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Jose Luis Lopez-Campos, Stefano Centanni
The study of airway diseases continues to present several challenges for modern medicine. The different disease presentations with variables and overlapping features may result in a real challenge for the clinician. In this context, the concept of precision medicine has started to emerge in order to give answers to some of these challenges from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view. The main reasons to target for precision medicine in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include that there is variability in the clinical presentation, there is no correlation between the different clinical variables at the patient level, there are a number of relevant clinical variables associated with outcomes, we do have specific therapies for specific patient types, and that there is variability in the clinical response to different therapies...
March 20, 2018: COPD
Gabriela Ensinck, Adriana Ernst, Gustavo Lazarte, Antonela Romagnoli, Yanina Sguassero, Nanci Míguez, Santiago López Papucci, Alicia Aletti, Ana Chiossone, Fernanda Pigozzi, Matías Pinotti, Ana Cantador
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are a common reason for consultation in pediatrics. Most of them present as skin and soft tissue infections; however, invasive infections have increased during the last decade. OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to describe the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of CA-MRSA infections. The secondary objective was to compare prevalence, clinical presentation and antibiotic susceptibility with a pre-study period (1/2004-12/2007)...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Gonzalo Agüero, Soledad Salmain, Belén Manzur, Enrique Berner
INTRODUCTION: The most common painful syndromes (headache, abdominal pain and musculoskeletal pain) develop or worsen during adolescence and are a common reason for consultation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association of age, sex, obesity, pubertal development, schooling level, employment and family structure with consultation for pain in adolescents. POPULATION AND METHODS: Case-control study conducted between February 1st, 2014 and June 30th, 2015...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Dirk Ziebolz, David Douglas, Donya Douglas, Jan Schmickler, Daniel Patschan, Gerhard A Müller, Rainer Haak, Jana Schmidt, Gerhard Schmalz, Susann Patschan
OBJECTIVE: Recent literature reveals worse periodontal health condition in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, roles of AS-related parameters, periodontal condition, and their association appear unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating dental and periodontal health as well as potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria in patients with AS compared to healthy control subjects (HC). METHODS: Dental examination comprised dental findings (DMF-T), periodontal probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss (CAL), papillary bleeding index, and microbiological analysis based on polymerase chain reaction of selected potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria...
March 20, 2018: Rheumatology International
Wolfgang George, G Andrè Banat, Johannes J Herrmann, Manuel J Richter
BACKGROUND: Own studies from the years 2013 and 2014 had shown that patients in hospital or inhabitants of nursing home get transferred even in their last, terminal phase of life. METHOD: In order to describe such transfers, a 27-item questionnaire was developed in 2016. This was addressed to employees from hospitals and nursing homes. The questionnaire determines the frequency of the laying (a), preferred periods (b), location (c) and influencing factors (d). 101 hospitals and 65 nursing homes of different sizes, carriers and federal states were included...
October 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
Pilar Carranza-Rosales, Nancy Elena Guzmán-Delgado, Irma Edith Carranza-Torres, Ezequiel Viveros-Valdez, Javier Morán-Martínez
Breast cancer is the most common cancer type diagnosed in women, it represents a critical public health problem worldwide, with 1,671,149 estimated new cases and nearly 571,000 related deaths. Research on breast cancer has mainly been conducted using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures and animal models. The usefulness of these models is reflected in the vast knowledge accumulated over the past decades. However, considering that animal models are three-dimensional (3D) in nature, the validity of the studies using 2D cell cultures has recently been questioned...
March 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
T Mücke, L H Schmidt, A M Fichter, K-D Wolff, L M Ritschl
Venous congestion results in tissue damage and remains the most common reason for failure of transfer of microvascular free flaps if it is not recognised early. The purpose of this study was to measure the critical duration of venous congestion and the resultant survival of flaps according to the duration of venous stasis. A standard epigastric flap was raised and repositioned in 35 rats, seven of which acted as controls. The superficial inferior epigastric vein was fully occluded for four, five, six, or seven hours in the rest (n=7 each group)...
March 16, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Axel Bronstert, Ankit Agarwal, Berry Boessenkool, Irene Crisologo, Madlen Fischer, Maik Heistermann, Lisei Köhn-Reich, José Andrés López-Tarazón, Thomas Moran, Ugur Ozturk, Christian Reinhardt-Imjela, Dadiyorto Wendi
The flash-flood in Braunsbach in the north-eastern part of Baden-Wuerttemberg/Germany was a particularly strong and concise event which took place during the floods in southern Germany at the end of May/early June 2016. This article presents a detailed analysis of the hydro-meteorological forcing and the hydrological consequences of this event. A specific approach, the "forensic hydrological analysis" was followed in order to include and combine retrospectively a variety of data from different disciplines...
