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Influenza virus

Michelle Huckaby Lewis
Scientists are beginning to understand more about the role of host genetics in individuals' responses to influenza virus exposure. This fictional case addresses a situation in which a health care organization proposes requiring all health care practitioners with direct patient care responsibilities to undergo mandatory genetic testing for genetic variants used to (1) predict individuals' responses to the influenza vaccine, (2) determine individual susceptibility to influenza infection, and (3) identify individuals at increased risk for severe disease...
September 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Shinya Matsumoto, Yong Chong, Dongchon Kang, Hideyuki Ikematsu
MDCK-induced amino acid (AA) mutation, such as D151G/N in the neuraminidase (NA) of influenza A/H3N2 viruses, is of concern. MDCK-SIAT1 cells, modified derivatives with an increased expression of α2,6-linked sialic acid receptors are increasingly used due to their superiority in a viral recovery. However, MDCK-SIAT1 induced AA mutations have not been fully examined. In this study, we compared NA and hemagglutinin (HA) genes of recent circulating influenza viruses isolated after an MDCK-SIAT1 passage with those directly obtained from the original samples...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Miria F Criado, Charles L Balzli, Lindsay F Killmaster, Darrell R Kapczynski, David E Swayne
Maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with active immunity in young chicks. In highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV)-enzootic countries, broiler chickens typically have MDA to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and H5 HPAIV, and their impact on active immunity from recombinant vectored vaccines is unclear. We assessed the effectiveness of a spray-applied recombinant NDV vaccine with H5 AIV insert (rNDV-H5) and a recombinant turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine with H5 AIV insert (rHVT-H5) in commercial broilers with MDA to NDV alone (MDA:AIV- NDV+ ) or to NDV plus AIV (MDA:AIV+ NDV+ ) to provide protection against homologous HPAIV challenge...
September 18, 2018: Vaccine
Huanan Wang, Feng Cong, Jianchi Guan, Li Xiao, Yujun Zhu, Yuexiao Lian, Ren Huang, Meili Chen, Pengju Guo
BACKGROUND: A serological method to simultaneously detect antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is imperative for the differential diagnosis and evaluation of antibodies titers after vaccination. METHOD: The microspheres coated with purified recombinant glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV or nucleocapsid (N) protein of IBV were incubated with serum samples. The simultaneous quantification of ILTV and IBV antibodies were achieved through the interrogation of microspheres by Luminex 200 detection system...
September 21, 2018: Virology Journal
Fatimah S Dawood, Danielle Hunt, Archana Patel, Wanitchaya Kittikraisak, Yeny Tinoco, Kunal Kurhe, Giselle Soto, Danielle Hombroek, Shikha Garg, Tawee Chotpitayasunondh, Oswaldo Gonzales, Savita Bhargav, Mark G Thompson, Bajaree Chotpitayasunondh, Richard Florian, Amber Prakash, Sofia Arriola, Louis Macareo, Prabir Das, Santiago Cabrera, Sayda La Rosa, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization identifies pregnant women as at high-risk for severe influenza, but influenza vaccines are underutilized among pregnant women. Data on influenza burden during pregnancy are largely limited to high-income countries and data on the impact of influenza on birth and perinatal outcomes are scarce. METHODS/DESIGN: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women in middle-income countries is designed to address three primary objectives: 1) to evaluate the effect of laboratory-confirmed influenza during pregnancy on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes; 2) to estimate the incidences of all-cause acute respiratory illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza during pregnancy; and 3) to examine the clinical spectrum of illness associated with influenza viruses...
September 21, 2018: Reproductive Health
Nehemya Friedman, Hadar Alter, Musa Hindiyeh, Ella Mendelson, Yonat Shemer Avni, Michal Mandelboim
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause mild to severe respiratory diseases. Six types of HCoVs have been discovered, the most recent one termed the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The aim of this study is to monitor the circulation of HCoV types in the population during 2015⁻2016 in Israel. HCoVs were detected by real-time PCR analysis in 1910 respiratory samples, collected from influenza-like illness (ILI) patients during the winter sentinel influenza survey across Israel. Moreover, 195 HCoV-positive samples from hospitalized patients were detected during one year at Soroka University Medical Center...
