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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815534/alterations-in-ca-2-signalling-via-er-mitochondria-contact-site-remodelling-in-cancer
#1
Martijn Kerkhofs, Carlotta Giorgi, Saverio Marchi, Bruno Seitaj, Jan B Parys, Paolo Pinton, Geert Bultynck, Mart Bittremieux
Inter-organellar contact sites establish microdomains for localised Ca(2+)-signalling events. One of these microdomains is established between the ER and the mitochondria. Importantly, the so-called mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs) contain, besides structural proteins and proteins involved in lipid exchange, several Ca(2+)-transport systems, mediating efficient Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to the mitochondria. These Ca(2+) signals critically control several mitochondrial functions, thereby impacting cell metabolism, cell death and survival, proliferation and migration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815531/mitochondria-endoplasmic-reticulum-contact-sites-mediate-innate-immune-responses
#2
Takuma Misawa, Michihiro Takahama, Tatsuya Saitoh
Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are fundamental organelles that coordinate high-order cell functions. Mitochondria are centers of energy production, whereas the ER is responsible for folding, transport, and degradation of proteins. In addition to their specific functions, mitochondria and ER actively communicate with each other to promote a variety of cellular events, such as material transfer and signal transduction. Recent studies have shown the critical involvement of these organelles in regulation of the innate immune system, which functions in host defense...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815521/endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-communication-through-ca-2-signaling-the-importance-of-mitochondria-associated-membranes-mams
#3
Saverio Marchi, Mart Bittremieux, Sonia Missiroli, Claudia Morganti, Simone Patergnani, Luigi Sbano, Alessandro Rimessi, Martijn Kerkhofs, Jan B Parys, Geert Bultynck, Carlotta Giorgi, Paolo Pinton
The execution of proper Ca(2+) signaling requires close apposition between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. Hence, Ca(2+) released from the ER is "quasi-synaptically" transferred to mitochondrial matrix, where Ca(2+) stimulates mitochondrial ATP synthesis by activating the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, when the Ca(2+) transfer is excessive and sustained, mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload induces apoptosis by opening the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. A large number of regulatory proteins reside at mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs) to maintain the optimal distance between the organelles and to coordinate the functionality of both ER and mitochondrial Ca(2+) transporters or channels...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814504/osm1-facilitates-the-transfer-of-electrons-from-erv1-to-fumarate-in-the-redox-regulated-import-pathway-in-the-mitochondrial-intermembrane-space
#4
Sonya E Neal, Deepa V Dabir, Juwina Wijaya, Cennyana Boon, Carla M Koehler
Prokaryotes have aerobic and anaerobic electron acceptors for oxidative folding of periplasmic proteins. The mitochondrial intermembrane space has an analogous pathway with the oxidoreductase Mia40 and sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1, termed the MIA pathway. The aerobic electron acceptors include oxygen and cytochrome c, but an acceptor that can function under anaerobic conditions has not been identified. Here we show that the fumarate reductase Osm1, which facilitates electron transfer from fumarate to succinate, fills this gap as a new electron acceptor...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806519/pluronic-p85-f68-micelles-of-baicalein-could-interfere-with-mitochondria-to-overcome-mrp2-mediated-efflux-and-offer-improved-anti-parkinsonian-activity
#5
Tongkai Chen, Ye Li, Chuwen Li, Xiang Yi, Ruibing Wang, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, Ying Zheng
Overexpression of the drug efflux transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) in the gastrointestinal tract and blood-brain barrier compromises the oral delivery of drugs to the circulation system and brain in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we aim to develop small-sized Pluronic P85/F68 micelles loaded with baicalein (B-MCs) to overcome MRP2-mediated efflux and to investigate related mechanism, as well as the anti-Parkinsonian efficacy. Spherical and sustained-release B-MCs have a mean particle size of 40...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802667/different-approaches-to-modeling-analysis-of-mitochondrial-swelling
#6
REVIEW
Sabzali Javadov, Xavier Chapa-Dubocq, Vladimir Makarov
Mitochondria are critical players involved in both cell life and death through multiple pathways. Structural integrity, metabolism and function of mitochondria are regulated by matrix volume due to physiological changes of ion homeostasis in cellular cytoplasm and mitochondria. Ca(2+) and K(+) presumably play a critical role in physiological and pathological swelling of mitochondria when increased uptake (influx)/decreased release (efflux) of these ions enhances osmotic pressure accompanied by high water accumulation in the matrix...
