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Influenza virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050439/pathogenicity-and-immunosuppressive-potential-of-fowl-adenovirus-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens
#1
Yujuan Niu, Qinqin Sun, Guihua Zhang, Wei Sun, Xingpo Liu, Yihong Xiao, Yingli Shang, Sidang Liu
To elucidate the effect of fowl adenovirus (FAdV)-C in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, we investigated the pathogenicity, body weights, enzymatic systems, and immune organs of chickens in response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were divided randomly into four groups, which included injection groups (FAdV-C, vaccination, and FAdV-C plus vaccination) and a negative control group. The results indicated that FAdV-C was highly pathogenic in SPF chickens and led to a 40% mortality rate and growth retardation, compared with the control birds...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049310/molecular-epidemiology-of-influenza-b-virus-among-hospitalized-pediatric-patients-in-northern-italy-during-the-2015-16-season
#2
Antonio Piralla, Giovanna Lunghi, Luca Ruggiero, Alessia Girello, Sonia Bianchini, Francesca Rovida, Silvia Caimmi, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Nicola Principi, Fausto Baldanti, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: The influenza B viruses belong to two lineages distinguished by their genetic and antigenic characteristics, which are referred to as the Yamagata and Victoria lineages, designated after their original isolates, B/Yamagata/16/88 and B/Victoria/2/87. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular characteristics of influenza B viruses circulating in a region of Northern Italy, Lombardia, during the influenza season of 2015-2016. METHODS: Influenza B virus was detected using a respiratory virus panel of assays and an influenza B-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049288/seasonality-in-risk-of-pandemic-influenza-emergence
#3
Spencer J Fox, Joel C Miller, Lauren Ancel Meyers
Influenza pandemics can emerge unexpectedly and wreak global devastation. However, each of the six pandemics since 1889 emerged in the Northern Hemisphere just after the flu season, suggesting that pandemic timing may be predictable. Using a stochastic model fit to seasonal flu surveillance data from the United States, we find that seasonal flu leaves a transient wake of heterosubtypic immunity that impedes the emergence of novel flu viruses. This refractory period provides a simple explanation for not only the spring-summer timing of historical pandemics, but also early increases in pandemic severity and multiple waves of transmission...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049206/the-molecular-epidemiology-of-respiratory-viruses-associated-with-asthma-attacks-a-single-center-observational-study-in-japan
#4
Takeshi Saraya, Hirokazu Kimura, Daisuke Kurai, Haruyuki Ishii, Hajime Takizawa
Few reports have described the significance of viral respiratory infections (VRIs) in exacerbation of asthma in adult patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate the profiles of VRIs in adult patients with asthma along with their molecular epidemiology.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Kyorin University Hospital from August 2012 to May 2015. To identify respiratory pathogens in inpatients and outpatients suffering from asthma attacks, RT-PCR/sequencing/phylogenetic analysis methods were applied alongside conventional microbiological methods...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048990/title-site-specific-glycosylation-profile-of-influenza-a-h1n1-hemagglutinin-through-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
Esteban Cruz, Joel Cain, Ben Crossett, Veysel Kayser
The study of influenza virus evolution in humans has revealed a significant role of glycosylation profile alterations in the viral glycoproteins - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), in the emergence of both seasonal and pandemic strains. Viral antigenic drift can modify the number and location of glycosylation sites, altering a wide range of biological activities and the antigenic properties of the strain. In view of the key role of glycans in determining antigenicity, elucidating the glycosylation profiles of influenza strains is a requirement towards the development of improved vaccines...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048862/order-without-intellectual-property-law-open-science-in-influenza
#6
Amy Kapczynski
Today, intellectual property (IP) scholars accept that IP as an approach to information production has serious limits. But what lies beyond IP? A new literature on "intellectual production without IP" (or "IP without IP") has emerged to explore this question, but its examples and explanations have yet to convince skeptics. This Article reorients this new literature via a study of a hard case: a global influenza virus-sharing network that has for decades produced critically important information goods, at significant expense, and in a loose-knit group--all without recourse to IP...
