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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647857/ros-modulated-therapeutic-approaches-in-cancer-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Muhammad Hassan Raza, Sami Siraj, Abida Arshad, Usman Waheed, Fahad Aldakheel, Shatha Alduraywish, Muhammad Arshad
PURPOSE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in cancer cells as a result of increased metabolic rate, dysfunction of mitochondria, elevated cell signaling, expression of oncogenes and increased peroxisome activities. Certain level of ROS is required by cancer cells, above or below which lead to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This biochemical aspect can be exploited to develop novel therapeutic agents to preferentially and selectively target cancer cells. METHODS: We searched various electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed english-language articles...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647695/the-warburg-effect-and-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomic-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Weidong Zhou, Lance A Liotta, Emanuel F Petricoin
Compared to normal cells, cancer cells have a unique metabolism by performing lactic acid fermentation in the presence of oxygen, also known as the Warburg effect. Researchers have proposed several hypotheses to elucidate the phenomenon, but the mechanism is still an enigma. In this review, we discuss three typical models, such as "damaged mitochondria", "adaptation to hypoxia", and "cell proliferation requirement", as well as contributions from mass spectrometry analysis toward our understanding of the Warburg effect...
July 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647367/mitochondrial-quality-control-pathways-pink1-acts-as-a-gatekeeper
#3
Elvira P Leites, Vanessa A Morais
Mitochondria have a pivotal role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis and survival. Mitochondria are involved in processes such as ATP production, reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis induction, calcium homeostasis and protein degradation. Thus, mechanisms that regulate the intrinsic quality of mitochondria have a crucial role in dictating overall cell fate. The importance of these well-regulated mechanisms is highlighted in disease scenarios such as neurodegeneration, cancer and neuromuscular atrophy...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646657/-half-sandwich-schiff-base-ir-iii-complexes-as-anticancer-agents
#4
Ze-Dong Mou, Ning Deng, Feng Zhang, Jiaying Zhang, Juan Cen, Xia Zhang
A series of "half-sandwich" Schiff-base Ir(III) complexes were synthesized and investigated for their in vitro activities against the leukemia K562 cell line. These compounds demonstrated antiproliferative activities against K562 cells with IC50 values of 0.26-4.77 μM. In particular, compound 10c showed cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines/sublines and stronger activities than cisplatin in K562, K562/A02, MCF-7, MCF-7/ADM, and A549 cells. Mechanism studies illustrated that compound 10c increased the level of reactive oxygen species and induced apoptosis of K562 cells...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644129/anti-cd47-antibodies-induce-phagocytosis-of-live-malignant-b-cells-by-macrophages-via-the-fc-domain-resulting-in-cell-death-by-phagoptosis
#5
Lucy E Métayer, Anna Vilalta, G A Amos Burke, Guy C Brown
When expressed on the surface of cells, CD47 inhibits phagocytosis of these cells by phagocytes. Most human cancers overexpress CD47, and antibodies to CD47 have shown a remarkable ability to clear a range of cancers in animal models. However, the mechanism by which these antibodies cause cancer cell death is unclear. We find that CD47 is expressed on the surface of three B-cell lines from human malignancies: 697 (pre-B-ALL lymphoblasts), Ramos and DG-75 (both mature B-cells, Burkitt's lymphoma), and anti-CD47 antibodies greatly increase the phagocytosis of all three cell line by macrophages...
June 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638907/ruthenium-ii-p-cymene-complexes-of-a-benzimidazole-based-ligand-capable-of-vegfr2-inhibition-hydrolysis-reactivity-and-cytotoxicity-studies
#6
Sudipta Bhattacharyya, Kallol Purkait, Arindam Mukherjee
The design of Ru or other metal-based anticancer agents may achieve better and faster optimization if the ligands used are also designed to have standalone functions. In this scenario, even after dissociation from the metal complex under adverse conditions, the ligand would have anti-cancer properties. In our work, we have generated a bispyrazole-containing benzimidazole ligand with potency against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which is known to have roles in vasculogenesis/angiogenesis...
