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mitochondrial transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726639/mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-drosophila-transfers-calcium-between-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-in-oxidative-stress-induced-cell-death
#1
Sekyu Choi, Xianglan Quan, Sunhoe Bang, Heesuk Yoo, Jiyoung Kim, Jiwon Park, Kyu-Sang Park, Jongkyeong Chung
Mitochondrial calcium plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes ranging from energy metabolism to cell death. Previous studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial calcium uptake is mainly mediated by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. However, the roles of the MCU complex in calcium transport, signaling, and dysregulation by oxidative stress still remain unclear. Here, we confirmed that Drosophila MCU contains evolutionarily conserved structures and requires essential MCU regulator (EMRE) for its calcium channel activities...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726090/flavoprotein-minisog-bret-induced-cytotoxicity-depends-on-its-intracellular-localization
#2
E I Shramova, G M Proshkina, S M Deyev, R V Petrov
It is proposed to use the bioluminescent resonance energy transfer to solve the problem of creating the internal light sources in photodynamic therapy of cancer. Energy donor in the developed system is the oxidized form of the luciferase NanoLuc substrate furimamide, and acceptor is the phototoxic fluorescent protein miniSOG. It is shown that, in the proposed system, the photoinduced cytotoxicity of flavoprotein miniSOG in vitro depends on the intracellular localization, and the cytotoxic effect is 48% for the cytoplasmic localization of the fusion protein, 65% for the mitochondrial localization, and 69% for the membrane localization...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725634/ip3-receptor-mediated-calcium-signaling-and-its-role-in-autophagy-in-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Elzbieta Kania, Gemma Roest, Tim Vervliet, Jan B Parys, Geert Bultynck
Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play a complex role in orchestrating diverse cellular processes, including cell death and survival. To trigger signaling cascades, intracellular Ca(2+) is shuffled between the cytoplasm and the major Ca(2+) stores, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the mitochondria, and the lysosomes. A key role in the control of Ca(2+) signals is attributed to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs), the main Ca(2+)-release channels in the ER. IP3Rs can transfer Ca(2+) to the mitochondria, thereby not only stimulating core metabolic pathways but also increasing apoptosis sensitivity and inhibiting basal autophagy...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714328/neuronal-expression-of-the-mitochondrial-protein-prohibitin-confers-profound-neuroprotection-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#4
Anja Kahl, Corey J Anderson, Liping Qian, Henning Voss, Giovanni Manfredi, Costantino Iadecola, Ping Zhou
The mitochondrial protein prohibitin (PHB) has emerged as an important modulator of neuronal survival in different injury modalities . We previously showed that viral gene transfer of PHB protects CA1 neurons from delayed neurodegeneration following transient forebrain ischemia through mitochondrial mechanisms. However, since PHB is present in all cell types, it is not known if its selective expression in neurons is protective, and if the protection occurs also in acute focal ischemic brain injury, the most common stroke type in humans...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713786/development-of-a-method-to-extract-and-amplify-the-complete-mitogenome-of-some-sparidae-species
#5
Celestina Mascolo, Marina Ceruso, Paolo Sordino, Giuseppe Palma, Aniello Anastasio, Tiziana Pepe
Previous studies showed that fish mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is set up by a closed circular molecule of 16-17 kilobases (kb), comprising 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 13 protein-coding genes and 2 non-coding regions. The analysis of single mtDNA genes, such as Cytb, COI, 16S and 12S, or short segment of them, has been widely used against species substitution in both fresh and processed fish products. The analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of fishery products allows to better study and characterise fish species...
April 13, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711665/ancient-mitochondrial-pseudogenes-reveal-hybridization-between-distant-lineages-in-the-evolution-of-the-rupicapra-genus
#6
T Pérez, F Rodríguez, M Fernández, J Albornoz, A Domínguez
Mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) inserted in the nuclear genome are frequently found in population studies. Its presence is commonly connected with problems and errors when they are confounded with true mitochondrial sequences. In the opposite side, numts can provide valuable phylogenetic information when they are copies of ancient mitochondrial lineages. We show that Rupicapra individuals of different geographic origin from the Cantabrian Mountains to the Apennines and the Caucasus share a nuclear COI fragment...