2017: Cornell Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047426/airborne-transmission-of-highly-pathogenic-influenza-virus-during-processing-of-infected-poultry
#7
Kateri Bertran, Charles Balzli, Yong-Kuk Kwon, Terrence M Tumpey, Andrew Clark, David E Swayne
Exposure to infected poultry is a suspected cause of avian influenza (H5N1) virus infections in humans. We detected infectious droplets and aerosols during laboratory-simulated processing of asymptomatic chickens infected with human- (clades 1 and 2.2.1) and avian- (clades 1.1, 2.2, and 2.1) origin H5N1 viruses. We detected fewer airborne infectious particles in simulated processing of infected ducks. Influenza virus-naive chickens and ferrets exposed to the air space in which virus-infected chickens were processed became infected and died, suggesting that the slaughter of infected chickens is an efficient source of airborne virus that can infect birds and mammals...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047180/systematic-screening-of-viral-entry-inhibitors-using-surface-plasmon-resonance
#8
REVIEW
Penmetcha K R Kumar
Viral binding and entry into host cells for various viruses have been studied extensively, yielding a detailed understanding of the overall viral entry process. As cell entry is an essential and requisite process by which a virus initiates infection, it is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. The advantages of targeting viral entry are an extracellular target site, relatively easy access for biological interventions, and lower toxicity. Several cell-based strategies and biophysical techniques have been used to screen compounds that block viral entry...
October 18, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046464/screening-for-neuraminidase-inhibitor-resistance-markers-among-avian-influenza-viruses-of-the-n4-n5-n6-and-n8-neuraminidase-subtypes
#9
Won-Suk Choi, Ju Hwan Jeong, Jin Jung Kwon, Su Jeong Ahn, Khristine Kaith S Lloren, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Hee Bok Chae, Jungwon Hwang, Myung Hee Kim, Chul-Joong Kim, Richard J Webby, Elena A Govorkova, Young Ki Choi, Yun Hee Baek, Min-Suk Song
Several subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are emerging as novel human pathogens, and the frequency of related infections has increased in recent years. Although neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) are the only class of antiviral drugs available for therapeutic intervention for AIV-infected patients, studies on NAI resistance among AIVs have been limited and markers of resistance are poorly understood. Previously, we identified unique NAI-resistance substitutions in AIVs of N3, N7, and N9 NA subtypes...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046451/mutations-in-the-influenza-a-virus-m1-protein-enhance-virus-budding-to-complement-lethal-mutations-in-the-m2-cytoplasmic-tail
#10
Hsuan Liu, Michael L Grantham, Andrew Pekosz
The influenza A virus M1 and M2 proteins play important roles in virus assembly and in the morphology of virus particles. Mutations in the distal cytoplasmic tail region of M2, and in particular a tyrosine to alanine substitution at residue 76 (Y76A) was essential for infectious virus production and filament formation while having limited effects on total virus particle budding. Using a novel selection method, mutations at seven different M1 amino acids (residue 73, 94, 135, 136, or 138 or a double mutation 93/244) that are not found in circulating influenza virus strains or been previously identified to play a role in influenza A virus assembly were found to complement the lethal M2Y76A mutation...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046448/in-vitro-neutralization-is-not-predictive-of-prophylactic-efficacy-of-broadly-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibodies-cr6261-and-cr9114-against-lethal-h2-influenza-virus-challenge-in-mice
#11
Troy C Sutton, Elaine W Lamirande, Kevin W Bock, Ian N Moore, Wouter Koudstaal, Muniza Rehman, Gerrit Jan Weverling, Jaap Goudsmit, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza viruses of the H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes have caused previous pandemics. H2 influenza viruses represent a pandemic threat due to continued circulation in wild birds and limited immunity in the human population. In the event of a pandemic, anti-viral agents are the mainstay for treatment, but broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may be a viable alternative for short-term prophylaxis or treatment. The hemagglutinin stem binding bNAbs CR6261 and CR9114 have been shown to protect mice from severe disease following challenge with H1N1 and H5N1, and H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B viruses, respectively...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046440/innate-sensing-of-influenza-a-virus-hemagglutinin-glycoproteins-by-the-host-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-pathway-triggers-a-potent-antiviral-response-via-er-associated-protein-degradation
