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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922187/tomentosin-induces-telomere-shortening-and-caspase-dependant-apoptosis-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#1
Nawel Merghoub, Hassan El Btaouri, Laila Benbacer, Saïd Gmouh, Chantal Trentesaux, Bertrand Brassart, Mohammed Attaleb, Claudie Madoulet, Thomas Wenner, Saaid Amzazi, Hamid Morjani, Mohamed El Mzibri
Tomentosin, a natural sesquiterpene lactone purified from of Inula viscosa L., was investigated for its anti-proliferative, telomere shortening and apoptotic effects on human cervical cancer HeLa and SiHa cell lines. Tomentosin was found to inhibit the growth of SiHa and HeLa cell lines in dose and time-dependent manner (IC50 values of 7.10 ± 0.78µM and 5.87 ± 0.36µM, respectively after 96h of treatment). As evidenced by TTAGGG telomere length assay, tomentosin target specifically the telomeric overhang lengthening...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919953/bishydroquinone-renieramycin-m-induces-apoptosis-of-human-lung-cancer-cells-through-a-mitochondria-dependent-pathway
#2
Tatchakorn Pinkhien, Arnatchai Maiuthed, Supakarn Chamni, Khanit Suwanborirux, Naoki Saito, Pithi Chanvorachote
BACKGROUND: Renieranycin M (RM), a bistetrahydro-isoquinolinequinone isolated from the Thai blue sponge, Xestospongia sp. was reported to be a potent anti-lung cancer agent. Modification at quinone ring enhanced apoptosis over necrosis. Thus, bishydroquinone renieramycin M (HQ-RM) was prepared and evaluated for apoptosis induction in lung cancer cells. METHODS: HQ-RM was examined for cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human lung cancer H292 cells by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazoliumbromide and Hoechst/propidium iodide staining, respectively...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916896/the-impact-of-cxcr4-blockade-on-the-survival-of-rat-brain-cortical-neurons
#3
José Joaquín Merino, Alba Garcimartín, María Elvira López-Oliva, Juana Benedí, María Pilar González
BACKGROUND: Chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) plays a role in neuronal survival/cell repair and also contributes to the progression of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) binds to CXCR4. In this study, we have investigated whether CXCR4 blockade by AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist, member of bicyclam family) may affect neuronal survival in the absence of insult. Thus, we have measured the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), Bax and Bcl-2 protein translocation, and cytochrome c release in AMD3100-treated brain cortical neurons at 7 DIV (days in vitro)...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915046/dna-damage-related-crosstalk-between-the-nucleus-and-mitochondria
#4
Mohammad Saki, Aishwarya Prakash
The electron transport chain is the primary pathway by which a cell generates energy in the form of ATP. Byproducts of this process produce reactive oxygen species that can cause damage to mitochondrial DNA. If not properly repaired, the accumulation of DNA damage can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction linked to several human disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Mitochondria are able to combat oxidative DNA damage via repair mechanisms that are analogous to those found in the nucleus. Of the repair pathways currently reported in the mitochondria, the base excision repair pathway is the most comprehensively described...
November 30, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913197/doxorubicin-induced-mitophagy-contributes-to-drug-resistance-in-cancer-stem-cells-from-hct8-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#5
Chen Yan, Lan Luo, Chang-Ying Guo, Shinji Goto, Yoshishige Urata, Jiang-Hua Shao, Tao-Sheng Li
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are known to be drug resistant. Mitophagy selectively degrades unnecessary or damaged mitochondria by autophagy during cellular stress. To investigate the potential role of mitophagy in drug resistance in CSCs, we purified CD133(+)/CD44(+) CSCs from HCT8 human colorectal cancer cells and then exposed to doxorubicin (DXR). Compared with parental cells, CSCs were more resistant to DXR treatment. Although DXR treatment enhanced autophagy levels in both cell types, the inhibition of autophagy by ATG7 silencing significantly increased the toxicity of DXR only in parental cells, not in CSCs...
