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mitochondrial transfer

Jenna L Gollihue, Samir P Patel, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Mitochondria are essential cellular organelles critical for generating adenosine triphosphate for cellular homeostasis, as well as various mechanisms that can lead to both necrosis and apoptosis. The field of "mitochondrial medicine" is emerging in which injury/disease states are targeted therapeutically at the level of the mitochondrion, including specific antioxidants, bioenergetic substrate additions, and membrane uncoupling agents. Consequently, novel mitochondrial transplantation strategies represent a potentially multifactorial therapy leading to increased adenosine triphosphate production, decreased oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA replacement, improved bioenergetics and tissue sparing...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Jacqueline Ferralli, Richard P Tucker, Ruth Chiquet-Ehrismann
Teneurins are type 2 transmembrane proteins expressed by developing neurons during periods of synaptogenesis and apoptosis. Neurons expressing teneurin-1 synapse with other teneurin-1-expressing neurons, and neurons expressing teneurin-2 synapse with other teneurin-2-expressing neurons. Knockdowns and mutations of teneurins lead to abnormal neuronal connections, but the mechanisms underlying teneurin action remain unknown. Teneurins appear to have evolved via horizontal gene transfer from prokaryotic proteins involved in bacterial self-recognition...
March 19, 2018: Biology Open
Jikui Xiong, Yan Wang, Yanli Gu, Yadong Xue, Lin Dang, Yuzhen Li
Malignant melanoma is characterized by rapid deterioration, early metastasis and high mortality. Cdk5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 1 (CDK5RAP1), which catalyzes 2-methylthio (ms2 ) modification of mitochondrial transfer RNAs, has been reported to induce cancer cell apoptosis, by a phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) signaling pathway. The present study was the first to report on the association between CDK5RAP1 deficiency and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway during the apoptosis process in human malignant melanoma (A375) cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Stefanie Klein, Marc Wegmann, Luitpold V R Distel, Winfried Neuhuber, Carola Kryschi
Silicon nanoparticles with sizes between were synthesized through wet-chemistry procedures using diverse phase transfer reagents. On the other hand, the preparation of iron-doped silicon nanoparticles was carried out using the precursor Na4 Si4 containing 5% Fe. Biocompatibility of all silicon nanoparticle samples was achieved by surface-stabilizing with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. These surface structures provided positive surface charges which facilitated electrostatic binding to the negatively charged biological membranes...
March 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
María M Adeva-Andany, Natalia Carneiro-Freire, Mónica Seco-Filgueira, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, David Mouriño-Bayolo
Mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids generates acetyl-coA, NADH and FADH2 . Acyl-coA synthetases catalyze the binding of fatty acids to coenzyme A to form fatty acyl-coA thioesters, the first step in the intracellular metabolism of fatty acids. l-carnitine system facilitates the transport of fatty acyl-coA esters across the mitochondrial membrane. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 transfers acyl groups from coenzyme A to l-carnitine, forming acyl-carnitine esters at the outer mitochondrial membrane. Carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase exchanges acyl-carnitine esters that enter the mitochondria, by free l-carnitine...