September 21, 2018: Viruses
Ki-Hye Kim, Young-Man Kwon, Young-Tae Lee, Min-Chul Kim, Hye Suk Hwang, Eun-Ju Ko, Youri Lee, Hyo-Jick Choi, Sang-Moo Kang
Influenza virus M2 protein has a highly conserved ectodomain (M2e) as a cross-protective antigenic target. We investigated the antigenic and immunogenic properties of tandem repeat M2e (5xM2e) proteins and virus-like particles (5xM2e VLP) to better understand how VLP and protein platform vaccines induce innate and protective adaptive immune responses. Despite the high antigenic properties of 5xM2e proteins, the 5xM2e VLP was superior to 5xM2e proteins in inducing IgG2a isotype antibodies, T cell responses, plasma cells and germinal center B cells as well as in conferring cross protection...
September 20, 2018: Vaccines
Liang Cui, Madina Mahesutihan, Weinan Zheng, Lijun Meng, Wenhui Fan, Jing Li, Xin Ye, Wenjun Liu, Lei Sun
Cell division cycle 25 B (CDC25B) is a member of the CDC25 phosphatase family. It can dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases and regulate the cell division cycle. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of CDC25B impairs influenza A virus (IAV) replication. Here, to further understand the regulatory mechanism of CDC25B for IAV replication, a CDC25B-knockout (KO) 293T cell line was constructed using CRISPR/Cas9. The present data indicated that the replication of IAV was decreased in CDC25B-KO cells. Additionally, CDC25B deficiency damaged viral polymerase activity, nucleoprotein (NP) self-oligomerization, and NP nuclear export...
September 18, 2018: Virology
Andreas Kyburz, Angela Fallegger, Xiaozhou Zhang, Aleksandra Altobelli, Mariela Artola-Boran, Timothy Borbet, Sabine Urban, Petra Paul, Christian Münz, Stefan Floess, Jochen Huehn, Timothy L Cover, Martin J Blaser, Christian Taube, Anne Müller
BACKGROUND: The trans-maternal exposure to tobacco, microbes, nutrients and other environmental factors shapes the fetal immune system through epigenetic processes. The gastric microbe Helicobacter pylori represents an ancestral constituent of the human microbiota that causes gastric disorders on the one hand, and is inversely associated with allergies and chronic inflammatory conditions on the other. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigate the consequences of trans-maternal exposure to H...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Waldemar Elikowski, Małgorzata Małek-Elikowska, Monika Lisiecka, Zofia Trypuć, Iwona Mozer-Lisewska
Influenza is associated with a high prevalence of cardiac complications, including myocarditis and exacerbation of ischemic heart disease or heart failure (HF). However, only four cases of stress-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC), all of them triggered by virus A influenza, have been reported so far. Another two TC cases after anti-influenza vaccination are also available in the literature. The authors describe a new case of TC, this time provoked by influenza B. An 89-year-old female with a history of hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was admitted due to a fever (39oC), muscle aches and cough...
August 29, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Jacek Winiarski, Tomasz Michalik, Bartłomiej Śmieszniak, Ewa Popowicz, Marta Szyca
The aim of our article is to present a healthy qualities of Cistus. Cistus is plant belonging to the Cistaceae has strong health-promoting properties through its antioxidant, immunomodulatory, bacteriostatic and antifungal activities. Cistus has an inhibitory effect on the multiplication of viruses, which can be used to treat cold and influenza. A significant effect of the Cistus on stopping the growth and proliferation of prostatic cells was also demonstrated, which evidence of cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity...
August 29, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Nicoletta Scheller, Susanne Herold, Ronny Kellner, Wilhelm Bertrams, Anna Lena Jung, Harshavadhan Janga, Timm Greulich, Leon N Schulte, Claus F Vogelmeier, Jürgen Lohmeyer, Bernd Schmeck
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes severe respiratory infections and alveolar epithelial damage resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Extracellular vesicles (EV) have been shown to mediate cellular crosstalk in inflammation by transfer of microRNAs. In this study, we found significant changes in the miRNA composition of EVs in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with IAV-induced ARDS. Among the nine significantly deregulated microRNAs, miR-17-5p was upregulated in patients` BALF, and in EVs of IAV-infected lung epithelial cells (A549)...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
José Luis Piñana, Ariadna Pérez, Juan Montoro, Estela Giménez, María Dolores Gómez, Ignacio Lorenzo, Silvia Madrid, Eva María González, Víctor Vinuesa, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Miguel Salavert, Guillermo Sanz, Carlos Solano, Jaime Sanz, David Navarro
Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell recipients (allo-HSCT) are at high risk for morbidity and mortality from influenza respiratory virus infection (RVI). Vaccination is the primary method for preventing influenza RVI. Although the influenza vaccine is able to achieve serological response in some allo-HSCT recipients, its clinical benefit is still uncertain. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we retrospectively analyzed the effect of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccination status on the prevalence of influenza RVI in a consecutive cohort of 136 allo-HSCT adult recipients who developed 161 RVI over 5 flu seasons (from 2013 to 2018)...
