a marijuana purchase task (MPT) exhibit a latent factor structure that efficiently characterizes marijuana demand. METHODS: Participants were regular marijuana users (n = 99; 37...
May 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506972/career-and-research-outcomes-of-the-physician-scientist-training-program-at-the-university-of-calgary-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Jason T Bau, Alexandra D Frolkis, Nabeela Nathoo, Bryan G Yipp, Morley D Hollenberg, Paul L Beck
BACKGROUND: Physician-scientists are integral to medical research, with medical programs throughout Canada invested in training hybrid physician-scientists. Few data exist as to whether these programs are generating the diversity, gender equity and numbers of trainees essential for the future of medical research and teaching. We aimed to identify factors that contribute to research productivity, diversity and retention of individuals as physician-scientists. METHODS: We completed a retrospective cohort study, for the period 1973 to 2015, of the University of Calgary Leaders in Medicine Program in Calgary, Alberta...
May 15, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500751/radiological-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-in-psp-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-need-to-be
#20
REVIEW
Jennifer L Whitwell, Günter U Höglinger, Angelo Antonini, Yvette Bordelon, Adam L Boxer, Carlo Colosimo, Thilo van Eimeren, Lawrence I Golbe, Jan Kassubek, Carolin Kurz, Irene Litvan, Alexander Pantelyat, Gil Rabinovici, Gesine Respondek, Axel Rominger, James B Rowe, Maria Stamelou, Keith A Josephs
BACKGROUND: PSP is a pathologically defined neurodegenerative tauopathy with a variety of clinical presentations including typical Richardson's syndrome and other variant PSP syndromes. Our aim was to critically evaluate the degree to which structural, functional and molecular neuroimaging metrics fulfill criteria for diagnostic biomarkers of PSP. METHODS: We queried the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and PSYCInfo databases for original research articles published in English using postmortem diagnosis or NINDS-SPSP criteria as the diagnostic standard from 1996-2016...
May 13, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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