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Influenza virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643205/role-of-host-genes-in-influenza-virus-replication
#1
Megan L Shaw, Silke Stertz
At every step of their replication cycle influenza viruses depend heavily on their host cells. The multifaceted interactions that occur between the virus and its host cell determine the outcome of the infection, including efficiency of progeny virus production, tropism, and pathogenicity. In order to understand viral disease and develop therapies for influenza it is therefore pertinent to study the intricate interplay between influenza viruses and their required host factors. Here, we review the current knowledge on host cell factors required by influenza virus at the different stages of the viral replication cycle...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642154/a-boosting-skin-vaccination-with-dissolving-microneedle-patch-encapsulating-m2e-vaccine-broadens-the-protective-efficacy-of-conventional-influenza-vaccines
#2
Wandi Zhu, Winston Pewin, Chao Wang, Yuan Luo, Gilbert X Gonzalez, Teena Mohan, Mark R Prausnitz, Bao-Zhong Wang
The biodegradable microneedle patch (MNP) is a novel technology for vaccine delivery that could improve the immunogenicity of vaccines. To broaden the protective efficiency of conventional influenza vaccines, a new 4M2e-tFliC fusion protein construct containing M2e sequences from different subtypes was generated. Purified fusion protein was encapsulated into MNPs with a biocompatible polymer for use as a boosting vaccine. The results demonstrated that mice receiving a conventional inactivated vaccine followed by a skin-applied dissolving 4M2e-tFliC MNP boost could better maintain the humoral antibody response than that by the conventional vaccine-prime alone...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641373/estimating-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-the-test-negative-design-using-alternative-control-groups-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Shuo Feng, Benjamin J Cowling, Heath Kelly, Sheena G Sullivan
One important assumption in case-control studies is that control selection should be independent of exposure. Nevertheless, it has been hypothesized that virus interference might lead to a correlation between receipt of influenza vaccination and increased risk of infection with other respiratory viruses. We investigated if such a phenomenon might affect a commonly used study design to estimate influenza vaccination effectiveness (VE). We searched publications in Medline, PubMed and Web of Science. Twelve studies were identified reporting VE estimates using the test-negative design by three alternative control groups: (1) all patients testing negative for influenza, VEFLU-, (2) patients who tested positive for other respiratory viruses, VEORV+, or (3) patients who tested negative for all viruses tested, VEPAN-...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640898/competition-between-influenza-a-virus-subtypes-through-heterosubtypic-immunity-modulates-re-infection-and-antibody-dynamics-in-the-mallard-duck
#4
Neus Latorre-Margalef, Justin D Brown, Alinde Fojtik, Rebecca L Poulson, Deborah Carter, Monique Franca, David E Stallknecht
Our overall hypothesis is that host population immunity directed at multiple antigens will influence the prevalence, diversity and evolution of influenza A virus (IAV) in avian populations where the vast subtype diversity is maintained. To investigate how initial infection influences the outcome of later infections with homologous or heterologous IAV subtypes and how viruses interact through host immune responses, we carried out experimental infections in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Mallards were pre-challenged with an H3N8 low-pathogenic IAV and were divided into six groups...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640889/contrasting-academic-and-lay-press-print-coverage-of-the-2013-2016-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#5
Mark D Kieh, Elim M Cho, Ian A Myles
Under a traditional paradigm, only those with the expected background knowledge consume academic literature. The lay press, as well as government and non-government agencies, play a complementary role of extracting findings of high interest or importance and translating them for general viewing. The need for accurate reporting and public advising is paramount when attempting to tackle epidemic outbreaks through behavior change. Yet, public trust in media outlets is at a historic low. The Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) model for media reporting on public health emergencies was established in 2005 and has subsequently been used to analyze media reporting on outbreaks of influenza and measles as well as smoking habits and medication compliance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640212/synthesis-and-in-vitro-anti-influenza-virus-evaluation-of-novel-sialic-acid-c-5-and-c-9-pentacyclic-triterpene-derivatives
#6
Xu Han, Long-Long Si, Yong-Ying Shi, Zi-Bo Fan, Shou-Xin Wang, Zhen-Yu Tian, Man Li, Jia-Qi Sun, Ping-Xuan Jiao, Fu-Xiang Ran, Yong-Min Zhang, De-Min Zhou, Su-Long Xiao
The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a great need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. In our previous study, a series of sialic acid (C-2 and C-4)-pentacyclic triterpene conjugates have been synthesized, and a five-fold more potent antiviral activity was observed when sialic acid was conjugated with pentacyclic triterpene via C-4 than C-2. It was here that we further reported the synthesis and anti-influenza activity of novel sialic acid (C-5 and C-9)-pentacyclic triterpene conjugates...