September 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Shimaa M Ghoniem, Ayman H El Deeb, Mohammed G Aggour, Hussein A Hussein
We developed a multiplex reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-rtPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the main equine respiratory viruses: equid alphaherpesviruses 1 and 4 (EHV-1, -4) and equine influenza virus (EIV; species Influenza A virus). The primers and probes amplified only the targeted viruses, and there were no inter-assay cross-amplifications or nonspecific interactions. The multiplex assay efficiencies were 92.5%, 97%, and 90% for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIV, respectively. The R2 values of the monoplex and multiplex assays were ⩾0...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Jesus Jimenez-Barbero, Beatriz Fernandez de Toro, Wenjie Peng, Andrew J Thompson, Gema Domínguez, Francisco Javier Cañada, Javier Pérez-Castells, James C Paulson, Angeles Canales
Long chain multiantenna N-glycans are extremely complex molecules from the structural perspective. Their inherent flexibility and the presence of repetitions of monosaccharide units in similar chemical environments hamper their full characterization by X-ray diffraction or standard NMR methodologies. Therefore, the exploration of their interaction properties in solution, especially with regard to branch specificity and molecular recognition features, remains a challenge. Herein, we report the successful conformational and interaction analysis of a sialylated tetradecasaccharide N-glycan presenting two LacNAc repetitions at each arm...
September 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Jing Zhang, Xun Gui, Qingbing Zheng, Yixin Chen, Shengxiang Ge, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia
Rapid and sensitive diagnosis of influenza is urgently needed to address the limitations of low sensitivity associated with current rapid tests available for clinics and on-site monitoring. A novel horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled lateral flow immunoassay strip (HRP-LFIA) for rapid simultaneous detection and differentiation of influenza A (INF A) and influenza B (INF B) viruses was developed. This immunoassay was based on the signal amplification by the HRP-catalyzed oxidation of 3, 3,' 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) forming colored insoluble product which was proportional to the analyte concentration...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Furong Qi, Airong Yang, Sadaf Ambreen, Xue Bai, Yali Hou, Xuemei Lu
Gene duplication and amino acid substitution are two types of genetic innovations of antiviral genes in inhibiting the emerging pathogens in different species. Mx proteins are well known for inhibiting negative-stranded RNA viruses and have evolved a number of paralogs or orthologs, showing distinct antiviral activities or capacities within or between species. The presence of upstream genes in the signaling pathway(s) that activates Mx genes (upstream regulators of Mx gene) also exhibits variety across species...
September 20, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Kimmi Sarmah, Biswajyoti Borkakoty, Kishore Sarma, Rahul Hazarika, Palash Kumar Das, Aniruddha Jakharia, Mandakini Das, Dipankar Biswas
Since its emergence in 2009, Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 virus has evolved continuously. Marked genetic variations have occurred in the HA1 domain of the hemagglutinin gene causing the emergence of new variants. The present study genetically characterized the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 strains from Assam circulating in 2016 that caused a mild outbreak without any reported mortality. Sequence analysis of the HA gene of 20 positive Assam/H1N1pdm09 strains revealed 3 mutations (K180Q, S202T, S220T) at the antigenic sites along with several other reported mutations which are in close proximity to the antigenic sites and therefore might affect the viral antigenicity...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
Emily S Bailey, Jessica Y Choi, Juliana Zemke, Myagmarsukh Yondon, Gregory C Gray
Recognizing that crowded, high-traffic airports and airplanes have been implicated in respiratory disease transmission, we partnered with administrators of Raleigh Durham International Airport (RDU) in conducting a pilot study of aerosol surveillance for respiratory viruses at RDU. From January to March 2018 we used NIOSH 2-stage samplers to collect 150 min aerosol samples in crowded areas at RDU. Four (17%) of the 24 samples were positive for known respiratory pathogens including influenza D virus and adenovirus...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Atsushi Sano
We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) elevation due to influenza B infection. A 78-year-old male had undergone right middle lobectomy and lymphadenectomy for lung squamous cell carcinoma two years and four months previously. His SCCA level ranged from 0.8 ng/mL to 1.9 ng/mL after the surgery. He underwent blood testing, including SCCA, as part of a regular check-up three days after the diagnosis of the influenza B infection. His SCCA level was 17.1 ng/mL; no recurrences were found on computed tomography...
November 2018: Respirology Case Reports
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