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mitochondrial transfer

Žakula Jelena, Korićanac Lela, Keta Otilija, Todorović Danijela, A P Cirrone Giuseppe, Romano Francesco, Cuttone Giacomo, Petrović Ivan, Ristić-Fira Aleksandra
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The main goal when treating malignancies with radiation is to deprive tumour cells of their reproductive potential. One approach is to induce tumour cell apoptosis. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of carbon ions ( [12] C) to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human HTB140 melanoma cells. METHODS: In this in vitro study, human melanoma HTB140 cells were irradiated with the 62 MeV/n carbon ( [12] C) ion beam, having two different linear energy transfer (LET) values: 197 and 382 keV/μm...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Daria Chrobok, Simon R Law, Bastiaan Brouwer, Pernilla Lindén, Agnieszka Ziolkowska, Daniela Liebsch, Reena Narsai, Bozena Szal, Thomas Moritz, Nicolas Rouhier, James Whelan, Per Gardestrom, Olivier Keech
The functions of mitochondria during leaf senescence, a type of programmed cell death aiming at the massive retrieval of nutrients from the senescing organ to the rest of the plant, remain elusive. Here, combining experimental and analytical approaches, we showed that mitochondrial integrity is conserved until the latest stages of leaf senescence, while their number drops by 30%. Adenylate phosphorylation state assays and mitochondrial respiratory measurements indicated that the leaf energy status is also maintained during this time period...
October 15, 2016: Plant Physiology
Tetsuya Ishii
Genome editing based on site-directed nucleases facilitated efficient and versatile genetic modifications in human cells. However, recent reports, demonstrating CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in human embryos have raised profound concerns worldwide. This commentary explores the clinical justification and feasibility of reproductive medicine using germline genome editing. Despite the perceived utility of reproductive medicine for treating intractable infertility, it is difficult to justify germline genome editing from the perspective of the prospective child...
October 5, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Ga Hun Boo, Jeffery R Hughey, Kathy Ann Miller, Sung Min Boo
DNA sequences from type specimens provide independent, objective characters that enhance the value of type specimens and permit the correct application of species names to phylogenetic clades and specimens. We provide mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from archival type specimens of ten species in agar-producing red algal genera Gelidium and Pterocladiella. The genomes contain 43-44 genes, ranging in size from 24,910 to 24,970 bp with highly conserved gene synteny. Low Ka/Ks ratios of apocytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase genes support their utility as markers...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
L Antonio González-Grajales, Laura A Favetta, W Allan King, Gabriela F Mastromonaco
BACKGROUND: Successful development of iSCNT (interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer) embryos depends on complex interactions between ooplasmic and nuclear components, which can be compromised by genetic divergence. Transfer of ooplasm matching the genetic background of the somatic cell in iSCNT embryos is a valuable tool to study the degree of incompatibilities between nuclear and ooplasmic components. This study investigated the effects of ooplasm transfer (OT) on cattle (Bos taurus) and plains bison (Bison bison bison) embryos produced by iSCNT and supplemented with or without ooplasm from cattle or plains bison oocytes...