June 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639594/viral-aetiology-of-wheezing-in-children-under-five
#7
Prithi Sureka Mummidi, Radha Tripathy, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Amarendra Mahapatra, Suryakanta Baraha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Wheezing is a common problem in children under five with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Viruses are known to be responsible for a considerable proportion of ARIs in children. This study was undertaken to know the viral aetiology of wheezing among the children less than five years of age, admitted to a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. METHODS: Seventy five children, under the age of five years admitted with wheezing, were included in the study...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639229/pharmacokinetics-of-mhaa4549a-an-anti-influenza-a-monoclonal-antibody-in-healthy-subjects-challenged-with-influenza%C3%A2-a-virus-in-a-phase-iia-randomized-trial
#8
Rong Deng, Ai Ping Lee, Mauricio Maia, Jeremy J Lim, Tracy Burgess, Priscilla Horn, Michael A Derby, Elizabeth Newton, Jorge A Tavel, William D Hanley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: MHAA4549A, a human anti-influenza immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody, is being developed to treat patients hospitalized for influenza A infection. This study examined the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of MHAA4549A in a phase IIa, randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging trial in healthy volunteers challenged with influenza A virus. METHODS: Serum PK data were collected from 60 subjects in three single-dose groups (400, 1200, or 3600 mg) who received MHAA4549A intravenously 24-36 h after inoculation with the influenza A virus...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638471/rapid-detection-of-avian-influenza-virus-by-fluorescent-diagnostic-assay-using-an-epitope-derived-peptide
#9
Duong Tuan Bao, Do Thi Hoang Kim, Hyun Park, Bui Thi Cuc, Nguyen Minh Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Phuong Linh, Nguyen Chien Huu, Trinh Thi Thuy Tien, Nguyen Thi Viet Anh, Tung Dao Duy, Chom-Kyu Chong, Seung-Taek Yu, Do-Young Choi, Seon-Ju Yeo
Currently, the point of care testing (POCT) is not fully developed for subtype-specific avian influenza virus detection. In this study, an H5N1 hemaglutinin 1 (HA1) epitope (P0: KPNDAINF) and three modified peptides (P1: KPNTAINF, P2: KPNGAINF, P3: KPNDAINDAINF) were evaluated as POCT elements for rapid detection of avian influenza virus. Based on modeling predictions by Autodock Vina, binding affinity varied depending on alteration of one amino acid in these peptides. The binding energy of P2 indicated its potential for a strong interaction with HA...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637903/involvement-of-nk-cells-in-il-28b-mediated-immunity-against-influenza-virus-infection
#10
Yanshi Wang, Tingting Li, Yongyan Chen, Haiming Wei, Rui Sun, Zhigang Tian
IL-28B is a member of the newly discovered type III IFN family and exhibits unique antiviral properties compared with other family members. NK cells play a critical role in defending against viruses; however, little is known about the role of IL-28B in NK cell function. In a mouse model of influenza A virus (mouse adapted influenza A/PR/8/34 strain) infection, long-term overexpression of IL-28B induced by hepatocyte-specific gene delivery exerted a strong antiviral effect in the presence of NK cells. In IL-28B-overexpressing wild-type mice, the percentages and absolute numbers of NK cells in the spleen, liver, and lung were markedly increased, with higher proliferation and accelerated NK cell maturation based on phenotypes staining with CD11b and CD27 or CD11b and KLRG1...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637757/going-against-the-tide-selective-cellular-protein-synthesis-during-virally-induced-host-shutoff
#11
Shuai Cao, Pragyesh Dhungel, Zhilong Yang
Many viral infections cause host shutoff, a state in which host protein synthesis is globally inhibited. Emerging evidence from vaccinia and influenza A virus infections indicates that subsets of cellular proteins are resistant to host shutoff and continue to be synthesized. Remarkably, the proteins of oxidative phosphorylation, the cellular energy generating machinery, are selectively synthesized in both cases. Identifying mechanisms that drive selective protein synthesis should facilitate understanding both viral replication and fundamental cell biology...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637755/seasonal-h3n2-and-2009-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-a-viruses-reassort-efficiently-but-produce-attenuated-progeny
#12
Kara L Phipps, Nicolle Marshall, Hui Tao, Shamika Danzy, Nina Onuoha, John Steel, Anice C Lowen
Reassortment of gene segments between co-infecting influenza A viruses (IAV) facilitates viral diversification and has significant epidemiological impact on seasonal and pandemic influenza. Since 1977, human IAVs of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes have co-circulated with relatively few documented cases of reassortment. We evaluated the potential for viruses of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and seasonal H3N2 lineages to reassort under experimental conditions. Results of heterologous co-infections with pH1N1 and H3N2 viruses were compared to those obtained following co-infection with homologous, genetically tagged, pH1N1 viruses as a control...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637754/functional-evolution-of-influenza-ns1-protein-in-currently-circulating-human-2009-pandemic-h1n1-viruses
#13
Amelia M Clark, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, David J Topham, Marta L DeDiego
In 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus emerged in humans, causing a global pandemic. It was previously shown that the NS1 protein from this human 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus was an effective interferon (IFN) antagonist, but could not inhibit general host gene expression, unlike other NS1 proteins from seasonal human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Here, we show that the NS1 protein from currently circulating pH1N1 viruses has evolved to encode 6 amino acid changes (E55K, L90I, I123V, E125D, K131E, and N205S) with respect to the original protein...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637750/interplay-of-pa-x-and-ns1-proteins-in-replication-and-pathogenesis-of-a-temperature-sensitive-2009-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-a-virus
#14
Aitor Nogales, Laura Rodriguez, Marta L DeDiego, David J Topham, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics, representing a serious public health concern. It has been described that one mechanism used by some IAV strains to escape the host innate immune responses and modulate virus pathogenicity involves the ability of PA-X and NS1 proteins to inhibit the host protein synthesis in infected cells. It was reported that for the 2009 pandemic H1N1 IAV (pH1N1) only the PA-X protein has this inhibiting capability while the NS1 protein did not...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637471/enhanced-humoural-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-influenza-h7n9-antigen-ha1-2-fused-with-flagellin-in-chickens
#15
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Maozhi Hu, Xilong Kang, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Sudden increases in the number of human A (H7N9) cases reported during December and January have been observed in previous years. Most reported infection cases are due to prior exposure to live poultry or potentially contaminated environments. Low pathogenicity of influenza A (H7N9) virus in avian species complicates timely discovery of infected birds. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safe and effective anti-H7N9 vaccines for poultry to reduce the risk of human infection and prevent the emergence of novel mutated strains...