June 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638867/antitumor-effects-of-chrysanthemin-in-pc-3-human-prostate-cancer-cells-are-mediated-via-apoptosis-induction-caspase-signalling-pathway-and-loss-of-mitochondrial-membrane-potential
#7
De-Kang Sun, Lin Wang, Peng Zhang
BACKGROUND: The main objective of the current research work was to investigate the antitumor and apoptotic effects of chrysanthemin in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTT assay was used to evaluate the effects of chrysanthemin on cell viability whereas flow cytometry along with fluorescence microscopy were used to study apoptotic induction in these cells. Effects on caspase activation were detected through western blot assay. RESULTS: Results showed that chrysanthemin inhibited cancer cell growth in PC-3 cancer cells in a time-dependent as well as concentration-dependent manner...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637353/hallmarks-of-pulmonary-hypertension-mesenchymal-and-inflammatory-cell-metabolic-reprogramming
#8
Angelo D'Alessandro, Karim El Kasmi, Lydie Plecita-Hlavata, Petr Jezek, Min Li, Hui Zhang, Sachin A Gupte, Kurt Randall Stenmark
The molecular events that promote the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) are complex and incompletely understood. The complex interplay between the pulmonary vasculature and its immediate microenvironment involving cells of immune system (i.e. macrophages) promotes a persistent inflammatory state, pathological angiogenesis and fibrosis that is driven by metabolic reprogramming of mesenchymal and immune cells. Consistent with previous findings in the field of cancer metabolism, increased glycolytic rates, incomplete glucose and glutamine oxidation to support anabolism and anaplerosis, altered lipid synthesis/oxidation ratios, increased one-carbon metabolism and activation of the pentose phosphate pathway to support nucleoside synthesis are but some of the key metabolic signatures of vascular cells in PH...
June 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637004/autophagy-is-required-for-crizotinib-induced-apoptosis-in-met-amplified-gastric-cancer-cells
#9
Rebecca D Schroeder, Woonyoung Choi, David S Hong, David J McConkey
MET amplification has been clinically credentialed as a therapeutic target in gastric cancer, but the molecular mechanisms underlying sensitivity and resistance to MET inhibitors are still not well understood. Using whole-genome mRNA expression profiling, we identified autophagy as a top molecular pathway that was activated by the MET inhibitor crizotinib in drug-sensitive human gastric cancer cells, and functional studies confirmed that crizotinib increased autophagy levels in the drug-sensitive cells in a concentration-dependent manner...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636995/experimental-study-on-the-therapeutic-effect-and-underlining-mechanisms-of-positron-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#10
Ying Wang, Ming Li, Rao Diao, Brian Tung, Dalong Zhang, Yaming Li
The purpose of this study was to assess the potential therapeutic effect of positrons emitted by 18F-2-Deoxy-2-Fluoro-D-Glucose (18F-FDG) on pancreatic cancer cells and elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Pancreatic cancer cells were incubated with different radioactive concentrations of 18F-FDG and evaluated for anti-cancer properties and underlining mechanisms. In addition, three groups of tumor-bearing mice were treated with different doses of 18F-FDG weekly, the tumor growth rate was calculated, and the mice were imaged by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-FDG before and after treatment...
June 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636410/targeting-cancer-cell-mitochondria-as-a-therapeutic-approach-recent-updates
#11
Qingbin Cui, Shijun Wen, Peng Huang
Mitochondria play a key role in ATP generation, redox homeostasis and regulation of apoptosis. Due to the essential role of mitochondria in metabolism and cell survival, targeting mitochondria in cancer cells is considered as an attractive therapeutic strategy. However, metabolic flexibility in cancer cells may enable the upregulation of compensatory pathways, such as glycolysis to support cancer cell survival when mitochondrial metabolism is inhibited. Thus, compounds capable of both targeting mitochondria and inhibiting glycolysis may be particularly useful to overcome such drug-resistant mechanism...
June 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627881/defining-cancer-cell-bioenergetic-profiles-using-a-dual-organelle-oriented-chemosensor-responsive-to-ph-values-and-electropotential-changes
#12
Zhongwei Xue, Hu Zhao, Jian Liu, Jiahuai Han, Shoufa Han
Cell fate is largely shaped by combined activity of different types of organelles, which often feature functionally critical parameters succumb to pathological inducers. We herein report the analysis of cell bioenergetic profiles with a dual organelle-oriented chemosensor (RC-AMI), partitioning in mitochondria to give blue fluorescence and in lysosomes to give red fluorescence. Responsive to lysosomal pH and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), two parameters crucial to cell bioenergetics, RC-AMI enables dual colored reporting of lysosomal acidity and ΔΨm, revealing upregulated ΔΨm and imbalance dramatically shifted favoring ΔΨm over lysosomal acidity in cancer cells whereas the tendency is reversed in starved cells...