#12
Dylan A Frabutt, Bin Wang, Sana Riaz, Richard C Schwartz, Yong-Hui Zheng
Innate immunity provides an immediate defense against infection after host cells sense "danger" signals from microbes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress arises from accumulation of misfolded/unfolded proteins when protein load overwhelms the ER folding capacity, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore the ER homeostasis. Here, we show that a mechanism for antiviral innate immunity is triggered after the ER stress pathway senses viral glycoproteins. When hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins from influenza A virus (IAV) are expressed in cells, ER stress is induced, resulting in rapid HA degradation via proteasomes...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046433/a-multimechanistic-antibody-targeting-the-receptor-binding-site-potently-cross-protects-against-influenza-b-viruses
#13
Chenguang Shen, Junyu Chen, Rui Li, Mengya Zhang, Guosong Wang, Svetlana Stegalkina, Limin Zhang, Jing Chen, Jianli Cao, Xingjian Bi, Stephen F Anderson, Timothy Alefantis, Minwei Zhang, Xiaoyang Cai, Kunyu Yang, Qingbing Zheng, Mujing Fang, Hai Yu, Wenxin Luo, Zizheng Zheng, Quan Yuan, Jun Zhang, James Wai-Kuo Shih, Harry Kleanthous, Honglin Chen, Yixin Chen, Ningshao Xia
Influenza B virus causes considerable disease burden worldwide annually, highlighting the limitations of current influenza vaccines and antiviral drugs. In recent years, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against hemagglutinin (HA) have emerged as a new approach for combating influenza. We describe the generation and characterization of a chimeric monoclonal antibody, C12G6, that cross-neutralizes representative viruses spanning the 76 years of influenza B antigenic evolution since 1940, including viruses belonging to the Yamagata, Victoria, and earlier lineages...
October 18, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046356/microrna-302a-suppresses-influenza-a-virus-stimulated-interferon-regulatory-factor-5-expression-and-cytokine-storm-induction
#14
Xueyuan Chen, Li Zhou, Nanfang Peng, Haisheng Yu, Mengqi Li, Zhongying Cao, Yong Lin, Xueyu Wang, Qian Li, Jun Wang, Yinglong She, Chengliang Zhu, Mengji Lu, Ying Zhu, Shi Liu
During influenza A virus (IAV) infection, cytokine storms play a vital and critical role in clinical outcomes. We have previously reported that microRNA (miR)-302c regulates IAV-induced IFN expression by targeting the 3'-UTR of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-inducing kinase (NIK). In the current study, we found that miR-302a, another member of miR-302 cluster, controls the IAV-induced cytokine storm. According to results from cell-based and knock-out mouse models, IAV induces a cytokine storm via interferon regulatory factor-5 (IRF-5)...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044197/development-of-a-multiplex-probe-combination-based-one-step-real-time-reverse-transcription-pcr-for-na-subtype-typing-of-avian-influenza-virus
#15
Zhihao Sun, Tao Qin, Feifei Meng, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
Nine influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) subtypes have been identified in poultry and wild birds. Few methods are available for rapid and simple NA subtyping. Here we developed a multiplex probe combination-based one-step real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect nine avian influenza virus NA subtypes. Nine primer-probe pairs were assigned to three groups based on the different fluorescent dyes of the probes (FAM, HEX, or Texas Red). Each probe detected only one NA subtype, without cross reactivity...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043961/low-2016-17-season-vaccine-effectiveness-against-hospitalised-influenza-a-h3n2-among-elderly-awareness-warranted-for-2017-18-season
#16
Marc Rondy, Alin Gherasim, Itziar Casado, Odile Launay, Caterina Rizzo, Daniela Pitigoi, Aukse Mickiene, Sierk D Marbus, Ausenda Machado, Ritva K Syrjänen, Iva Pem-Novose, Judith Krisztina Horváth, Amparo Larrauri, Jesús Castilla, Philippe Vanhems, Valeria Alfonsi, Alina E Ivanciuc, Monika Kuliese, Rianne van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Veronica Gomez, Niina Ikonen, Zvjezdana Lovric, Annamária Ferenczi, I-Move Hospital Working Group, Alain Moren
In a multicentre European hospital study we measured influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against A(H3N2) in 2016/17. Adjusted IVE was 17% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1 to 31) overall; 25% (95% CI: 2 to 43) among 65-79-year-olds and 13% (95% CI: -15 to 30) among those ≥ 80 years. As the A(H3N2) vaccine component has not changed for 2017/18, physicians and public health experts should be aware that IVE could be low where A(H3N2) viruses predominate.
