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Influenza virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451984/two-component-ferritin-nanoparticles-for-multimerization-of-diverse-trimeric-antigens
#1
Ivelin S Georgiev, Michael Gordon Joyce, Rita E Chen, Kwanyee Leung, Krisha McKee, Aliaksandr Druz, Joseph G Van Galen, Masaru Kanekiyo, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Eun Sung Yang, Yongping Yang, Priyamvada Acharya, Marie Pancera, Paul V Thomas, Timothy Wanninger, Hadi Yassine, Ulrich Baxa, Nicole Doria-Rose, Cheng Cheng, Barney S Graham, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
Antigen multimerization on a nanoparticle can result in improved neutralizing antibody responses. A platform that has been successfully used for displaying antigens from a number of different viruses is ferritin, a self-assembling protein nanoparticle that allows the attachment of multiple copies (twenty-four monomers or eight trimers) of a single antigen. Here we design two-component ferritin variants that allow the attachment of two diverse antigens on a single particle in a defined ratio and geometric pattern...
February 16, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451492/extreme-heterogeneity-of-influenza-virus-infection-in-single-cells
#2
Alistair B Russell, Cole Trapnell, Jesse D Bloom
Viral infection can dramatically alter a cell's transcriptome. However, these changes have mostly been studied by bulk measurements on many cells. Here we use single-cell mRNA sequencing to examine the transcriptional consequences of influenza virus infection. We find extremely wide cell-to-cell variation in the productivity of viral transcription - viral transcripts comprise less than a percent of total mRNA in many infected cells, but a few cells derive over half their mRNA from virus. Some infected cells fail to express at least one viral gene, but this gene absence only partially explains variation in viral transcriptional load...
February 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451040/pulmonary-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-formulations-in-cotton-rats-site-of-deposition-plays-a-minor-role-in-the-protective-efficacy-against-clinical-isolate-of-h1n1pdm-virus
#3
Yoshita Bhide, Jasmine Tomar, Wei Dong, Jacqueline de Vries-Idema, Henderik W Frijlink, Anke Huckriede, Wouter L J Hinrichs
Administration of influenza vaccines to the lungs could be an attractive alternative to conventional parenteral administration. In this study, we investigated the deposition site of pulmonary delivered liquid and powder influenza vaccine formulations and its relation to their immunogenicity and protective efficacy. In vivo deposition studies in cotton rats revealed that, the powder formulation was mainly deposited in the trachea ( ∼ 65%) whereas the liquid was homogenously distributed throughout the lungs ( ∼ 96%)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449842/pan-influenza-a-protection-by-prime-boost-vaccination-with-cold-adapted-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-in-a-mouse-model
#4
Yo Han Jang, Joo Young Kim, Young Ho Byun, Ahyun Son, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Jun Chang, Baik Lin Seong
Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449287/global-influenza-hospital-based-surveillance-network-gihsn-results-of-surveillance-of-influenza-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-hospitalised-patients-in-brazil-2015
#5
Sonia M Raboni, Fernanda E A Moura, Braulia C Caetano, Valéria M Avanzi, Luciane A Pereira, Meri B Nogueira, Luine R Vidal, Isabel C F Tavares, Florence K Pradel, Valentina S Picot, Joan Puig-Barbera, Marilda M Siqueira
BACKGROUND: Influenza-like illness occurs annually worldwide, with peak timing and severity varying seasonally, resulting in significant annual mortality. OBJECTIVES: There were three objectives: (1) to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of hospitalised patients with severe acute respiratory infection caused by influenza and other respiratory viruses (ORVs); (2) to report the influenza seasonality in the region and (3) to correlate findings of influenza circulation and immunisation time in Brazil...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448067/antiviral-resistance-due-to-deletion-in-the-neuraminidase-gene-and-defective-interfering-like-viral-polymerase-basic-2-rna-of-influenza-a-virus-subtype-h3n2
#6
Ramona Trebbien, Claus Bohn Christiansen, Thea Kølsen Fischer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Antiviral treatment of influenza virus infections can lead to drug resistance of virus. This study investigates a selection of mutations in the full genome of H3N2 influenza A virus isolated from a patient in treatment with oseltamivir. STUDY DESIGN: Respiratory samples from a patient were collected before, during, and after antiviral treatment. Whole genome sequencing of the influenza virus by next generation sequencing, and low-frequency-variant analysis was performed...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447989/aetiology-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-adults-in-primary-care-a-prospective-study-in-11-european-countries
#7
Margareta Ieven, Samuel Coenen, Katherine Loens, Christine Lammens, Frank Coenjaerts, Anouk Vanderstraeten, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Derrick Crook, Kris Huygen, Chris C Butler, Theo Jm Verheij, Paul Little, Kalina Zlateva, Anton van Loon, Eric Cj Claas, Herman Goossens
OBJECTIVES: To describe the role of bacteria (including bacterial resistance), viruses (including those recently described), and mixed bacterial-viral infections in adults presenting to primary care with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODS: We enrolled 3104 adults with LRTI, 141 (4.5%) of whom had community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and 2985 matched controls in a prospective study in 16 primary care networks in Europe, and followed patients up at 28-35 days...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447284/influenza-interaction-with-cocirculating-pathogens-and-its-impact-on-surveillance-pathogenesis-and-epidemic-profile-a-key-role-for-mathematical-modelling
