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The secrets of anesthesia

Takahiro Maekawa, Riki Ogasawara, Arata Tsutaki, Kihyuk Lee, Satoshi Nakada, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
High-intensity exercise has recently been shown to cause an increase in brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Some studies have suggested that myokines secreted from contracting skeletal muscle, such as irisin (one of the truncated form of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)), play important roles in this process. Thus, we hypothesized that locally evoked muscle contractions may cause an increase of BDNF in the hippocampus through some afferent mechanisms. Under anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed on a custom-made dynamometer and their triceps surae muscles were made to maximally contract via delivery of electric stimulations of the sciatic nerve (100 Hz with 1-ms pulse and 3-s duration)...
March 20, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Ta C Chang, Linda Y Huang, Kara M Cavuoto
Purpose: We describe a case of secondary open-angle glaucoma due to mucin-producing congenital iris stromal cyst in a 4 year old patient. Observations: A 4-year old female patient with a history of unilateral congenital iris stromal cyst presented with sudden-onset eye pain and redness, with markedly elevated intraocular pressure and evidence of early optic nerve damage. During the examination under anesthesia, the anterior chamber angle was open and there was no evidence of pupillary block...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Keisuke Ikeda, Cem Simsek, Takashi Kojima, Kazunari Higa, Motoko Kawashima, Murat Dogru, Takahiko Shimizu, Kazuo Tsubota, Jun Shimazaki
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drops on meibomian gland and ocular surface alterations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1-/- ) mice in comparison to the wild-type mouse. METHODS: Three percent diquafosol sodium eye drop was instilled to 20 eyes of 10 50-week-old male Sod1-/- mice and 22 eyes of 11 C57BL/6 strain 50-week-old wild-type (WT) male mice six times a day for 2 weeks. Aqueous tear secretion quantity was measured with phenol red-impregnated cotton threads without anesthesia...
February 27, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Ulrich Schaudig, Matthias Keserü
BACKGROUND: Presentation of a congenital abnormality that is rare, but follows a distinct course and can be diagnosed and cured promptly if the pathognomonic presentation is recognized. A congenital tarsal kink leads to a malposition of the upper eyelid margin that must not be missed, as it will lead to ulcerative keratitis if it is not treated. CASE PRESENTATION: An otherwise healthy newborn was presented after delivery with forceps with marked unilateral purulent secretion and blepharospasm...
January 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Hong Jin Kim, Woong Gyu Na, Sung Won Jung, Sung Hoon Koh, Hyoseob Lim
Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is one of allogenic bone substitute which is known to have interconnected pores that draws cell and nutrients for bone generation. It has been resulted in good outcomes for bone defect coverage or augmentation. However, several studies have also reported negative outcomes and associated complications including unexpected formation of cystic mass, continuous pain and secretion. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with a right cheek cystic mass who had a history of right zygomaticomaxillary (ZM) complex fracture and surgical correction with β-TCP powder insertion to ZM bone defect...
December 2017: Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
Srinivasan Swaminathan, Roshin Ann James, Rashmi Chandran, Reesha Joshi
Pregnant women with gestational trophoblastic disease have an increased likelihood to develop hyperthyroidism secondary to increased secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin. Most of these cases of hyperthyroidism remain undiagnosed and may present as a thyrotoxic crisis during the perioperative period. Pregnant patients with gestational trophoblastic disease should be always evaluated for hyperthyroidism, and in cases of severe hyperthyroidism, antithyroid treatment should be initiated before evacuation of the mole...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Martin Lenihan, Darren Mullane, Donal Buggy, Georgina Flood, Michael Griffin
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting approximately 1 in 2,500 live births worldwide, with double this estimated frequency in Ireland. CF is characterized by a genetic defect of the CF transmembrane regulator protein, causing impairment of chloride ion transportation. This has multisystem consequences, particularly in the lungs, where it results in intensely mucoid secretions, which increases susceptibility to infection. Lung transplantation is indicated in CF when there is progressive decline in a patient's functional reserve...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Yufang Lin, Wei Yang, Yajuan Li, Yin Li, Qiuyu Tong, Wen Ma, Yijing Li, Weidong Shen
OBJECTIVE: To observe the regulatory effects of acupoint electric stimulation on the analgesic substances and the relevant indices of nerve-immunity-endocrine system in the patients undergoing general anesthesia anorectal operation. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six patients undergoing hemorrhoids and anal fistula operation were randomized into three groups, 146 cases were included in the analysis. In the No.1 group (48 cases), the conventional intravenous general anesthesia was applied...
July 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Tao Tao, Ting Chen, Aiming Yang, Hui Zheng, Mingyang Wei, Haiyan Jin, Xiaowen Guo
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of auricular point sticking on prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal complications after gynecological laparoscopic operation of general anesthesia, and to explore whether it is achieved by regulating the secretion of plasma motilin (MTL). METHODS: Sixty patients who received selective gynecological laparoscopy under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into an observation group and a control group, 30 patients in each one...
February 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Xi Xin, Fei Xin, Xuguang Chen, Qi Zhang, Yanan Li, Shuping Huo, Chongfu Chang, Qiujun Wang
BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common disorder in the elderly patients, and neuroinflammation is the possible underlying mechanism. This study is designed to determine whether or not hypertonic saline (HS) pre-injection can alleviate POD in aged patients. METHODS: This prospective study recruited 120 geriatric patients who underwent hip surgery. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: control group (NS group) and HS group. Patients in the NS group were pre-injected with 4 mL/kg isotonic saline, and those in the HS group were pre-injected with 4 mL/kg 7...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
X Xin, S P Huo, Q Zhang, Y N Li, L Wang, Q J Wang
Objective: To evaluate and explore the mechanism of the effect of hypertonic pre-injection on postoperative delirium in the aged. Methods: From June 2016 to February 2017, participants scheduled hip arthroplasty surgery were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (H1) 30 patients pre-injected 4 ml/kg hypertonic solution were proceeded general anesthesia; Group 2 (H2) 30 patients pre-injected 4 ml/kg hypertonic solution were proceeded spinal canal anesthesia; Group 3 (C1) 30 patients pre-injected 4 ml/kg isotonic saline were proceeded general anesthesia; Group 4 (C2) 30 patients pre-injected 4 ml/kg isotonic saline were proceeded spinal canal anesthesia in Department of Anesthesiology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University...