October 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Hajera Amatullah, Yuexin Shan, Brittany L Beauchamp, Patricia L Gali, Sahil Gupta, Tatiana Maron-Gutierrez, Edwin R Speck, Alison E Fox-Robichaud, Jennifer L Y Tsang, Shirley H J Mei, Tak W Mak, Patricia Rm Rocco, John W Semple, Haibo Zhang, Pingzhao Hu, John C Marshall, Duncan J Stewart, Mary-Ellen Harper, Patricia C Liaw, W Conrad Liles, Claudia C Dos Santos
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVES: Effective and rapid bacterial clearance is a fundamental determinant of outcome(s) in sepsis. DJ-1 is a well-established reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. As cellular ROS status is pivotal to inflammation and bacterial killing, we determined the role of DJ-1 in bacterial sepsis. METHODS: We used cell and murine models with gain and loss of function experiments, plasma and cells from septic patients. MEASUREMENTS & RESULTS: Stimulation of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM) with endotoxin resulted in increased DJ-1 mRNA and protein expression...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Daniel Torralba, Francesc Baixauli, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
Mitochondria regulate multiple cell processes, including calcium signaling, apoptosis and cell metabolism. Mitochondria contain their own circular genome encoding selected subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. Recent findings reveal that, in addition to being maternally inherited, mitochondria can traverse cell boundaries and thus be horizontally transferred between cells. Although, the physiological relevance of this phenomenon is still under debate, mitochondria uptake rescues mitochondrial respiration defects in recipient cells and regulates signaling, proliferation or chemotherapy resistance in vitro and in vivo...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Dan Zhang, Kiera Robinson, Doina M Mihai, Ilyas Washington
Animals alter their physiological states in response to their environment. We show that the introduction of a chlorophyll metabolite, a light-absorbing pigment widely consumed in human diets, to Caenorhabditis elegans results in animals whose fat mass can be modulated by exposure to light, despite the worm consuming the same amount of food. In the presence of the chlorophyll metabolite, exposing the worms to light increased adenosine triphosphate, reduced oxidative damage, and increased median life spans, without an effect on animal reproduction...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Young-Joon Ko, Sangsoo Kim
Nuclear mitochondrial DNA segment (Numt) insertion describes a well-known phenomenon of mitochondrial DNA transfer into a eukaryotic nuclear genome. However, it has not been well understood, especially in plants. Numt insertion patterns vary from species to species in different kingdoms. In this study, the patterns were surveyed in nine plant species, and we found some tip-offs. First, when the mitochondrial genome size is relatively large, the portion of the longer Numt is also larger than the short one. Second, the whole genome duplication event increases the ratio of the shorter Numt portion in the size distribution...
September 2016: Genomics & Informatics
Sachin V Surve, Brian C Jensen, Meredith Heestand, Muriel Mazet, Terry K Smith, Frédéric Bringaud, Marilyn Parsons, Achim Schnaufer
In the slender bloodstream form, Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria are repressed for many functions. Multiple components of mitochondrial complex I, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, are expressed in this stage, but electron transfer through complex I is not essential. Here we investigate the role of the parasite's second NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, NDH2, which is composed of a single subunit that also localizes to the mitochondrion. While inducible knockdown of NDH2 had a modest growth effect in bloodstream forms, NDH2 null mutants, as well as inducible knockdowns in a complex I deficient background, showed a greater reduction in growth...
October 4, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Maria G Onyango, Nicola C Aitken, Cameron Jack, Aaron Chuah, James Oguya, Appolinaire Djikeng, Steve Kemp, Glenn A Bellis, Adrian Nicholas, Peter J Walker, Jean-Bernard Duchemin
BACKGROUND: The advent of genotyping by Next Generation Sequencing has enabled rapid discovery of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and high throughput genotyping of large populations at an affordable cost. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS), a reduced representation library sequencing method, allows highly multiplexed sequencing of genomic subsets. This method has limitations for small organisms with low amounts of genomic DNA, such as the bluetongue virus (BTV) vectors, Culicoides midges...
September 30, 2016: BMC Genomics
Hirotaka Sugawara, Tamotsu Kusano, Fumio Hayashi
Salamanders are expected to differentiate genetically among local populations due to their low dispersal ability, and are potentially susceptible to loss of genetic diversity if the population is isolated by habitat fragmentation. The salamander Hynobius tokyoensis is a lowland lentic breeder and endemic to a narrow area of central Japan. In this urban area, H. tokyoensis habitats are extensively fragmented and several populations are threatened with extinction, but information on genetic divergence and loss of genetic diversity is scarce...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Paulo G Hofstatter, Alexander K Tice, Seungho Kang, Matthew W Brown, Daniel J G Lahr
Recombinase enzymes promote DNA repair by homologous recombination. The genes that encode them are ancestral to life, occurring in all known dominions: viruses, Eubacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota. Bacterial recombinases are also present in viruses and eukaryotic groups (supergroups), presumably via ancestral events of lateral gene transfer. The eukaryotic recA genes have two distinct origins (mitochondrial and plastidial), whose acquisition by eukaryotes was possible via primary (bacteria-eukaryote) and/or secondary (eukaryote-eukaryote) endosymbiotic gene transfers (EGTs)...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Igor Zeman, Martina Neboháčová, Gabriela Gérecová, Kornélia Katonová, Eva Jánošiková, Michaela Jakúbková, Ivana Centárová, Ivana Dunčková, Ĺubomir Tomáška, Leszek P Pryszcz, Toni Gabaldón, Jozef Nosek
The pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis metabolizes hydroxyderivatives of benzene and benzoic acid to compounds channeled into central metabolism including the mitochondrially-localized tricarboxylic acid cycle via the 3-oxoadipate and gentisate pathways. The orchestration of both catabolic pathways with mitochondrial metabolism as well as their evolutionary origin is not fully understood. Our results show that the enzymes involved in these two pathways operate in the cytoplasm with the exception of the mitochondrially-targeted 3-oxoadipate CoA-transferase (Osc1p) and 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase (Oct1p) catalyzing the last two reactions of the 3-oxoadipate pathway...
