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Influenza virus

H R Sowman, N J Cave, M Dunowska
AIMS: To determine which of the common canine respiratory pathogens circulate among selected populations of healthy and diseased dogs in New Zealand. METHODS: Coagulated blood samples for serology and oropharyngeal swabs for virology were collected from healthy dogs (n=47) and from dogs with acute respiratory disease (n=49). For diseased dogs a convalescent blood sample was also collected 3-4 weeks later. Oropharyngeal swabs were subjected to virus isolation and tested for canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus (CAdV) 2, canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine distemper virus (CDV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus equi subsp...
June 20, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Ivan Kosik, William L Ince, Lauren E Gentles, Andrew J Oler, Martina Kosikova, Matthew Angel, Javier G Magadán, Hang Xie, Christopher B Brooke, Jonathan W Yewdell
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006796.].
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
D Kowalczyk, K Szymański, K Cieślak, E Hallmann-Szelińska, L B Brydak
Influenza viruses cause respiratory infections every epidemic season regardless of the patient's age. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of respiratory viruses in the epidemic season 2016/2017 in Poland, with particular emphasis on influenza viruses among people aged over 14. There were 2982 clinical samples taken from patients from four age groups: 15-25, 26-44, 45-64, and ≥ 65 years tested under the Sentinel and non-Sentinel surveillance programs. The presence of influenza viruses was confirmed in more than 40% of cases, the predominant type was influenza A virus unsubtyped, followed by subtype A/H3N2/...
June 20, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
E А Stepanova, E V Krutikova, I V Kiseleva, V A Vasil'eva, L G Rudenko
We developed a pyrosequencing protocol for monitoring of stability of attenuating mutations in the genome of vaccine reassortants based on master donor virus of Russian live attenuated influenza vaccine B/USSR/60/69. The developed protocol allows rapid and accurate assessment of mutations and can be used for analysis of genetic stability of reassortants during vaccine strain development and manufacturing, as well as genetic stability of vaccine isolates of influenza B virus during pre-clinical and clinical trials...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
O G Kurskaya, T A Murashkina, A Yu Alekseev, K A Sharshov, L P Romakh, A A Derko, A V Troitskii, T N Bystrova, V A Shkurupy, A M Shestopalov
Antiviral efficiency of oxidized dextrans (OD) with different molecular weights and oxidation degree (OD40min, OD70min, OD40max, and OD70 max) was studied in vitro and in vivo. Dextrans OD40max and OD70max prevented the development of the cytopathic effect of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in more than 50% MDCK cells vs. control (no OD). Four intranasal doses of OD40min, OD40max, and OD70min and one intranasal dose of OD70max before infection of BALB/c mice with A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus significantly reduced mortality and prolonged life span in comparison with controls receiving saline...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Madhur S Dhingra, Jean Artois, Simon Dellicour, Philippe Lemey, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Sophie Von Dobschuetz, Thomas P Van Boeckel, David M Castellan, Subhash Morzaria, Marius Gilbert
Over the years, the emergence of novel H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) has been taking place through two main mechanisms: first, the conversion of a low pathogenic into a highly pathogenic virus, and second, the reassortment between different genetic segments of low and highly pathogenic viruses already in circulation. We investigated and summarized the literature on emerging HPAI H5 and H7 viruses with the aim of building a spatio-temporal database of all these recorded conversions and reassortments events...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Guangyu Hou, Jinping Li, Yan Wang, Suchun Wang, Cheng Peng, Xiaohui Yu, Jihui Jin, Wenming Jiang
The H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in China pose a serious challenge to public health and the poultry industry. In this study, we constructed a replication-competent recombinant influenza A virus of clade Н5N1 expressing the clade H5 HA1 protein from a tricistronic NS segment. We used a truncated NS1 protein of 73 amino acids combined with a heterologous dimerization domain to increase protein stability. H5 HA1 and nuclear export information were fused in frame with a truncated NS1 open reading frame, separated by 2A self-processing sites...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew G Thompson, Raquel Muñoz-Moreno, Prasanna Bhat, Renat Roytenberg, John Lindberg, Matthew R Gazzara, Michael J Mallory, Ke Zhang, Adolfo García-Sastre, Beatriz M A Fontoura, Kristen W Lynch
Three of the eight RNA segments encoded by the influenza A virus (IAV) undergo alternative splicing to generate distinct proteins. Previously, we found that host proteins hnRNP K and NS1-BP regulate IAV M segment splicing, but the mechanistic details were unknown. Here we show NS1-BP and hnRNP K bind M mRNA downstream of the M2 5' splice site (5'ss). NS1-BP binds most proximal to the 5'ss, partially overlapping the U1 snRNP binding site, while hnRNP K binds further downstream and promotes U1 snRNP recruitment...