November 30, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911865/mitochondrial-pyruvate-carrier-function-is-negatively-linked-to-warburg-phenotype-in-vitro-and-malignant-features-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#6
Yaqing Li, Xiaoran Li, Quancheng Kan, Mingzhi Zhang, Xiaoli Li, Ruiping Xu, Junsheng Wang, Dandan Yu, Mariusz Adam Goscinski, Jian-Guo Wen, Jahn M Nesland, Zhenhe Suo
Aerobic glycolysis is one of the emerging hallmarks of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the relationship between blocking mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) with MPC blocker UK5099 and the metabolic alteration as well as aggressive features of esophageal squamous carcinoma. It was found that blocking pyruvate transportation into mitochondria attenuated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and triggered aerobic glycolysis, a feature of Warburg effect. In addition, the HIF-1α expression and ROS production were also activated upon UK5099 application...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911858/the-antidepressant-fluoxetine-induces-necrosis-by-energy-depletion-and-mitochondrial-calcium-overload
#7
Emilie Charles, Mehdi Hammadi, Philippe Kischel, Vanessa Delcroix, Nicolas Demaurex, Cyril Castelbout, Anne-Marie Vacher, Anne Devin, Thomas Ducret, Paula Nunes, Pierre Vacher
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor antidepressants, such as fluoxetine (Prozac), have been shown to induce cell death in cancer cells, paving the way for their potential use as cancer therapy. These compounds are able to increase cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt), but the involved mechanisms and their physiological consequences are still not well understood. Here, we show that fluoxetine induces an increase in [Ca2+]cyt by emptying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the translocon, an ER Ca2+ leakage structure...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911732/the-warburg-effect-80-years-on
#8
REVIEW
Michelle Potter, Emma Newport, Karl J Morten
Influential research by Warburg and Cori in the 1920s ignited interest in how cancer cells' energy generation is different from that of normal cells. They observed high glucose consumption and large amounts of lactate excretion from cancer cells compared with normal cells, which oxidised glucose using mitochondria. It was therefore assumed that cancer cells were generating energy using glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and that the mitochondria were dysfunctional. Advances in research techniques since then have shown the mitochondria in cancer cells to be functional across a range of tumour types...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911100/mitochondria-and-iron-current-questions
#9
Bibbin T Paul, David H Manz, Frank M Torti, Suzy V Torti
Mitochondria are cellular organelles that perform numerous bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and regulatory functions and play a central role in iron metabolism. Extracellular iron is taken up by cells and transported to the mitochondria, where it is utilized for synthesis of cofactors essential to the function of enzymes involved in oxidation-reduction reactions, DNA synthesis and repair, and a variety of other cellular processes. Areas Covered: This article reviews the trafficking of iron to the mitochondria and normal mitochondrial iron metabolism, including heme synthesis and iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909692/origin-of-cancer-an-information-energy-and-matter-disease
#10
Rainer G Hanselmann, Cornelius Welter
Cells are open, highly ordered systems that are far away from equilibrium. For this reason, the first function of any cell is to prevent the permanent threat of disintegration that is described by thermodynamic laws and to preserve highly ordered cell characteristics such as structures, the cell cycle, or metabolism. In this context, three basic categories play a central role: energy, information, and matter. Each of these three categories is equally important to the cell and they are reciprocally dependent...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909249/mortalin-mediated-and-erk-controlled-targeting-of-hif-1%C3%AE-to-mitochondria-confers-resistance-to-apoptosis-under-hypoxia
#11
Ilias Mylonis, Maria Kourti, Martina Samiotaki, George Panayotou, George Simos
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the main transcriptional activator of the cellular response to hypoxia and an important target of anticancer therapy. Phosphorylation by ERK stimulates the transcriptional activity of HIF-1α by inhibiting its CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation by ERK also regulates the association of HIF-1α with a novel interaction partner identified as mortalin (GRP75) which mediates non-genomic involvement of HIF-1α in apoptosis. Mortalin binds specifically to HIF-1α lacking modification by ERK and their complex is localized outside the nucleus...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908234/sustained-early-disruption-of-mitochondrial-function-contributes-to-arsenic-induced-prostate-tumorigenesis
#12
B Singh, M Kulawiec, K M Owens, A Singh, K K Singh
Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen that affects millions of people worldwide, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis are unclear. Several epidemiological studies have suggested increased prostate cancer incidence and mortality due to exposure to arsenic. Due to lack of an animal model of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis, we used a prostate epithelial cell culture model to identify a role for mitochondria in arsenic-induced prostate cancer. Mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential was impacted within a few hours of arsenic exposure of non-neoplastic prostate epithelial cells...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905569/shikonin-induces-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-and-enhances-chemotherapeutic-sensitivity-of-gastric-cancer-through-reactive-oxygen-species
#13
Wenquan Liang, Aizhen Cai, Guozhu Chen, Hongqing Xi, Xiaosong Wu, Jianxin Cui, Kecheng Zhang, Xudong Zhao, Jiyun Yu, Bo Wei, Lin Chen
The prognosis of gastric cancer remains poor due to clinical drug resistance. Novel drugs are urgently needed. Shikonin (SHK), a natural naphthoquinone, has been reported to trigger cell death and overcome drug resistance in anti-tumour therapy. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness and molecular mechanisms of SHK in treatment with gastric cancer. In vitro, SHK suppresses proliferation and triggers cell death of gastric cancer cells but leads minor damage to gastric epithelial cells. SHK induces the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), depolarizes the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ultimately triggers mitochondria-mediated apoptosis...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903865/imaging-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-human-skin-reveals-depth-dependent-hypoxia-and-malignant-potential-for-diagnosis
