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Leucine repeat rich kinase 2

Rongfang Pan, Pengfeng Xiao
Molecular haplotyping is becoming increasingly important for studying the disease association of a specific allele because of its ability of providing more information than any single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Computational analysis and experimental techniques are usually performed for haplotypic determination. However, established methods are not suitable for analyzing haplotypes of massive natural DNA samples. Here we present a simple molecular approach to analyze haplotypes of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products quantitatively in a single sequencing run...
October 12, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Claudia Manzoni, Adamantios Mamais, Dorien A Roosen, Sybille Dihanich, Marc P M Soutar, Helene Plun-Favreau, Rina Bandopadhyay, John Hardy, Sharon A Tooze, Mark R Cookson, Patrick A Lewis
Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 is a complex enzyme with both kinase and GTPase activities, closely linked to the pathogenesis of several human disorders including Parkinson's disease, Crohn's disease, leprosy and cancer. LRRK2 has been implicated in numerous cellular processes; however its physiological function remains unclear. Recent reports suggest that LRRK2 can act to regulate the cellular catabolic process of macroautophagy, although the precise mechanism whereby this occurs has not been identified. To investigate the signalling events through which LRRK2 acts to influence macroautophagy, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) and Beclin-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways were evaluated in astrocytic cell models in the presence and absence of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Un-Beom Kang, Jarrod A Marto
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large multi-domain protein that is expressed in many tissues and participates in numerous biological pathways. Mutations in LRRK2 are recognized as genetic risk factors for familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and may also represent causal factors in the more common sporadic form of PD. The structure of LRRK2 comprises a combination of GTPase, kinase, and scaffolding domains. This functional diversity, combined with a potentially central role in genetic and idiopathic PD motivates significant effort to further credential LRRK2 as a therapeutic target...
October 10, 2016: Proteomics
Monica Sanchez-Contreras, Michael G Heckman, Pawel Tacik, Nancy Diehl, Patricia H Brown, Alexandra I Soto-Ortolaza, Elizabeth A Christopher, Ronald L Walton, Owen A Ross, Lawrence I Golbe, Neill Graff-Radford, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson, Rosa Rademakers
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). Unexpectedly, tau pathology has been reported in a subset of LRRK2 mutation carriers. METHODS: To estimate the frequency of pathogenic LRRK2 mutations and to evaluate the association of common LRRK2 variants with risk of primary tauopathies, we studied 1039 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 145 corticobasal degeneration patients from the Mayo Clinic Florida brain bank and 1790 controls ascertained at Mayo Clinic...
October 6, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Gian D Pal, Deborah Hall, Bichun Ouyang, Jessica Phelps, Roy Alcalay, Michael W Pauciulo, William C Nichols, Lorraine Clark, Helen Mejia-Santana, Lucia Blasucci, Christopher G Goetz, Cynthia Comella, Amy Colcher, Ziv Gan-Or, Guy A Rouleau, Karen Marder
OBJECTIVE: In a cohort of patients with young-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), the authors assessed (1) the prevalence of genetic mutations in those who enrolled in deep brain stimulation (DBS) programs compared with those who did not enroll DBS programs and (2) specific genetic and clinical predictors of DBS enrollment. METHODS: Subjects were participants from 3 sites (Columbia University, Rush University, and the University of Pennsylvania) in the Consortium on Risk for Early Onset Parkinson's Disease (CORE-PD) who had an age at onset < 51 years...
September 2016: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
Joanne Trinh, Emil K Gustavsson, Carles Vilariño-Güell, Stephanie Bortnick, Jeanne Latourelle, Marna B McKenzie, Chelsea Szu Tu, Ekaterina Nosova, Jaskaran Khinda, Austen Milnerwood, Suzanne Lesage, Alexis Brice, Meriem Tazir, Jan O Aasly, Laura Parkkinen, Hazal Haytural, Tatiana Foroud, Richard H Myers, Samia Ben Sassi, Emna Hentati, Fatma Nabli, Emna Farhat, Rim Amouri, Fayçal Hentati, Matthew J Farrer
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutation 6055G→A (Gly2019Ser) accounts for roughly 1% of patients with Parkinson's disease in white populations, 13-30% in Ashkenazi Jewish populations, and 30-40% in North African Arab-Berber populations, although age of onset is variable. Some carriers have early-onset parkinsonism, whereas others remain asymptomatic despite advanced age. We aimed to use a genome-wide approach to identify genetic variability that directly affects LRRK2 Gly2019Ser penetrance...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
E Lobbestael, L Civiero, T De Wit, J-M Taymans, E Greggio, V Baekelandt
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) kinase activity is increased in several pathogenic mutations, including the most common mutation, G2019S, and is known to play a role in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathobiology. This has stimulated the development of potent, selective LRRK2 kinase inhibitors as one of the most prevailing disease-modifying therapeutic PD strategies. Although several lines of evidence support beneficial effects of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors, many questions need to be answered before clinical applications can be envisaged...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yuechun Zhong, Liyi Zou, Zonggui Wang, Yaqiong Pan, Zhong Dai, Xinguang Liu, Liao Cui, Changqing Zuo
Many transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in the guidance of myogenic differentiation have been investigated in previous studies. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of myogenic differentiation remain largely unknown. In the present study, by performing a meta-analysis of C2C12 myogenic differentiation microarray data, we found that leucine-rich repeat-containing 75B (Lrrc75b), also known as AI646023, a molecule of unknown biological function, was downregulated during C2C12 myogenic differentiation...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Sangwook Park, Seulki Han, Insup Choi, Beomsue Kim, Seung Pyo Park, Eun-Hye Joe, Young Ho Suh
The deposit of polyubiquitinated aggregates has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), and growing evidence indicates that selective autophagy plays a critical role in the clearance of ubiquitin-positive protein aggregates by autophagosomes. The selective autophagic receptor p62/SQSTM-1, which associates directly with both ubiquitin and LC3, transports ubiquitin conjugates to autophagosomes for degradation. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), a PD-associated protein kinase, is tightly controlled by autophagy-lysosome degradation as well as by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway...