June 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637468/chorioallantoic-membranes-of-embryonated-chicken-eggs-as-an-alternative-system-for-isolation-of-equine-influenza-virus
#16
Ilona Marcelina Gora, Malgorzata Kwasnik, Jan Franciszek Zmudzinski, Wojciech Rozek
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) is not applicable for rapid diagnosis, however it allows the recovery and propagation of the viable virus. A low number of infectious virus particles in the swabs, poor quality of samples or individual strain properties can lead to difficulties during the virus isolation process. We propose to utilize chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of ECEs with the assistance of real-time RT PCR to facilitate equine influenza virus isolation...
June 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637337/matrix-completion-with-side-information-and-its-applications-in-predicting-the-antigenicity-of-influenza-viruses
#17
Li Huang, Xianhong Li, Pengfei Guo, Yuhua Yao, Bo Liao, Weiwei Zhang, Fayou Wang, Jiasheng Yang, Yulong Zhao, Hailiang Sun, Pingan He, Jialiang Yang
Motivation: Low-rank matrix completion has been demonstrated to be powerful in predicting antigenic distances among influenza viruses and vaccines from partially revealed hemagglutination inhibition (HI) table. Meanwhile, influenza hemagglutinin (HA) protein sequences are also effective in inferring antigenic distances. Thus, it is natural to integrate HA protein sequence information into low-rank matrix completion model to help infer influenza antigenicity, which is critical to influenza vaccine development...
June 16, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636980/a-multiplex-liquid-chip-assay-based-on-luminex-xmap-technology-for-simultaneous-detection-of-six-common-respiratory-viruses
#18
Yong Yan, Jian-Yong Luo, Yin Chen, Heng-Hui Wang, Guo-Ying Zhu, Pei-Yan He, Jin-Lei Guo, Yong-Liang Lei, Zhong-Wen Chen
We utilized one-step multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex xMAP technology to develop a respiratory multiplex liquid-chip assay (rMLA) for simultaneous detection of 6 common respiratory viruses, including influenza virus type A (FluA) and type B (FluB), para-influenza virus type 3 (PIV-3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (MPV) and a threatening virus to China, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Performance of rMLA was evaluated by comparing with real-time RT-PCR...
June 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636443/personal-protective-equipment-supply-chain-lessons-learned-from-recent-public-health-emergency-responses
#19
Anita Patel, Maryann M D'Alessandro, Karen J Ireland, W Greg Burel, Elaine B Wencil, Sonja A Rasmussen
Personal protective equipment (PPE) that protects healthcare workers from infection is a critical component of infection control strategies in healthcare settings. During a public health emergency response, protecting healthcare workers from infectious disease is essential, given that they provide clinical care to those who fall ill, have a high risk of exposure, and need to be assured of occupational safety. Like most goods in the United States, the PPE market supply is based on demand. The US PPE supply chain has minimal ability to rapidly surge production, resulting in challenges to meeting large unexpected increases in demand that might occur during a public health emergency...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636164/a-nanostructured-microfluidic-immunoassay-platform-for-highly-sensitive-infectious-pathogen-detection
#20
Xu Yu, Yiqiu Xia, Yi Tang, Wen-Long Zhang, Yin-Ting Yeh, Huaguang Lu, Si-Yang Zheng
Rapid and simultaneous detection of multiple potential pathogens by portable devices can facilitate early diagnosis of infectious diseases, and allow for rapid and effective implementation of disease prevention and treatment measures. The development of a ZnO nanorod integrated microdevice as a multiplex immunofluorescence platform for highly sensitive and selective detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) is described. The 3D morphology and unique optical property of the ZnO nanorods boost the detection limit of the H5N2 AIV to as low as 3...
June 2017: Small
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