June 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627410/current-and-upcoming-mitochondrial-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Hyoung Kyu Kim, Yeon Hee Noh, Bernd Nilius, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Nari Kim, Jin Han
Mitochondria are essential intracellular organelles that regulate energy metabolism, cell death, and signaling pathways that are important for cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, mitochondria are fundamentally implicated in cancer biology, including initiation, growth, metastasis, relapse, and acquired drug resistance. Based on these implications, mitochondria have been proposed as a major therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In addition to classical view of mitochondria in cancer biology, recent studies found novel pathophysiological roles of mitochondria in cancer...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627326/triphenylamines-induce-cell-death-upon-2-photon-excitation
#14
Rahima Chennoufi, Florence Mahuteau-Betzer, Patrick Tauc, Marie-Paule Teulade-Fichou, Eric Deprez
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising therapeutic method for several diseases, in particular for cancer. This approach uses a photosensitizer, oxygen, and an external light source to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) at lethal doses to induce cell death. One drawback of current PDT is the use of visible light which has poor penetration in tissues. Such a limitation could be overcome by the use of novel organic compounds compatible with photoactivation under near-infrared light excitation. Triphenylamines (TPAs) are highly fluorescent compounds that are efficient to induce cell death upon visible light excitation (458 nm), but outside the biological spectral window...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627168/mitochondria-associated-apoptosis-in-human-melanoma-cells-induced-by-cardanol-monoene-from-cashew-nut-shell-liquid
#15
Wei-Chao Su, Yu-Feng Lin, Xiang-Ping Yu, Yu-Xia Wang, Xiao-Dong Lin, Qiao-Zhen Su, Dong-Yan Shen, Qing-Xi Chen
Cardanol monoene (CM) is the major phenolic component extracted from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), which has been relevant to wide range of biological effects. In this study, we found that CM could inhibit the M14 human melanoma cells proliferation in a dose dependent and time dependent manner, and the IC50 values were determined to be 23.15 ± 2.42 μM and 12.30 ± 1.67 μM after 24 h and 48 h treatment, respectively. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that CM induced M14 cell cycle arrest at S phase, along with the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in cells,but the apoptotic cells reduced when treated with Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626426/potential-of-central-eastern-and-western-africa-medicinal-plants-for-cancer-therapy-spotlight-on-resistant-cells-and-molecular-targets
#16
REVIEW
Armelle T Mbaveng, Victor Kuete, Thomas Efferth
Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA) regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1), human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624941/does-static-electric-field-from-ultra-high-voltage-direct-current-transmission-lines-affect-male-reproductive-capacity-evidence-from-a-laboratory-study-on-male-mice
#17
Sixia Wu, Guoqing Di, Zhengguang Li
With the development of ultra-high-voltage direct-current (UHVDC) transmission technology and increase in transmission voltage, the issue of environmental static electric field (SEF) pollution is standing out and its possible health effects have caused much public attention. In this study, the effects of chronic exposure to SEF on reproductive capacity of male mice were investigated. Twenty Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were exposed to SEF (56.3 ± 1.4 kV/m, 49 days) generated by a high-voltage device...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624784/mitochondrial-pyruvate-carrier-function-determines-cell-stemness-and-metabolic-reprogramming-in-cancer-cells
#18
Xiaoli Li, Gaoyang Han, Xiaoran Li, Quancheng Kan, Zhirui Fan, Yaqing Li, Yasai Ji, Jing Zhao, Mingzhi Zhang, Mantas Grigalavicius, Viktor Berge, Mariusz Adam Goscinski, Jahn M Nesland, Zhenhe Suo
One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the "Warburg Effect", in which cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. Cells with dysfunctional mitochondria are unable to generate sufficient ATP from mitochondrial OXPHOS, and then are forced to rely on glycolysis for ATP generation. Here we report our results in a prostate cancer cell line in which the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene was knockout...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623509/telomerase-and-drug-resistance-in-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Natalia Lipinska, Aleksandra Romaniuk, Anna Paszel-Jaworska, Ewa Toton, Przemyslaw Kopczynski, Blazej Rubis
It is well known that a decreased expression or inhibited activity of telomerase in cancer cells is accompanied by an increased sensitivity to some drugs (e.g., doxorubicin, cisplatin, or 5-fluorouracil). However, the mechanism of the resistance resulting from telomerase alteration remains elusive. There are theories claiming that it might be associated with telomere shortening, genome instability, hTERT translocation, mitochondria functioning modulation, or even alterations in ABC family gene expression. However, association of those mechanisms, i...
June 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623259/microrna-34a-encapsulated-in-hyaluronic-acid-nanoparticles-induces-epigenetic-changes-with-altered-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-apoptosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#20
Malav Trivedi, Amit Singh, Meghna Talekar, Grishma Pawar, Parin Shah, Mansoor Amiji
Therapies targeting epigenetic changes for cancer treatment are in Phase I/II trials; however, all of these target only nuclear DNA. Emerging evidence suggests presence of methylation marks on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); but their contribution in cancer is unidentified. Expression of genes encoded on mtDNA are altered in cancer cells, along with increased glycolytic flux. Such glycolytic flux and elevated reactive oxygen species is supported by increased antioxidant; glutathione. MicroRNA-34a can translocate to mitochondria, mediate downstream apoptotic effects of tumor suppressor P53, and inhibit the antioxidant response element Nrf-2, resulting in depleted glutathione levels...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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