June 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Xiaoxia Dai, Na Li, Richard J Roller
Cellular proteins that support influenza virus infection represent potential therapeutic targets. Cytoplasmic egress intermediates of influenza A/WSN/33 were isolated and shown to be associated with the cellular enzymes peroxiredoxins-1 (Prdx-1) during glycerol gradient fractionation. Prdx-1 also co-localizes with influenza NP at the cell periphery late in infection. Knock-down or knockout of Prdx-1 expression inhibit influenza A replication. Inhibition of replication is not correlated with defects in initiation of infection or mRNA expression, but is correlated with inhibition of accumulation of viral proteins and vRNAs...
June 16, 2018: Vaccine
Edyta Świętoń, Krzysztof Śmietanka
Sixty-five poultry outbreaks and sixty-eight events in wild birds were reported during the highly pathogenic H5N8/H5N5 avian influenza epidemic in Poland in 2016-2017. The analysis of all gene segment sequences of selected strains revealed cocirculation of at least four different genome configurations (genotypes) generated through reassortment of clade H5N8 viruses detected in Russia and China in mid-2016. The geographical and temporal distribution of three H5N8 genotypes indicates separate introductions...
June 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
John R Su, Carmen Ng, Paige W Lewis, Maria V Cano
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes immune dysregulation, potentially affecting response to vaccines in infected persons. We investigated if unexpected adverse events (AEs) or unusual patterns of AEs after vaccination were reported among HIV-positive persons. We searched for domestic reports among HIV-positive persons to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during 1990-2016. We analyzed reports by age group (<19 and ≥19 years), sex, serious or non-serious status, live vaccine type (live versus inactivated), AEs reported, and CD4 counts...
2018: PloS One
Shuhei Kosono, Akihiro Kasai, Sumika Komaba, Teruhiko Matsubara, Toshinori Sato, Daisuke Takahashi, Kazunobu Toshima
Among a series of chemically synthesized fucoidan derivatives (1-9), 5 was found for the first time to bind to influenza virus hemagglutinins (HAs) and inhibit hemagglutination activity. In addition, a designed C3-symmetric tripodal ligand 10, synthesized with three sulfated oligofucoside moieties of 5, exhibited much greater hemagglutination inhibition activity than 5. A plaque assay using MDCK cells demonstrated that 10 effectively inhibited influenza virus infection.
June 19, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Tippawan Jantafong, Sakchai Ruenphet, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya, Kazuaki Takehara
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the fourth-generation quaternary ammonium compounds, didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), on the efficacy of bacterial and viral decontamination against pathogens commonly found in livestock industry including Salmonella infantis (SI), Escherichia coli , and avian influenza virus (AIV). Materials and Methods: The DDAB was prepared at 500, 250, and 125 parts per million (ppm) for absent and present organic material...