July 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710132/autophagy-deficiency-compromises-alternative-pathways-of-respiration-following-energy-deprivation
#7
Jessica As Barros, João Henrique F Cavalcanti, David B Medeiros, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Alisdair R Fernie, Wagner Araujo
Under heterotrophic conditions carbohydrate oxidation inside the mitochondria is the primary energy source for cellular metabolism. However, during energy-limited conditions, alternative substrates are required to support respiration. Amino acid oxidation in plant cells plays a key role in this by generating electrons that can be transferred to the mitochondrial electron transport chain via the electron transfer flavoprotein/ubiquinone oxidoreductase system. Autophagy, a catabolic mechanism for macromolecule and protein recycling, allows the maintenance of amino acid pools and nutrient remobilization...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709933/identification-of-novel-biomarker-and-therapeutic-target-candidates-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-follicular-carcinoma
#8
Xianyin Lai, Christopher B Umbricht, Kurt Fisher, Justin Bishop, Qiuying Shi, Shaoxiong Chen
Distinguishing follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma, based on cytomorphological features, has always been challenging to cytopathologists. Identification of biomarkers for improving diagnostic accuracy is important for clinical management. Meanwhile, it is critical to identify therapeutic target candidates for treatment of follicular carcinoma. Currently, no reliable diagnostic protein biomarkers and therapeutic targets are available. To explore novel protein biomarker and therapeutic target candidates, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach was applied to analyze control, follicular adenoma, and follicular carcinoma using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708000/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-homeostasis-as-regulators-of-stem-cell-fate-and-function
#9
Darren Qiancheng Tan, Toshio Suda
SIGNIFICANCE: The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remains of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation; all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments; particularly those of hematopoietic, neural and muscle tissues...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706451/protein-kinase-c-beta-ii-upregulates-intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1-via-mitochondrial-activation-in-cultured-endothelial-cells
#10
Hee Kyoung Joo, Yu Ran Lee, Sunga Choi, Myoung Soo Park, Gun Kang, Cuk-Seong Kim, Byeong Hwa Jeon
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is closely linked with endothelial dysfunction. However, the effect of PKCβII on endothelial dysfunction has not been characterized in cultured endothelial cells. Here, using adenoviral PKCβII gene transfer and pharmacological inhibitors, the role of PKCβII on endothelial dysfucntion was investigated in cultured endothelial cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), p66shc phosphorylation, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte adhesion, which were inhibited by PKCβi (10 nM), a selective inhibitor of PKCβII...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701960/role-of-mitochondrial-reverse-electron-transport-in-ros-signaling-potential-roles-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Filippo Scialò, Daniel J Fernández-Ayala, Alberto Sanz
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) can cause oxidative damage and have been proposed to be the main cause of aging and age-related diseases including cancer, diabetes and Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, mitochondria from old individuals have higher levels of ROS. However, ROS also participate in cellular signaling, are instrumental for several physiological processes and boosting ROS levels in model organisms extends lifespan. The current consensus is that low levels of ROS are beneficial, facilitating adaptation to stress via signaling, whereas high levels of ROS are deleterious because they trigger oxidative stress...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701464/human-mitochondrial-cytochrome-p450-27c1-is-localized-in-skin-and-preferentially-desaturates-trans-retinol-to-3-4-dehydroretinol
#12
Kevin M Johnson, Thanh T N Phan, Matthew E Albertolle, F Peter Guengerich
Recently zebrafish and human cytochrome P450 (P450) 27C1 enzymes have been shown to be retinoid 3,4-desaturases. The enzyme is unusual among mammalian P450s in that the predominant oxidation is a desaturation and that hydroxylation represents only a minor pathway. We show by proteomic analysis that P450 27C1 is localized to human skin, with two proteins of different sizes present, one being a cleavage product of the full-length form. P450 27C1 oxidized alltrans-retinol to 3,4-dehydroretinol, 4-hydroxy (OH) retinol, and 3-OH retinol in a 100:3:2 ratio...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698372/crystal-structure-of-co-bound-cytochrome-c-oxidase-determined-by-serial-femtosecond-x-ray-crystallography-at-room-temperature
#13
Izumi Ishigami, Nadia A Zatsepin, Masahide Hikita, Chelsie E Conrad, Garrett Nelson, Jesse D Coe, Shibom Basu, Thomas D Grant, Matthew H Seaberg, Raymond G Sierra, Mark S Hunter, Petra Fromme, Raimund Fromme, Syun-Ru Yeh, Denis L Rousseau
Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal enzyme in the electron transfer chain, translocates protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane by harnessing the free energy generated by the reduction of oxygen to water. Several redox-coupled proton translocation mechanisms have been proposed, but they lack confirmation, in part from the absence of reliable structural information due to radiation damage artifacts caused by the intense synchrotron radiation. Here we report the room temperature, neutral pH (6.8), damage-free structure of bovine CcO (bCcO) in the carbon monoxide (CO)-bound state at a resolution of 2...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698080/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-euproctis-similis-lepidoptera-noctuoidea-erebidae-and-phylogenetic-analysis
#14
Yu Liu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Xiao-Yu Zhu, Xiao-Ming Zhao, Ying Wang, Bo-Ping Tang, Hua-Bin Zhang, Dai-Zhen Zhang, Chun-Lin Zhou, Qiu-Ning Liu
The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) can provide information for phylogenetic analyses and evolutionary biology. We sequenced, annotated, and characterized the mitogenome of Euproctis similis. The complete mitogenome is 15,437bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a control region (A+T-rich region). The A+T content in the mitogenome was 80.16%. All PCGs use standard ATN as a start codon, with the exception of cytochrome c coxidase 1 (cox1) with CGA...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696104/wide-acidity-range-ph-fluorescence-probes-for-evaluation-of-acidification-in-mitochondria-and-digestive-tract-mucosa
#15
Guang Chen, Qiang Fu, Fabiao Yu, Rui Ren, Yuxia Liu, Ziping Cao, Guoliang Li, Xian-En Zhao, Lingxin Chen, Hua Wang, Jinmao You
The cells control their pH change in a very accurate range. pH plays important roles in cell autophagy and apoptosis. Evidences imply that the internal milieu of tumor is acidified. Although the acidification in cells is investigated, the biological effects from multiple stimulating factors under the complex intracellular environment have not been thoroughly elaborated yet. Hitherto, there is few pH probe performs in wide acidity range, which needs to be urgently developed. Herein, we report two new fluorescent probes (BHNBD and CM-BHNBD) for the detection of mitochondrial and intramucosal acidification...