March 15, 2018: Mitochondrion
B Fang, M Zhang, K S Ge, H Z Xing, F Z Ren
Previous studies have demonstrated that the anti-tumor α-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex (α-LA-OA) may target the glycolysis of tumor cells. However, few data are available regarding the effects of α-LA-OA on energy metabolism. In this study, we measured glycolysis and mitochondrial functions in HeLa cells in response to α-LA-OA using the XF flux analyzer (Seahorse Bioscience, North Billerica, MA). The gene expression of enzymes involved in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transfer chain, and ATP synthesis were also evaluated...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Mingsheng Yang, Lu Song, Jianhang Mao, Yuxia Shi, Changjing Wu, Yunxia Zhang, Li Huang, Weifeng Peng, Xiaomeng Liu
Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Omiodes indicata was sequenced and characterized. The circular mitogenome is 15,367 bp long, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and an A + T-rich region. Nucleotide composition is highly biased toward A + T nucleotides (81.6%). All 13 PCGs initiate with canonical start codon (ATN), except for cox1 that initiates with CGA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) in which the base pairs of the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm are reduced...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Maryam Ahmadian, Sihao Liu, Shannon M Reilly, Nasun Hah, Weiwei Fan, Eiji Yoshihara, Pooja Jha, C Daniel De Magalhaes Filho, Sandra Jacinto, Andrew V Gomez, Yang Dai, Ruth T Yu, Christopher Liddle, Annette R Atkins, Johan Auwerx, Alan R Saltiel, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) adaptively transfers energy from glucose and fat into heat by inducing a gene network that uncouples mitochondrial electron transport. However, the innate transcription factors that enable the rapid adaptive response of BAT are unclear. Here, we identify estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) as a critical factor for maintaining BAT identity. ERRγ is selectively expressed in BAT versus WAT, in which, in the absence of PGC1α, it drives a signature transcriptional network of thermogenic and oxidative genes in the basal (i...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Mouadh Mihoub, André Pichette, Balla Sylla, Charles Gauthier, Jean Legault
Betulin has a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties with its anticancer activity attracting most of the attention as it offers a possible alternative treatment to chemotherapy. However, betulin's in vivo biological effectiveness is limited by its poor solubility. As such, we synthesized polar glycosylated derivatives to increase its hydrosolubility and enhance its pharmacological properties. Among these synthesized compounds, 28-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosylbetulin 3β-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (Bi-L-RhamBet) was assessed for its cytotoxic effects against a suite of lung cancer cell lines...
2018: PloS One
Sellappan Selvaraju, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Lakshminarayana Somashekar, B Krishnan Binsila, Atul P Kolte, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra, Stephen A Krawetz
With artificial insemination (AI) and other precision dependent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) being followed in large scale in human and animal reproduction, assessing semen quality and fertilizability is under continuous scrutiny. Various tests have been developed to predict semen quality, but so far no single, highly reliable test is available. In this regard, transcriptomic profiling of spermatozoa assumes significance as it carries the information about spermatogenesis, sperm function, and paternal roles in post-fertilization events...
March 14, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Tyler B Bourret, Robin A Choudhury, Heather K Mehl, Cheryl L Blomquist, Neil McRoberts, David M Rizzo
Phylogenetic relationships between thirteen species of downy mildew and 103 species of Phytophthora (plant-pathogenic oomycetes) were investigated with two nuclear and four mitochondrial loci, using several likelihood-based approaches. Three Phytophthora taxa and all downy mildew taxa were excluded from the previously recognized subgeneric clades of Phytophthora, though all were strongly supported within the paraphyletic genus. Downy mildews appear to be polyphyletic, with graminicolous downy mildews (GDM), brassicolous downy mildews (BDM) and downy mildews with colored conidia (DMCC) forming a clade with the previously unplaced Phytophthora taxon totara; downy mildews with pyriform haustoria (DMPH) were placed in their own clade with affinities to the obligate biotrophic P...
2018: PloS One
Mo Chen, Tao Qiu, Jiajie Wu, Yang Yang, Graham D Wright, Min Wu, Ruowen Ge
Classic endocytosis destinations include the recycling endosome returning to the plasma membrane or the late endosome (LE) merging with lysosomes for cargo degradation. However, the anti-angiogenic proteins angiostatin and isthmin, are endocytosed and trafficked to mitochondria (Mito) to execute apoptosis of endothelial cells. How these extracellular proteins reach mitochondria remains a mystery. Through confocal and super-resolution fluorescent microscopy, we demonstrate that angiostatin and isthmin are trafficked to mitochondria through the interaction between LE and Mito...
March 9, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
A J McFarland, A K Davey, C M McDermott, G D Grant, J Lewohl, S Anoopkumar-Dukie
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have been associated with conflicting effects within the central nervous system (CNS), with underlying mechanisms remaining unclear. Although differences between individual statins' CNS effects have been reported clinically, few studies to date have compared multiple statins' neuroprotective effects. This study aimed to compare six statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin; 0-100 μM) using an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation and subsequent neurodegeneration...