May 2018: Veterinary World
David M Duriancik, Jared J Tippett, Jaslyn L Morris, Brooke E Roman, Elizabeth M Gardner
Calorie restriction (CR), also known as energy restriction, has been shown to have a deleterious impact on both adult and aged mouse survival during influenza virus infection. Natural killer (NK) cell phenotypic differences contribute to increased susceptibility of adult CR mice. We hypothesized NK cell phenotype from adult and aged C57Bl/6 mice fed NIH-31 diet ad libitum (AL) would be different from NK cell phenotype from adult and aged mice fed NIH-31/NIA fortified diet at 40% CR. We hypothesized NK cell phenotype from mice consuming 40% CR initiated at 20 months of age would not be different from 40% CR initiated at 3 months of age...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Xiao-Xiao Wang, Wei Cheng, Zhao Yu, She-Lan Liu, Hai-Yan Mao, En-Fu Chen
BACKGROUND: Human infection of avian influenza virus (AIV) remains a great concern. Although live poultry markets are believed to be associated with human infections, ever more infections have been reported in rural areas with backyard poultry, especially in the fifth epidemic of H7N9. However, limited information is available on backyard poultry infection and surrounding environmental contamination. METHODS: Two surveillance systems and a field survey were used to collect data and samples in Zhejiang Province...
June 19, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Jean Artois, Carla Ippoliti, Annamaria Conte, Madhur S Dhingra, Pastor Alfonso, Abdelgawad El Tahawy, Ahmed Elbestawy, Hany F Ellakany, Marius Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The Avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus is endemic in poultry in Egypt. The winter of 2014/2015 was particularly worrying as new clusters of HPAI A (H5N1) virus emerged, leading to an important number of AI A (H5N1) outbreaks in poultry farms and sporadic human cases. To date, few studies have investigated the distribution of HPAI A (H5N1) outbreaks in Egypt in relation to protective / risk factors at the farm level, a gap we intend to fill. The aim of the study was to analyse passive surveillance data that were based on observation of sudden and high mortality of poultry or drop in duck or chicken egg production, as a basis to better understand and discuss the risk of HPAI A (H5N1) presence at the farm level in large parts of the Nile Delta...
June 18, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Jing Wang, Yujia Wang, Rui Zhou, Jianyuan Zhao, Yongxin Zhang, Dongrong Yi, Quanjie Li, Jinming Zhou, Fei Guo, Chen Liang, Xiaoyu Li, Shan Cen
The productive infection of influenza A virus (IAV) depends on host factors. However, the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in IAV infection remains largely uninvestigated. In this work, we have discovered a human lncRNA, named lncRNA-PAAN (PA-associated noncoding RNA) that enhances IAV replication. The level of lncRNA-PAAN increases upon infection of IAV, but not other viruses, nor interferon treatment, suggesting specific up-regulation of lncRNA-PAAN expression by IAV. Silencing lncRNA-PAAN significantly decreases IAV replication through impairing the activity of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)...
June 16, 2018: Viruses
Melanie Schirmer, Vinod Kumar, Mihai G Netea, Ramnik J Xavier
Cytokines are important cell-signaling molecules that activate and modulate immune responses. Major factors influencing cytokine variation in healthy individuals are host genetics, non-heritable factors and the microbiome. Genetic variation accounts for a significant part of heterogeneity in cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Variation in cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-6Ra is strongly influenced by heritability, suggesting an evolutionarily pressure for their genetic regulation that potentially contributes to differences in immune responsiveness between human populations...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Hyung-Jun Kim, Sun Mi Choi, Jinwoo Lee, Young Sik Park, Chang-Hoon Lee, Jae-Joon Yim, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Young Whan Kim, Sung Koo Han, Sang-Min Lee
BACKGROUND: Severe viral pneumonia is associated with a high mortality rate. However, due to the vulnerability of critically ill patients, invasive diagnostic methods should be performed with caution in the intensive care unit (ICU). It would be helpful if the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical impact of virus detection are elucidated. METHODS: We evaluated patients with severe pneumonia between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2015. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed for 8 respiratory viruses when viral pathogen could not be excluded as the origin of severe pneumonia...
2018: PloS One
Zhijun Yu, Kaihui Cheng, Yuwei Gao
Migratory birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus. We report the infection of black-tailed gulls and chickens in eastern China with avian influenza (H13N2) and (H13N8) viruses. We found that these H13 viruses were transmitted from migratory birds to domestic poultry.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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