July 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690821/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-a-sea-anemone-bolocera-sp-exhibits-novel-genetic-structures-potentially-involved-in-adaptation-to-the-deep-sea-environment
#16
Bo Zhang, Yan-Hong Zhang, Xin Wang, Hui-Xian Zhang, Qiang Lin
The deep sea is one of the most extensive ecosystems on earth. Organisms living there survive in an extremely harsh environment, and their mitochondrial energy metabolism might be a result of evolution. As one of the most important organelles, mitochondria generate energy through energy metabolism and play an important role in almost all biological activities. In this study, the mitogenome of a deep-sea sea anemone (Bolocera sp.) was sequenced and characterized. Like other metazoans, it contained 13 energy pathway protein-coding genes and two ribosomal RNAs...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684420/structural-and-biochemical-analyses-indicate-that-a-bacterial-persulfide-dioxygenase-rhodanese-fusion-protein-functions-in-sulfur-assimilation
#17
Nicole Motl, Meredith A Skiba, Omer Kabil, Janet L Smith, Ruma Banerjee
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule that is toxic at elevated concentrations. In eukaryotes, it is cleared via a mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway, which comprises sulfide quinone oxidoreductase, persulfide dioxygenase (PDO), rhodanese, and sulfite oxidase and converts H2S to thiosulfate and sulfate. Natural fusions between the non-heme iron containing PDO and rhodanese, a thiol sulfurtransferase, exist in some bacteria. However, little is known about the role of the PDO-rhodanese fusion (PRF) proteins in sulfur metabolism...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684375/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-triatoma-infestans-hemiptera-reduviidae-triatominae-main-vector-of-chagas-disease
#18
Sebastián Pita, Francisco Panzera, Jesús Vela, Pablo Mora, Teresa Palomeque, Pedro Lorite
The complete mitogenome of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in South America, was obtained by combining Illumina and Sanger sequencing sequence data. The 17,301bp long genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region. The number, order and orientation of mitochondrial genes are the same as in T. dimidiata, the only Triatominae mt genome published so far. The main differences between both mitogenomes are found in the control region and in the intergenic spacer between the nd1 gene and the tRNA-Ser...
July 3, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684316/regulation-of-calcium-release-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-by-the-serine-hydrolase-abhd2
#19
Bogeon Yun, HeeJung Lee, Roger Powell, Nichole Reisdorph, Heather Ewing, Michael H Gelb, Ku-Lung Hsu, Benjamin F Cravatt, Christina C Leslie
The serine hydrolase inhibitors pyrrophenone and KT195 inhibit cell death induced by A23187 and H2O2 by blocking the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial calcium uptake. The effect of pyrrophenone and KT195 on these processes is not due to inhibition of their known targets, cytosolic phospholipase A2 and α/β-hydrolase domain-containing (ABHD) 6, respectively, but represent off-target effects. To identify targets of KT195, fibroblasts were treated with KT195-alkyne to covalently label protein targets followed by click chemistry with biotin azide, enrichment on streptavidin beads and tryptic peptide analysis by mass spectrometry...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683668/kinship-identities-in-the-context-of-uk-maternal-spindle-transfer-and-pronuclear-transfer-legislation
#20
Calum MacKellar
In the discussions leading up to the enactment of the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Mitochondrial Donation) Regulations 2015, it was repeatedly emphasised, by many commentators, that maternal spindle transfer (MST) and pronuclear transfer (PNT) did not give rise to children who could be considered as having three or more parents. This was because it was argued that only the genetic material found in the chromosomes should be considered as the determining factor for the formation of parent-child relationships and the resulting kinship identities...
July 6, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
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