February 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M Janik, P Bossew, O Kurihara
Machine learning is a class of statistical techniques which has proven to be a powerful tool for modelling the behaviour of complex systems, in which response quantities depend on assumed controls or predictors in a complicated way. In this paper, as our first purpose, we propose the application of machine learning to reconstruct incomplete or irregularly sampled data of time series indoor radon (222 Rn). The physical assumption underlying the modelling is that Rn concentration in the air is controlled by environmental variables such as air temperature and pressure...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Małgorzata Proćków, Jarosław Proćków, Paweł Błażej, Paweł Mackiewicz
Trochulus hispidus and T. sericeus are hairy snails widely distributed in Europe. They differ in shell morphology and are usually found in various land habitats. However, their morphology does not match genetic distance as they do not form distinct clades. Therefore, it is interesting to determine to what extent environmental factors can control their phenotypes. We analysed the morphological traits and many environmental features of their habitats to find relationships between these parameters and explain ecological reasons for this plasticity...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jeroen J van den Broek, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Jeanne S Mandelblatt, Hui Huang, Mehmet Ali Ergun, Elizabeth S Burnside, Cong Xu, Yisheng Li, Oguzhan Alagoz, Sandra J Lee, Natasha K Stout, Juhee Song, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Sylvia K Plevritis, Sue M Moss, Harry J de Koning
BACKGROUND: The UK Age trial compared annual mammography screening of women ages 40 to 49 years with no screening and found a statistically significant breast cancer mortality reduction at the 10-year follow-up but not at the 17-year follow-up. The objective of this study was to compare the observed Age trial results with the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) breast cancer model predicted results. METHODS: Five established CISNET breast cancer models used data on population demographics, screening attendance, and mammography performance from the Age trial together with extant natural history parameters to project breast cancer incidence and mortality in the control and intervention arm of the trial...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Mark Onslow, Mark Jones, Sue O'Brian, Ann Packman, Ross Menzies, Robyn Lowe, Simone Arnott, Kate Bridgman, Caroline de Sonneville, Marie-Christine Franken
Purpose: This report investigates whether parent-reported stuttering severity ratings (SRs) provide similar estimates of effect size as percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) for randomized trials of early stuttering treatment with preschool children. Method: Data sets from 3 randomized controlled trials of an early stuttering intervention were selected for analyses. Analyses included median changes and 95% confidence intervals per treatment group, Bland-Altman plots, analysis of covariance, and Spearman rho correlations...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Je Yeon Byeon, Hwan Jun Choi, Ji Hye Lee
Dermoid cysts are benign developmental anomalies that occurred as a result of the sequestration of the skin along the lines of embryonic closure. Those occurring in the cervicofacial region are uncommon, accounting for about 7% of all dermoids and its presence in postauricular region is further exceptionally rare. A healthy 19-year-old Asian boy presented with a unilateral postauricular cyst that had been present since childhood without any symptom. The computed tomography scan revealed an encapsulated tumor with no intracranial extension...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Lisa Gamsjaeger, Munashe Chigerwe
OBJECTIVE To characterize indications for and clinical outcomes of limb amputation in goats and sheep. DESIGN Retrospective case series and observational study. ANIMALS Goats (n = 15) and sheep (7) that underwent partial or complete limb amputation at the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2015. PROCEDURES Medical records of qualifying goats and sheep were reviewed and data extracted regarding signalment, use of animal, characteristics of the amputated limb, duration of hospitalization, outcome, and surgery-associated complications...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Esther López Del Cerro, Carolina Serrano Diana, Ana María Castillo Cañadas, Esteban González Mirasol, Francisco García Santos, María Teresa Gómez García, Gaspar González de Merlo
The use of long-acting contraceptive methods is on the rise. The aim of this study was to describe the main variables (effectiveness, tolerability, menstrual bleeding) associated with the use of subdermal contraceptive implants and to investigate the influence of age on these variables. This was a descriptive, retrospective, observational study of 221 cases of contraceptive implants inserted at a Spanish hospital between 2006 and 2015. The mean age of implant users was 31.2 ± 7.5 years. Effectiveness was 100% and good tolerability was recorded for 86...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Majed Hababeh, Wafaa Zeidan, Mariam Abdel El-Kader, Anwar Al Thaher, Nimer Kassim, Elias Habash, Hasan Arab, Ali Khader, Akihiro Seita
BACKGROUND: UNRWA introduced family planning services in 1994 as an integral part of its expanded maternal and child health-care programme. The main objective of UNRWA's family planning programme is to promote the health of mothers, children, and their families. The aim of this follow-up study was to assess contraceptive practices in the target population 5 years after the 2010 follow-up study and to identify future programme needs. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was a done by trained nurses from June 1 to Dec 31, 2015...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Liana Al-Labadi, Yazan Gammoh, Reham Shehada, Reem Shahin, Walaa Jbarah, Madleen Amro, Hanan Athamny
BACKGROUND: Access to corneal transplantation is limited worldwide because of poor knowledge. Ethical, religious, and cultural barriers contribute to low rates of corneal donation. In the occupied Palestinian territory, limited information is available on factors affecting corneal donation. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and willingness towards corneal donation in Palestinian students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included university students selected through convenience sampling in Nablus in the summer of 2016...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
James Woodall, Louise Warwick-Booth, Jane South, Ruth Cross
There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Li Jiang, Aimee Drolet, Heejung S Kim
We examined age differences in the use of different types of social support and the reasons for these differences. We found that older adults (age 60+) seek explicit social support less compared with young adults (age 18-25), but there is no difference in implicit social support seeking. Concerns about the potential social costs of seeking explicit support mediate the age differences in explicit social support seeking. Whereas young adults view this strategy as conferring more benefits than costs, older adults have a more balanced view of the costs and benefits of explicit social support seeking...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Rong Yu, Yan Zhang, Ziqiang Xu, Jinjun Wang, Bicheng Chen, Hao Jin
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men and the second major reason of cancer death in males. Currently, there are no viable options available for the treatment of advanced-stage prostate cancer. Against this backdrop, the present study aimed to study the anticancer effect of panaxatriol against prostate DU-15 cancer cells. METHODS: MTT cell viability assay evaluated the effects of the drug on cell cytotoxicity, while clonogenic assay was used to assess the effects on colony formation in DU-15 cells...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
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