#8
REVIEW
Lulla Opatowski, Marc Baguelin, Rosalind M Eggo
Evidence is mounting that influenza virus interacts with other pathogens colonising or infecting the human respiratory tract. Taking into account interactions with other pathogens may be critical to determining the real influenza burden and the full impact of public health policies targeting influenza. This is particularly true for mathematical modelling studies, which have become critical in public health decision-making. Yet models usually focus on influenza virus acquisition and infection alone, thereby making broad oversimplifications of pathogen ecology...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447278/an-increasing-trend-of-rural-infections-of-human-influenza-a-h7n9-from-2013-to-2017-a-retrospective-analysis-of-patient-exposure-histories-in-zhejiang-province-china
#9
Enfu Chen, Maggie H Wang, Fan He, Riyang Sun, Wei Cheng, Benny C Y Zee, Steven Y F Lau, Xiaoxiao Wang, Ka Chun Chong
BACKGROUND: Although investigations have shown that closing live poultry markets (LPMs) is highly effective in controlling human influenza A (H7N9) infections, many of the urban LPMs were shut down, but rural LPMs remained open. This study aimed to compare the proportional changes between urban and rural infections in the Zhejiang province from 2013 to 2017 by analyzing the exposure histories of human cases. METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed cases of H7N9 from 2013 (the first wave) to 2017 (the fifth wave) in the Zhejiang province of China were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447205/aggressive-fluid-accumulation-is-associated-with-acute-kidney-injury-and-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-severe-pneumonia-caused-by-influenza-a-h1n1-virus
#10
Gustavo Alejandro Casas-Aparicio, Isabel León-Rodríguez, Rafael de Jesús Hernández-Zenteno, Manuel Castillejos-López, Claudia Alvarado-de la Barrera, Christopher E Ormsby, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
INTRODUCTION: Fluid accumulation is associated with adverse outcomes such as acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. This study aimed to describe the factors associated with AKI in individuals with influenza A H1N1 severe pneumonia, and explore the relation of fluid accumulation with AKI and mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed medical records of individuals with influenza A H1N1 severe pneumonia and no history of chronic kidney disease, attending a national referral center for respiratory diseases between November 2014 and May 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447204/comparison-of-viral-infection-in-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-hcap-and-community-acquired-pneumonia-cap
#11
Eun Sun Kim, Kyoung Un Park, Sang Hoon Lee, Yeon Joo Lee, Jong Sun Park, Young-Jae Cho, Ho Il Yoon, Choon-Taek Lee, Jae Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: Although viruses are known to be the second most common etiological factor in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), the respiratory viral profile of the patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) has not yet been elucidated. We investigated the prevalence and the clinical impact of respiratory virus infection in adult patients with HCAP. METHODS: Patients admitted with HCAP or CAP, between January and December 2016, to a tertiary referral hospital in Korea, were prospectively enrolled, and virus identification was performed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447150/life-cycle-synchronization-is-a-viral-drug-resistance-mechanism
#12
Iulia A Neagu, Jason Olejarz, Mark Freeman, Daniel I S Rosenbloom, Martin A Nowak, Alison L Hill
Viral infections are one of the major causes of death worldwide, with HIV infection alone resulting in over 1.2 million casualties per year. Antiviral drugs are now being administered for a variety of viral infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and C, and influenza. These therapies target a specific phase of the virus's life cycle, yet their ultimate success depends on a variety of factors, such as adherence to a prescribed regimen and the emergence of viral drug resistance. The epidemiology and evolution of drug resistance have been extensively characterized, and it is generally assumed that drug resistance arises from mutations that alter the virus's susceptibility to the direct action of the drug...
February 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447145/update-influenza-activity-united-states-october-1-2017-february-3-2018
#13
Alicia P Budd, David E Wentworth, Lenee Blanton, Anwar Isa Abd Elal, Noreen Alabi, John Barnes, Lynnette Brammer, Erin Burns, Charisse N Cummings, Todd Davis, Brendan Flannery, Alicia M Fry, Shikha Garg, Rebecca Garten, Larisa Gubareva, Yunho Jang, Krista Kniss, Natalie Kramer, Stephen Lindstrom, Desiree Mustaquim, Alissa O'Halloran, Sonja J Olsen, Wendy Sessions, Calli Taylor, Xiyan Xu, Vivien G Dugan, Jacqueline Katz, Daniel Jernigan
Influenza activity in the United States began to increase in early November 2017 and rose sharply from December through February 3, 2018; elevated influenza activity is expected to continue for several more weeks. Influenza A viruses have been most commonly identified, with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating, but influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B viruses were also reported. This report summarizes U.S. influenza activity* during October 1, 2017-February 3, 2018, † and updates the previous summary (1)...