March 6, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
G Schiavo, M G Strillacci, A Ribani, S Bovo, S I Roman-Ponce, S Cerolini, F Bertolini, A Bagnato, L Fontanesi
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) insertions have been detected in the nuclear genome of many eukaryotes. These sequences are pseudogenes originated by horizontal transfer of mtDNA fragments into the nuclear genome, producing nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin (numt). In this study we determined the frequency and distribution of mtDNA-originated pseudogenes in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) nuclear genome. The turkey reference genome (Turkey_2.01) was aligned with the reference linearized mtDNA sequence using last...
March 9, 2018: Animal Genetics
Karen M Davies, Thorsten B Blum, Werner Kühlbrandt
We used electron cryo-tomography and subtomogram averaging to investigate the structure of complex I and its supramolecular assemblies in the inner mitochondrial membrane of mammals, fungi, and plants. Tomographic volumes containing complex I were averaged at ∼4 nm resolution. Principal component analysis indicated that ∼60% of complex I formed a supercomplex with dimeric complex III, while ∼40% were not associated with other respiratory chain complexes. The mutual arrangement of complex I and III2 was essentially conserved in all supercomplexes investigated...
March 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michelle F Goody, Clarissa A Henry
Skeletal muscle enables posture, breathing, and locomotion. Skeletal muscle also impacts systemic processes such as metabolism, thermoregulation, and immunity. Skeletal muscle is energetically expensive and is a major consumer of glucose and fatty acids. Metabolism of fatty acids and glucose requires NAD+ function as a hydrogen/electron transfer molecule. Therefore, NAD+ plays a vital role in energy production. In addition, NAD+ also functions as a cosubstrate for post-translational modifications such as deacetylation and ADP-ribosylation...
March 7, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
Asha Lekshmi, Shankara Narayanan Varadarajan, Santhik Subhasingh Lupitha, Mydhily Nair, Aneesh Chandrasekharan, T R Santhoshkumar
Recent cell biology studies reveal that a cell can die through multiple pathways via distinct signaling mechanisms. Among these, apoptosis and necrosis are two distinct cell death pathways, and their detection and discrimination is vital in the drug discovery process and in understanding diverse biological processes. Although sensitive assays for apoptosis and necrosis are available, it is extremely difficult to adapt any of these methods to discriminate apoptosis-inducing stimuli from necrosis-inducing stimuli because of the acquisition of secondary necrosis by apoptotic cells when they are not phagocytosed...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Toxicology
Dan-Ya Wu, Xia Zhang, Yi-Liang Miao
Stem cells have the potential to differentiate into specialized cell types under specific conditions in vivo or in vitro, which are used to cure many diseases related to aging. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) can reprogram differential somatic cells into cloned embryos and embryonic stem cells can be derived from these cloned embryos. Recipient oocytes have healthier mitochondria and can improve the metabolism competence, lessen the ROS damage, and rejuvenate mitochondrial function of aged cells during reprogramming...
March 7, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Amber M Klimczak, Lucia E Pacheco, Kelsey E Lewis, Niloofar Massahi, Jon P Richards, William G Kearns, Antonio F Saad, John R Crochet
PURPOSE: The aim was to study the association between embryonal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and embryo quality and implantation outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed with data collected from a private IVF center database. The study population included female infertility patients with ages ranging from 31 to 38 years old, and the main outcome measures were embryo quality and transfer outcomes. RESULTS: From a total of 1510 blastocyst biopsies, the majority of embryos consisted of grade 1 (High), followed by grade 2 (mid), and grade 3 (poor)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Shu Zhou, Pontus Pettersson, Jingjing Huang, Johannes Sjöholm, Dan Sjöstrand, Régis Pomès, Martin Högbom, Peter Brzezinski, Lena Mäler, Pia Ädelroth
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae respiratory supercomplex factor 1 (Rcf1) protein is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane where it is involved in formation of supercomplexes composed of respiratory complexes III and IV. We report the solution structure of Rcf1, which forms a dimer in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles, where each monomer consists of a bundle of five transmembrane (TM) helices and a short flexible soluble helix (SH). Three TM helices are unusually charged and provide the dimerization interface consisting of 10 putative salt bridges, defining a "charge zipper" motif...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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