#14
Dimitra Pouli, Mihaela Balu, Carlo A Alonzo, Zhiyi Liu, Kyle P Quinn, Francisca Rius-Diaz, Ronald M Harris, Kristen M Kelly, Bruce J Tromberg, Irene Georgakoudi
Active changes in mitochondrial structure and organization facilitate cellular homeostasis. Because aberrant mitochondrial dynamics are implicated in a variety of human diseases, their assessment is potentially useful for diagnosis, therapy, and disease monitoring. Because current techniques for evaluating mitochondrial morphology are invasive or necessitate mitochondria-specific dyes, their clinical translation is limited. We report that mitochondrial dynamics can be monitored in vivo, within intact human skin by relying entirely on endogenous two-photon-excited fluorescence from the reduced metabolic coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903243/analysis-of-rna-expression-of-normal-and-cancer-tissues-reveals-high-correlation-of-cop9-gene-expression-with-respiratory-chain-complex-components
#15
Christina A Wicker, Tadahide Izumi
BACKGROUND: The COP9 signalosome, composed of eight subunits, is implicated in cancer genetics with its deneddylase activity to modulate cellular concentration of oncogenic proteins such as IkB and TGFβ. However, its function in the normal cell physiology remains elusive. Primarily focusing on gene expression data of the normal tissues of the head and neck, the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database was used to identify groups of genes that were expressed synergistically with the COP9 genes, particularly with the COPS5 (CSN5), which possesses the catalytic activity of COP9...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902484/depletion-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-downregulates-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#16
Galina Shagieva, Lidiya Domnina, Olga Makarevich, Boris Chernyak, Vladimir Skulachev, Vera Dugina
In the course of cancer progression, epithelial cells often acquire morphological and functional characteristics of mesenchymal cells, a process known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT provides epithelial cells with migratory, invasive, and stem cell capabilities. Reactive oxygen species produced by mitochondria (mtROS) could be of special importance for pro-tumorigenic signaling and EMT.In our study, we used mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 to lower the mtROS level and analyze their role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, adhesion junctions, and signaling pathways critical for tumorigenesis of cervical carcinomas...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900024/acute-effect-of-lactic-acid-on-tumor-endothelial-cell-metabolic-coupling-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#17
Guanqun Zhu, Degui Wang, Shenqian Li, Xuecheng Yang, Yanwei Cao, Yonghua Wang, Haitao Niu
The present study aimed to systematically analyze alterations in the expression of mitochondrial-associated proteins in human bladder cancer T24 cells co-cultured with tumor-associated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and to investigate the characteristics of bladder cancer cell energy metabolism. The present study used the following techniques: A co-culture system of T24 cells and HUVECs was constructed using a microfluidic chip as a 3D co-culture system; the concentration of lactic acid in the medium of the cells was determined using an automatic microplate reader; a qualitative analysis of mitochondria-associated protein expression was performed by immunofluorescent staining; and a quantitative analysis of mitochondrial-associated protein expression was conducted using western blotting...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896845/stat3-down-regulation-induces-mitochondria-dependent-g2-m-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-in-esophageal-carcinoma-cells
#18
Dan Shao, Jie Ma, Chao Zhou, Jia-Nan Zhao, Lu-Lu Li, Tong-Jian Zhao, Xi-Lei Ai, Ping Jiao
STAT3 is persistently activated in a wide variety of human tumors, and aberrant STAT3 activity promotes tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. To explore STAT3 down-regulation in human esophageal cancer cells, cell proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial mechanisms were explored in esophageal carcinoma TE1 cell cultures. We demonstrate for the first time that STAT3 down-regulation by RNAi is sufficient to inhibit esophageal cancer cell proliferation inducing cell apoptosis. Further, we demonstrate that mitochondrial transmembrane potential is impaired thereby leading to collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential, abnormal mitochondrial membrane depolarization, nuclear DNA fragmentation and cell cycle G2/M arrest under the conditions of STAT3 down-regulation...
November 29, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895802/vitamin-c-induces-apoptosis-in-ags-cells-via-production-of-ros-of-mitochondria
#19
Jae Young Lim, Donghyun Kim, Bok Ran Kim, Jin Su Jun, Jung Sook Yeom, Ji Sook Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Chan Hoo Park, Hyang Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn, Seung-Chul Baik, Woo-Kon Lee, Myung-Je Cho, Kwang-Ho Rhee
It has been demonstrated that vitamin C exhibits anti-cancer activity in various tumor cell lines; however, its specific mechanism of action remains unknown. Although the diagnosis and therapy of cancer patients have markedly improved in recent years, safer and more cost-effective treatments are still required. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of vitamin C on the induction of cell death in gastric cancer and its underlying mechanism of action. It was observed that the cytotoxicity of vitamin C on the human gastric cancer cell line AGS is dependent on the apoptotic pathway, including caspase cascades, but not on the necroptotic pathway...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895790/corosolic-acid-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-osteosarcoma-cells-by-inducing-apoptosis
#20
Yong Jia, Hua Yuan, Shouqin Shan, Gang Xu, Jie Yu, Chenguang Zhao, Xiang Mou
Corosolic acid (CRA), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from medicinal herbs, has been reported to exhibit anticancer properties in several cancers. However, the anticancer activity of CRA in osteosarcoma cells is still unclear. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of CRA in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells was investigated, and the results revealed that CRA significantly inhibited the viability of MG-63 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A typical apoptotic hallmark such as DNA ladder was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis following treatment with CRA...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
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