February 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447141/interim-estimates-of-2017-18-seasonal-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-united-states-february-2018
#14
Brendan Flannery, Jessie R Chung, Edward A Belongia, Huong Q McLean, Manjusha Gaglani, Kempapura Murthy, Richard K Zimmerman, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Michael L Jackson, Lisa A Jackson, Arnold S Monto, Emily T Martin, Angie Foust, Wendy Sessions, LaShondra Berman, John R Barnes, Sarah Spencer, Alicia M Fry
In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months (1). During each influenza season since 2004-05, CDC has estimated the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine to prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza associated with medically attended acute respiratory illness (ARI). This report uses data from 4,562 children and adults enrolled in the U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (U.S. Flu VE Network) during November 2, 2017-February 3, 2018...
February 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446442/characterization-of-source-plasma-from-self-identified-vaccinated-or-convalescent-donors-during-the-2009-h1n1-pandemic
#15
Alexey Khalenkov, Yong He, Jennifer L Reed, Thomas R Kreil, John McVey, Malgorzata Norton, John Scott, Dorothy E Scott
BACKGROUND: Influenza immune globulin, manufactured from plasma of convalescent or vaccinated donors has been proposed as a potential therapy for severe influenza. In 2009, a program was initiated to collect plasma from donors who self-identified as having had H1N1 influenza or having received the H1N1 pandemic vaccine. The goal of this study was to determine the efficiency of donor screening by self-identification without antibody testing, and to evaluate demographic predictors of high-titer donations...
February 15, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445999/the-s190r-mutation-in-the-hemagglutinin-protein-of-pandemic-h1n1-2009-influenza-virus-increased-its-pathogenicity-in-mice
#16
Yongkun Chen, Tian Bai, Wenfei Zhu, Rongbao Gao, Zhihong Deng, Yi Shi, Shumei Zou, Yiwei Huang, Xiyan Li, Fangcai Li, Zhaomin Feng, Tao Chen, Jing Yang, Dayan Wang, Lidong Gao, Yuelong Shu
Human influenza viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid-α2,6-galactose (SAα2,6Gal) receptors, which are predominant in human upper respiratory epithelia, whereas avian influenza viruses preferentially bind to SAα2,3Gal receptors. However, variants with amino acid substitutions around the receptor-binding sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein can be selected after several passages of human influenza viruses from patients' respiratory samples in the allantoic cavities of embryonated chicken eggs. In this study, we detected an egg-adapted HA S190R mutation in the pandemic H1N1 virus 2009 (pdmH1N1), and evaluated the effects of this mutation on receptor binding affinity and pathogenicity in mice...
February 10, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445450/prevention-of-influenza-related-illness-in-young-infants-by-maternal-vaccination-during-pregnancy
#17
REVIEW
Marta C Nunes, Shabir A Madhi
The influenza virus circulates yearly and causes global epidemics. Influenza infection affects all age groups and causes mild to severe illness, and young infants are at particular risk for serious disease. The most effective measure to prevent influenza disease is vaccination; however, no vaccine is licensed for use in infants younger than 6 months old. Thus, there is a crucial need for other preventive strategies in this high-risk age group. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy protects both the mothers and the young infants against influenza infection...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445379/contribution-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-2-response-to-influenza-virus-infection
#18
Benoit Egarnes, Jean Gosselin
Influenza A virus (IAV) is recognized to cause severe pulmonary illnesses in humans, particularly in elderly and children. One of the features associated with IAV infection is an excessive lung inflammation due to an uncontrolled immune response. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) receptor is known to recognize ssRNA viruses such as IAV, but its role in the inflammatory process during viral infections remains to be clarified. In a previous report, we have shown that activation of NOD2 with muramyl dipeptide (MDP) significantly reduces both viral loads and lung inflammation and also improves pulmonary function during IAV infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445377/mouse-models-of-influenza-infection-with-circulating-strains-to-test-seasonal-vaccine-efficacy
#19
Helen T Groves, Jacqueline U McDonald, Pinky Langat, Ekaterina Kinnear, Paul Kellam, John McCauley, Joanna Ellis, Catherine Thompson, Ruth Elderfield, Lauren Parker, Wendy Barclay, John S Tregoning
Influenza virus infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The surface antigens of influenza virus change over time blunting both naturally acquired and vaccine induced adaptive immune protection. Viral antigenic drift is a major contributing factor to both the spread and disease burden of influenza. The aim of this study was to develop better infection models using clinically relevant, influenza strains to test vaccine induced protection. CB6F1 mice were infected with a range of influenza viruses and disease, inflammation, cell influx, and viral load were characterized after infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445364/non-specific-effect-of-vaccines-immediate-protection-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-by-a-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine
#20
Young J Lee, Jeong Y Lee, Yo H Jang, Sang-Uk Seo, Jun Chang, Baik L Seong
The non-specific effects (NSEs) of vaccines have been discussed for their potential long-term beneficial effects beyond direct protection against a specific pathogen. Cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccine (CAIV) induces local innate immune responses that provide a broad range of antiviral immunity. Herein, we examined whether X-31ca, a donor virus for CAIVs, provides non-specific cross-protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The degree of RSV replication was significantly reduced when X-31ca was administered before RSV infection without any RSV-specific antibody responses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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