October 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043774/augmenting-influenza-specific-t-cell-memory-generation-with-a-nkt-cell-dependent-glycolipid-peptide-vaccine
#17
Regan J Anderson, Jasmine Li, Lukasz Kedzierski, Benjamin J Compton, Colin M Hayman, Taryn L Osmond, Ching-Wen Tang, Kathryn J Farrand, Hui-Fern Koay, Catarina Filipa Dos Santos Sa E Almeida, Lauren R Holz, Geoffrey M Williams, Margaret A Brimble, Zhongfang Wang, Marios Koutsakos, Katherine Kedzierska, Dale I Godfrey, Ian F Hermans, Stephen J Turner, Gavin F Painter
The development of a universal vaccine for influenza A virus (IAV) that does not require seasonal modification is a long-standing health goal, particularly in the context of the increasing threat of new global pandemics. Vaccines that specifically induce T cell responses are of considerable interest because they can target viral proteins that are more like-ly to be shared between different virus strains and subtypes and hence provide effective cross-reactive IAV immunity. From a practical perspective, such vaccines should induce T cell responses with long-lasting memory, while also being simple to manufacture and cost-effective...
October 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042201/newcastle-disease-virus-ndv-recombinant-expressing-the-hemagglutinin-of-h7n9-avian-influenza-virus-protects-chickens-against-ndv-and-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-challenges
#18
Zenglei Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
The emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N9) (HPAI) viruses in China pose a dual challenge to public health and poultry industry. Thus H7N9 vaccines are in an urgent need. In this study, we constructed a Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-vectored vaccine (rLXHAF) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) of H7N9 virus fused with the transmembrane/cytoplasmic tail domain of the NDV fusion protein. rLXHAF stably expressed the HA protein, exhibited similar growth kinetics and pathogenicity as the parental virus...
October 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040527/in-and-out-of-hospital-mortality-associated-with-seasonal-and-pandemic-influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-south-africa-2009-2013
#19
Cheryl Cohen, Sibongile Walaza, Florette K Treurnicht, Meredith McMorrow, Shabir A Madhi, Johanna M McAnerney, Stefano Tempia
Background: Estimates of influenza- and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated mortality burden are important to guide policy for control. Data are limited on the contribution of out-of-hospital deaths to this mortality. Methods: We modeled excess mortality attributable to influenza and RSV infection by applying regression models to weekly deaths from national vital statistics from 2009 through 2013, using influenza and RSV laboratory surveillance data as covariates...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040388/rna-structure-interactions-and-ribonucleoprotein-processes-of-the-influenza-a-virus
#20
Wayne K Dawson, Michal Lazniewski, Dariusz Plewczynski
In one more years, we will 'celebrate' an exact centenary of the Spanish flu pandemic. With the rapid evolution of the influenza virus, the possibility of novel pandemic remains ever a concern. This review covers our current knowledge of the influenza A virus: on the role of RNA in translation, replication, what is known of the expressed proteins and the protein products generated from alternative splicing, and on the role of base pairing in RNA structure. We highlight the main events associated with viral entry into the cell, the transcription and replication process, an export of the viral genetic material from the nucleus and the final release of the virus...
October 10, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
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