2016: PloS One
Tian-Sin Fan, Ruey-Meei Wu, Pei-Lung Chen, Ta-Fu Chen, Huei-Ying Li, Yin-Hung Lin, Chien-Yu Chen, Meng-Ling Chen, Chun-Hwei Tai, Hang-I Lin, Chin-Hsien Lin
INTRODUCTION: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, only few cases carrying LRRK2 mutations have been reported in Taiwanese PD patients. METHODS: We used targeted next generation sequencing (NGS), covering 24 candidate genes involved in neurodegenerative disorders, to analyze 40 probands with familial PD, and 10 patients with mixed neurodegenerative disorders. Sanger sequencing of the identified mutation in the first set of the study was performed in additional 270 PD patients, including 139 familial PD and 131 early-onset PD (onset age less than 50 years old), and 300 age/gender matched control subjects...
September 7, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Patrick A Eyers
Protein kinases catalyse the addition of phosphate groups to Ser/Thr and Tyr residues in cognate substrates and are mutated or hyperactive in a variety of diseases, making them important targets for rationally designed drugs. A good example is the Parkinson's disease-associated kinase, leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), which is mutated (and probably hyperactive) in a small, but significant, subset of patients. An exciting new approach for personalised therapy is the development of central nervous system (CNS)-active small-molecule kinase inhibitors, which could be employed to 'normalise' LRRK2 signalling in affected cell types...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Gunnar F Kwakye, Rachael A McMinimy, Michael Aschner
Human disease commonly manifests as a result of complex genetic and environmental interactions. In the case of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), understanding how environmental exposures collude with genetic polymorphisms in the central nervous system to cause dysfunction is critical in order to develop better treatment strategies, therapies, and a more cohesive paradigm for future research. The intersection of genetics and the environment in disease etiology is particularly relevant in the context of their shared pathophysiological mechanisms...
September 9, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Charmaine Zahra, Christine Tabone, Graziella Camilleri, Alex E Felice, Rosienne Farrugia, Stephanie Bezzina Wettinger
BACKGROUND: Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 NM_198578 (LRRK2 c.6055G > A (p.G2019S), LRRK2 c.4321C > G (p.R1441G)) and alpha-synuclein NM_000345 (SNCA c.209G > A (p.A53T)) genes causing Parkinson's disease (PD) are common in Mediterranean populations. Variants in the Quinoid Dihydropteridine Reductase NM_000320 (QDPR c.68G > A (p.G23D)), Sepiapterin Reductase NM_003124 (SPR c.596-2A > G) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase NM_005957 (MTHFR c...
2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Noomi O Gregersen, Henriette N Buttenschøn, Anne Hedemand, Marit N Nielsen, Hans A Dahl, Ann S Kristensen, Oddbjørg Johansen, David P D Woldbye, Angelika Erhardt, Torben A Kruse, August G Wang, Anders D Børglum, Ole Mors
Panic disorder (PD) is a severe and disabling mental disorder, which is moderately heritable. In a previous study, we carried out a genome-wide association study using patients with PD and control individuals from the isolated population of the Faroe Islands and identified chromosome 19p13.2 as a candidate region. To further investigate this chromosomal region for association with PD, we analysed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three candidate genes - small-nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 2 (SNAPC2), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MAP2K7) and leucine-rich repeat containing 8 family, member E (LRRC8E) - these genes have previously been directly or indirectly implicated in other mental disorders...