October 24, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
C Q Li, D X Wang, T Cheng, X Y Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the recent upper respiratory tract infections (URI) on the incidence of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children scheduled to undergo general anesthesia and elective surgery. METHODS: In the study, 232 children undergoing general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for elective ophthalmic surgeries at Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China, from Nov. 1, 2015 to May 10, 2016 were enrolled. On the day of the surgery, the parents of the children were preoperatively asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding the baseline characteristics and medical history of the children, including gender, age, height, weight, history of URI within the last 2 weeks before anesthesia, history of premature, long-term passive smoking exposure, habitual sleep snoring, and history of asthma...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Xixi Jia, Xiangyang Guo, Qing Zheng
BACKGROUND: Paragangliomas are catecholamine-secreting tumors of the paraganglia. Perioperative mortality of children with paraganglioma is high, but preoperative therapy and anesthetic management of paraganglioma resection are controversial in children. The literatures on catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy are limited to several case reports,with few reports of studies on children. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report the anesthetic management of a child with paraganglioma and catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, and the possible perioperative anesthesia problems of the paraganglioma resection are discussed...
October 17, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
Zong-Yun Li, Ting Qu, Peng-Fei Wang, Liang-Mian Chen, Zhi-Min Wang, Hui-Min Gao
Toad venom (Chansu) is prepared from the dried secretion of Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. melanostictus. It is not only one of the famous and expensive traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) from animal origin, but also one of 28 kinds of toxic TCMs to be required for special management issued by the State Council of the People's Republic of China. Chansu contains the rich bufadienolides and indole alkaloids, and displays various bioactivity including cardiotonic, anti-tumor, analgesia, and local anesthesia. Based on the published references in the recent years, the advance on the identification of adulterants and quality evaluation as well as the influence factors on the quality of toad venom was summarized to improve the quality standards and promote the level of quality control of toad venom and its preparations...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
So Hui Yun, Yun Suk Choi
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist with sedative and sympatholytic effects. It inhibits the stress response and insulin secretion. Therefore, postoperative changes to blood glucose levels were investigated when DEX was intraoperatively infused for sedation purposes in diabetic patients under spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Twenty diabetic patients were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 10). Group A patients were infused with DEX at a dose of 0...
December 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Eva Cuypers, Robert J Flanagan
INTRODUCTION: Head hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites has been used widely with the aim of detecting exposure in the weeks or months prior to sample collection. However, inappropriate interpretation of results has likely led to serious miscarriages of justice, especially in child custody cases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to assess critically what can, and perhaps more importantly, what cannot be claimed as regards the interpretation of hair test results in a given set of circumstances in order to inform future testing...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Shigeru Saito, Hirosato Kikuchi, Akitomo Matsuki
Anesthesia in Japan has a 200-year history, beginning when Seishū Hanaoka first conducted surgery successfully under general anesthesia in 1804. Despite common belief, Hanaoka was not secretive about his technique using Mafutsusan, and he spawned a generation of Japanese anesthetists, including Gendai Kamada, author of several influential texts. Japanese anesthetists adopted inhalational techniques as they became available. In 1954, the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists was established; in 1960, "Anesthesiology" was accredited by Japanese government as an officially approved medical specialty; and in 1963, board examinations were established to be an instructor of anesthesia...
July 2017: Journal of Anesthesia History
Ray-Bernard Portier, Afshin Afarin, Sara Pope
BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is caused by elevated secretion of human growth hormone, which is frequently because of intracranial tumors. This diagnosis is fairly uncommon with an incidence of 3 to 4 cases per million patients per year. We are presenting a case of acromegaly diagnosed in an active duty Chief Petty Officer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 38-year-old male Chief Petty Officer with no previous mental health diagnosis experienced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms in early 2012 after deploying to Iraq and Afghanistan from 2010 to 2011...
July 2017: Military Medicine
Michael D Mallory, Curtis Travers, Courtney E McCracken, James Hertzog, Joseph P Cravero
BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are associated with airway adverse events (AAEs) during general anesthesia. There have been no large studies examining the relationship between URIs and AAEs during pediatric procedural sedation. We hypothesized that there would be a relationship between URI status and AAEs in pediatric procedural sedation. METHODS: We examined prospectively collected data from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium database. Specific questions regarding URI status were added to the database to facilitate our analysis...
July 2017: Pediatrics
Raju Khatri, Michal Arad, Timothy Ortlip, Benjamin A Portney, W Alex Meltzer, Silviu Diaconu, Lorna E Silipino, Ying Wang, David M Kaetzel, Rodney J Taylor, Michal Zalzman
BACKGROUND: Human adult stem cells hold the potential for the cure of numerous conditions and degenerative diseases. They possess major advantages over pluripotent stem cells as they can be derived from donors at any age, and therefore pose no ethical concerns or risk of teratoma tumor formation in vivo. Furthermore, they have a natural ability to differentiate and secrete factors that promote tissue healing without genetic manipulation. However, at present, clinical applications of adult stem cells are limited by a shortage of a reliable, standardized, and easily accessible tissue source which does not rely on specimens discarded from unrelated surgical procedures...
July 27, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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