October 5, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
C L Li, X Y Du, J Gao, C Wang, H G Guo, F W Dai, X Y Sa, W An, Z W Chen
Meriones unguiculatus (Gerbillinae, Rodentia) is widely used as an animal model of human disease. Here, we provide the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of M. unguiculatus (GenBank accession Nos. KF425526 and NC_023263). The sequence contained the conserved vertebrate pattern of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and 1 major noncoding region. We identified one extended termination-associated sequence and one conserved sequence block in the non-coding region...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
H Y Ma, C Y Ma, J J Zhu, G J Ren, W Wang, W Chen, J X Lu, L B Ma
In this study, we determined the whole mitochondrial genome profile of the three-spot swimming crab (Portunus sanguinolentus) and elucidated phylogenetic relationships between representative species in the order Decapoda. The mitochondrial genome was 16,024 bp in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a putative control region. Of the 37 genes, 23 were encoded by the heavy strand while 14 were encoded by the light strand. Four types of start codons were identified; ATG initiated nine genes, ATT initiated two genes, and ATC and GTG each started one gene...
August 29, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
C Y Ma, H Y Ma, G J Ren, W Wang, W Chen, J X Lu, X Zou, L B Ma
This study determined the mitochondrial genome structure of the blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus), and elucidated its phylogenetic relationships among the species within the order Decapoda. The complete mitochondrial genome was 16,155 bp long, and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 DNA control region. The gene order of the genome was the same as that found within the family Portunidae. Twenty-three genes were on the heavy strand and 14 were on the light strand...
August 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Mihai Miclaus, Ovidiu Balacescu, Ioan Has, Loredana Balacescu, Voichita Has, Dana Suteu, Samuel Neuenschwander, Irene Keller, Rémy Bruggmann
The genomes of the two plant organelles encode for a relatively small number of proteins. Thus, nuclear genes encode the vast majority of their proteome. Organelleto-nucleus communication takes place through retrograde signaling (RS) pathways. Signals relayed through RS pathways have an impact on nuclear gene expression (NGE) but their target-genes remain elusive in a normal state of the cell (considering that only mutants and stress have been used so far). Here we use maize cytolines as an alternative. The nucleus of a donor line was transferred into two other cytoplasmic environments through at least nine back-crosses, in a time-span of more than 10 years...
October 3, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Thanh Hoa Le, Nga Thi Bich Nguyen, Khue Thi Nguyen, Huong Thi Thanh Doan, Do Trung Dung, David Blair
The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the trematode Echinochasmus japonicus Tanabe, 1926 was fully determined and annotated. The circular mt molecule of this species is 15,865bp in length, containing 12 protein-coding genes (arranged in the following order: cox3-cob-nad4L-nad4-atp6-nad2-nad1-nad3-cox1-cox2-nad6-nad5), two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) and 22 transfer RNA genes (trnH; trnQ; trnF; trnM; trnV; trnA; trnD; trnN; trnP; trnI; trnK; trnS1(AGN); trnW; trnT; trnC; trnL1(CUN); trnS2(UCN); trnL2(UUN); trnG; and trnE)...
October 1, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Yasuhiro Horibata, Hiromi Ando, Peixiang Zhang, Laurent Vergnes, Chieko Aoyama, Masahiko Itoh, Karen Reue, Hiroyuki Sugimoto
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major phospholipid of mitochondria, composing 40-50% of both the outer and the inner membranes. However, PC must be imported from its production organelles because mitochondria lack the enzymes essential for PC biosynthesis. In a previous study, we found that StarD7 mediates the intracellular transfer of PC to mitochondria. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the contribution of StarD7 to the maintenance of mitochondrial phospholipid content and function using siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) and knockout (KO) of the StarD7 gene in HEPA-1 cells...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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