September 8, 2016: Psychiatric Genetics
Michael G Heckman, Alexandra I Soto-Ortolaza, Monica Y Sanchez Contreras, Melissa E Murray, Otto Pedraza, Nancy N Diehl, Ronald Walton, Catherine Labbé, Oswaldo Lorenzo-Betancor, Ryan J Uitti, Jay van Gerpen, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Glenn E Smith, Kejal Kantarci, Rodolfo Savica, David T Jones, Jonathan Graff-Radford, David S Knopman, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen, Joseph E Parisi, Rosa Rademakers, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Neill R Graff-Radford, Tanis J Ferman, Dennis W Dickson, Bradley F Boeve, Owen A Ross
INTRODUCTION: The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene contains several variants that cause Parkinson's disease (PD) and others that modify PD risk. However, little is known about the role of LRRK2 in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Aims of this study were to screen DLB patients for pathogenic LRRK2 variants and to evaluate associations between common LRRK2 variants and risk of DLB. METHODS: 417 clinical DLB patients and 1790 controls were included in the primary analysis...
October 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
G Perera, M Ranola, D B Rowe, G M Halliday, N Dzamko
Activating mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are strongly associated with increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, LRRK2 kinase inhibitors are in development as potential Parkinson's disease therapeutics. A reduction in the constitutive levels of phosphorylation on leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is currently used to measure target engagement of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors in cell and animal models. We aimed to determine if reduced phosphorylation of LRRK2 following inhibitor treatment is also a valid measure of target engagement in peripheral mononuclear cells from Parkinson's disease patients...
2016: Scientific Reports
Victor Muleya, Claudius Marondedze, Janet I Wheeler, Ludivine Thomas, Yee-Fong Mok, Michael D W Griffin, David T Manallack, Lusisizwe Kwezi, Kathryn S Lilley, Christoph Gehring, Helen R Irving
Phytosulfokines (PSKs) are plant peptide hormones that co-regulate plant growth, differentiation and defense responses. PSKs signal through a plasma membrane localized leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (phytosulfokine receptor 1, PSKR1) that also contains a functional cytosolic guanylate cyclase with its cyclase catalytic center embedded within the kinase domain. To functionally characterize this novel type of overlapping dual catalytic function, we investigated the phosphorylation of PSKR1 in vitro Tandem mass spectrometry of the cytoplasmic domain of PSKR1 (PSKR1cd) revealed at least 11 phosphorylation sites (8 serines, 2 threonines and 1 tyrosine) within the PSKR1cd...
October 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Genta Ito, Kristina Katsemonova, Francesca Tonelli, Pawel Lis, Marco A S Baptista, Natalia Shpiro, Graham Duddy, Steve Wilson, Philip Wing-Lok Ho, Shu-Leong Ho, Alastair D Reith, Dario R Alessi
Autosomal dominant mutations that activate the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause inherited Parkinson's disease. Recent work has revealed that LRRK2 directly phosphorylates a conserved threonine/serine residue in the effector-binding switch-II motif of a number of Rab GTPase proteins, including Rab10. Here we describe a facile and robust method to assess phosphorylation of endogenous Rab10 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), lung and spleen-derived B-cells, based on the ability of the Phos-tag reagent to retard the electrophoretic mobility of LRRK2-phosphorylated Rab10...
September 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Jay Penney, Kazuya Tsurudome, Edward H Liao, Grant Kauwe, Lindsay Gray, Akiko Yanagiya, Mario R Calderon, Nahum Sonenberg, A Pejmun Haghighi
Parkinson's disease gene leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been implicated in a number of processes including the regulation of mitochondrial function, autophagy and endocytic dynamics; nevertheless, we know little about its potential role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Here we demonstrate that postsynaptic knockdown of the fly homologue of LRRK2 thwarts retrograde, homeostatic synaptic compensation at the larval neuromuscular junction. Conversely, postsynaptic overexpression of either the fly or human LRRK2 transgene induces a retrograde enhancement of presynaptic neurotransmitter release by increasing the size of the release ready pool of vesicles...
2016: Nature Communications
Tomoki Kuwahara, Keiichi Inoue, Vivette D D'Agati, Tetta Fujimoto, Tomoya Eguchi, Shamol Saha, Benjamin Wolozin, Takeshi Iwatsubo, Asa Abeliovich
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been linked to several clinical disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), Crohn's disease, and leprosy. Furthermore in rodents, LRRK2 deficiency or inhibition leads to lysosomal pathology in kidney and lung. Here we provide evidence that LRRK2 functions together with a second PD-associated gene, RAB7L1, within an evolutionarily conserved genetic module in diverse cellular contexts. In C. elegans neurons, orthologues of LRRK2 and RAB7L1 act coordinately in an ordered genetic pathway to regulate axonal elongation...
2016: Scientific Reports
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