August 9, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798393/role-of-water-and-protein-dynamics-in-proton-pumping-by-respiratory-complex-i
#7
Outi Haapanen, Vivek Sharma
Membrane bound respiratory complex I is the key enzyme in the respiratory chains of bacteria and mitochondria, and couples the reduction of quinone to the pumping of protons across the membrane. Recently solved crystal or electron microscopy structures of bacterial and mitochondrial complexes have provided significant insights into the electron and proton transfer pathways. However, due to large spatial separation between the electron and proton transfer routes, the molecular mechanism of coupling remains unclear...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794438/complete-mitochondrial-genomes-of-anopheles-stephensi-and-an-dirus-and-comparative-evolutionary-mitochondriomics-of-50-mosquitoes
#8
You-Jin Hao, Yi-Lin Zou, Yi-Ran Ding, Wen-Yue Xu, Zhen-Tian Yan, Xu-Dong Li, Wen-Bo Fu, Ting-Jing Li, Bin Chen
To better understand the phylogeny and evolution of mosquitoes, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Anopheles stephensi and An. dirus were sequenced and annotated, and a total of 50 mosquito mitogenomes were comparatively analyzed. The complete mitogenome of An. stephensi and An. dirus is 1,5371 bp and 1,5406 bp long, respectively. The main features of the 50 mosquito mitogenomes are conservative: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791201/comparative-mitogenomic-analysis-of-mirid-bugs-hemiptera-miridae-and-evaluation-of-potential-dna-barcoding-markers
#9
Juan Wang, Li Zhang, Qi-Lin Zhang, Min-Qiang Zhou, Xiao-Tong Wang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Ming-Long Yuan
The family Miridae is one of the most species-rich families of insects. To better understand the diversity and evolution of mirids, we determined the mitogenome of Lygus pratenszs and re-sequenced the mitogenomes of four mirids (i.e., Apolygus lucorum, Adelphocoris suturalis, Ade. fasciaticollis and Ade. lineolatus). We performed a comparative analysis for 15 mitogenomic sequences representing 11 species of five genera within Miridae and evaluated the potential of these mitochondrial genes as molecular markers...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780470/acrylamide-induces-immunotoxicity-through-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-in-mice-splenocytes-via-the-mitochondria-dependent-signaling-pathways
#10
Ehsan Zamani, Fatemeh Shaki, Saeid AbedianKenari, Mohammad Shokrzadeh
INTRODUCTION: Acrylamide (AA), a well-known food neo-contamination, can be produced during food preparing at high temperature. The immunotoxicity of AA have been revealed in the experimental animals. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism responsible for the immunotoxicity of AA. METHODS: The mice splenocytes exposed to AA concentrations (0,5,10 and 25 mM) and apoptosis cell death was measured through Annexin V/Propidium Iodide staining by flow cytometry method...
August 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759066/structural-changes-and-picosecond-to-second-dynamics-of-cytochrome-c-in-interaction-with-nitric-oxide-in-ferrous-and-ferric-redox-states
#11
Sergei G Kruglik, Byung-Kuk Yoo, Jean-Christophe Lambry, Jean-Louis Martin, Michel Negrerie
Apart from its role in electron transfer, mitochondrial cytochrome c also plays a role in apoptosis and is subject to nitrosylation. The cleavage of the Fe-Met80 bond plays a role in several processes including the release of Cyt c from mitochondria or increase of its peroxidase activity. Nitrosylation of Cyt c precludes the reformation of the disrupted Fe-Met80 bond and was shown to occur during apoptosis. These physiological properties are associated with a conformational change of the heme center of Cyt c...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751917/artificial-mitochondria-transfer-current-challenges-advances-and-future-applications
#12
REVIEW
Andrés Caicedo, Pedro M Aponte, Francisco Cabrera, Carmen Hidalgo, Maroun Khoury
The objective of this review is to outline existing artificial mitochondria transfer techniques and to describe the future steps necessary to develop new therapeutic applications in medicine. Inspired by the symbiotic origin of mitochondria and by the cell's capacity to transfer these organelles to damaged neighbors, many researchers have developed procedures to artificially transfer mitochondria from one cell to another. The techniques currently in use today range from simple coincubations of isolated mitochondria and recipient cells to the use of physical approaches to induce integration...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751889/morphological-and-mitochondrial-genomic-characterization-of-eyeworms-thelazia-callipaeda-from-clinical-cases-in-central-china
#13
Xi Zhang, Ya L Shi, Zhong Q Wang, Jiang Y Duan, Peng Jiang, Ruo D Liu, Jing Cui
Thelazia callipaeda, also called the oriental eyeworm, is the major etiological agent of human thelaziasis. Cases of thelaziasis have increased in recent years in China. Although this species is of medical importance, the genetics and phylogenetic systematics of T. callipaeda are poorly understood. In this study, we first reported three cases of thelaziasis in central China. All clinical isolates were identified as T. callipaeda according to morphological characteristics by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738827/bacterial-tail-anchors-can-target-to-the-mitochondrial-outer-membrane
#14
Güleycan Lutfullahoğlu-Bal, Abdurrahman Keskin, Ayşe Bengisu Seferoğlu, Cory D Dunn
BACKGROUND: During the generation and evolution of the eukaryotic cell, a proteobacterial endosymbiont was re-fashioned into the mitochondrion, an organelle that appears to have been present in the ancestor of all present-day eukaryotes. Mitochondria harbor proteomes derived from coding information located both inside and outside the organelle, and the rate-limiting step toward the formation of eukaryotic cells may have been development of an import apparatus allowing protein entry to mitochondria...
July 24, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736227/association-between-ros-production-swelling-and-the-respirasome-integrity-in-cardiac-mitochondria
#15
Sehwan Jang, Sabzali Javadov
Although mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and ROS production play a critical role in mitochondria-mediated cell death, a cause-effect relationship between them remains elusive. This study elucidated the crosstalk between mitochondrial swelling, ROS production, and electron transfer chain (ETC) supercomplexes in rat heart mitochondria in response to Ca(2+) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH), a lipid-soluble organic peroxide. Results showed that ROS production induced by TBH was significantly increased in the presence of Ca(2+) in a dose-dependent manner...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735170/effects-of-different-solvents-on-the-conformations-of-apoptotic-cytochrome-c-structural-insights-from-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#16
Gurusamy Muneeswaran, Subramanian Kartheeswaran, Kaliappan Muthukumar, Christopher D Dharmaraj, Chandran Karunakaran
Cytochrome c (cyt-c) upon binding with cardiolipin acquires peroxidase activity and is strictly connected to the pathogenesis of many human diseases including neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Interaction of cyt-c with cardiolipin mimics partial unfolding/conformational changes of cyt-c in different solvent environments. Dynamic pictures of these conformational changes of cyt-c are crucial in understanding their physiological roles in mitochondrial functions. Therefore, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to investigate the effect of different solvents (water, urea/water, MeOH and DMSO) on the structure and conformations of apoptotic cyt-c (Fe(3+))...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733449/mitochondrial-function-in-engineered-cardiac-tissues-is-co-regulated-by-extracellular-matrix-elasticity-and-tissue-alignment
#17
Davi Marco Lyra-Leite, Allen Mariano Andres, Andrew Patrick Petersen, Nethika Ruvini Ariyasinghe, Nathan Cho, Jezell Athena Lee, Roberta A Gottlieb, Megan L McCain
Mitochondria in cardiac myocytes are critical for generating ATP to meet the high metabolic demands associated with sarcomere shortening. Distinct remodeling of mitochondrial structure and function occur in cardiac myocytes in both developmental and pathological settings. However, the factors that underlie these changes are poorly understood. Because remodeling of tissue architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity are also hallmarks of ventricular development and disease, we hypothesize that these environmental factors regulate mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733324/nadph-oxidase-2-derived-superoxide-drives-mitochondrial-transfer-from-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-to-leukemic-blasts
#18
Christopher R Marlein, Lyubov Zaitseva, Rachel E Piddock, Stephen Robinson, Dylan Edwards, Manar S Shafat, Zhigang Zhou, Matthew Lawes, Kristian M Bowles, Stuart A Rushworth
Improvements in the understanding of the metabolic cross-talk between cancer and its micro-environment are expected to lead to novel therapeutic approaches. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells have increased mitochondria compared to non-malignant CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Furthermore, contrary to the Warburg hypothesis, (AML) relies on oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. Here we report that in human AML, NOX2 generates superoxide which stimulates bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) to AML blast transfer of mitochondria through AML derived tunnelling nanotubes...
July 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726639/mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-drosophila-transfers-calcium-between-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-in-oxidative-stress-induced-cell-death
#19
Sekyu Choi, Xianglan Quan, Sunhoe Bang, Heesuk Yoo, Jiyoung Kim, Jiwon Park, Kyu-Sang Park, Jongkyeong Chung
Mitochondrial calcium plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes ranging from energy metabolism to cell death. Previous studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial calcium uptake is mainly mediated by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. However, the roles of the MCU complex in calcium transport, signaling, and dysregulation by oxidative stress still remain unclear. Here, we confirmed that Drosophila MCU contains evolutionarily conserved structures and requires essential MCU regulator (EMRE) for its calcium channel activities...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726090/flavoprotein-minisog-bret-induced-cytotoxicity-depends-on-its-intracellular-localization
#20
E I Shramova, G M Proshkina, S M Deyev, R V Petrov
It is proposed to use the bioluminescent resonance energy transfer to solve the problem of creating the internal light sources in photodynamic therapy of cancer. Energy donor in the developed system is the oxidized form of the luciferase NanoLuc substrate furimamide, and acceptor is the phototoxic fluorescent protein miniSOG. It is shown that, in the proposed system, the photoinduced cytotoxicity of flavoprotein miniSOG in vitro depends on the intracellular localization, and the cytotoxic effect is 48% for the cytoplasmic localization of the fusion protein, 65% for the mitochondrial localization, and 69% for the membrane localization...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
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