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child custody

Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Kathryn E Cherry, Claudia Campbell, Elise Trombetta
Complex trauma exposure has been defined as multiple or chronic interpersonal trauma that begins early in life, which leads to widespread dysregulation. Previous studies have reported that minorities may be at greater risk for trauma exposure and symptoms; yet, racial differences have not been investigated in the context of complex trauma. The aim of the present study was to determine if there are racial disparities in children's trauma exposure and outcomes among 167 child survivors of complex trauma (3-18 years, M = 9...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Abhishek Pandey, Kerry Littlewood, Larry Cooper, Julie McCrae, Michelle Rosenthal, Angelique Day, Liliana Hernandez
Custodial grandparenting can be especially challenging for older grandmothers facing age specific issues. Kinship navigator programs are social service delivery programs intended to inform grandparents and other relatives raising children about available resources and services, provide information specific to their individual needs, and help families navigate service systems. Our study utilizes self-report data from one kinship navigator federal demonstration project, which used a randomized control trial, to examine demographic characteristics for grandmothers under and over 55 years of age, whether grandmother caregivers (≥55 years) improve family resilience, social support, and caregiver self-efficacy, and which interventions improved outcomes for grandmothers (≥55 years)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Women & Aging
Brigitte Ramsauer, Sandra Achtergarde
BACKGROUND: Maternal postpartum psychoses pose a serious risk to the mother-infant interaction. It is unclear how different subtypes of postpartum psychosis, including acute and chronic, might differentially affect the mother-infant interaction. METHOD: A systematic search of electronic journal databases was performed. RESULTS: This systematic review yielded 17 studies with adequate overall study quality. They focused on child custody and involvement of social services as indirect indicators of the mother-infant interaction, observed mother-infant interactions as direct indicators, or potential transitional mechanisms, including memory processing, mind-mindedness, and affect recognition, that may partially explain the effects of psychotic disorders...
February 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Katherine J Deans, Peter C Minneci, Kristine M Nacion, Karen Leonhart, Jennifer N Cooper, Sarah Hudson Scholle, Kelly J Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Preventive quality measures for the foster care population are largely untested. The objective of the study is to identify healthcare quality measures for young children and adolescents in foster care and to test whether the data required to calculate these measures can be feasibly extracted and interpreted within an electronic health records or within the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System. METHODS: The AAP Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care served as the guideline for determining quality measures...
February 22, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Dorothée Fablet, Patrick Chariot
AIM: Police custody is detention in response to a suspicion of crime. In France, until the age of 13, pre-trial detention and police custody are not allowed. We aimed to evaluate the practical implementation of police detention of children aged between 10 and 12 years and describe the medical characteristics and history, perceived health status and opinion on custody of the potentially affected children. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted in a French reference regional department of forensic medicine at the time of medical examination in police cells among arrestees younger than 13 years old examined over a 5-year period (1 January 2011-31 December 2015)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Simuli L Wabuyele, Jennifer M Colby, Gwendolyn A McMillin
Maternal substance abuse during pregnancy is a growing problem with major public health and legal concerns. In utero substance exposure may adversely affect neonatal development, pregnancy outcome and the long term behavioral, cognitive and developmental abilities of the child. Also, serious legal implications are associated with substance abuse during pregnancy, including charges of child abuse and neglect which may result in removal of the neonate from parental care and loss of custodial rights. Timely detection of in utero drug exposure is necessary for early identification and effective management of exposed newborns...
February 5, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Stefan Rücker, Peter Büttner, Norbert Karpinski, Franz Petermann, Jörg M Fegert
Gender-specific Differences in the Degree of Burden on Children and Adolescents Taken into Custody Children and adolescents who were taken into care are a high-risk group for mental disorders such as externalizing problems or conduct disorders. 95 children and adolescents who were taken into care were tested with the Screening Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument 2 (MAYSI-2). In a large proportion of those children and adolescents emotional and physical neglect and abuse was identified...
January 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Allison Cheng, Rita Manfredi, Gia Badolato, Monika Goyal
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe coping mechanisms used by adolescents during emergency treatment. METHODS: A convenience sample of adolescent patients (aged 12-18 years) was surveyed in our large (87,000 annual visits) urban academic pediatric emergency department (ED) with an adapted Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences survey. Parents were surveyed about their perceptions of their child's coping mechanisms. Participants were excluded if they were non-English speaking, in police custody, had altered mental status, or were hemodynamically unstable...
January 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Jessica L Moore, Christopher Houck, Priyadarshini Hirway, Christine E Barron, Amy P Goldberg
Domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) is an increasingly recognized traumatic crime premised upon the control, abuse, and exploitation of youth. By definition, DMST is the "recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act" within domestic borders, in which the person is a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident under the age of 18 years. The present study described the demographics, psychosocial features, and trafficking experiences (e.g., environments of recruitment, relationship to trafficker, solicitation) of DMST victims...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Kathi L H Harp, Carrie B Oser
This study examines the influence of child custody loss on drug use and crime among a sample of African American mothers. Two types of custody loss are examined: informal custody loss (child living apart from mother but courts not involved), and official loss (child removed from mother's care by authorities). METHODS: Using data from 339 African American women, longitudinal random coefficient models analyzed the effects of each type of custody loss on subsequent drug use and crime. RESULTS: indicated that both informal and official custody loss predicted increased drug use, and informal loss predicted increased criminal involvement...
December 26, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
P Bensussan
Psychiatric experts find it is easier to deal with more horrible crimes than highly conflictual divorces. In the former, projections are impossible and "files" raise very interesting issues with regard to criminology; in contrast, in the latter the expert is confronted not just with a family but also and lest one forget, a couple that at one point in time had loved each other. However, the separation resembles a bloodbath. We will not detail the various psychiatric pathologies, which may further complicate a separation: they are well-known and, on a procedural level, do not raise any specific concerns...
December 2017: L'Encéphale
Michele Staton, Gabriele Ciciurkaite, Carrie Oser, Martha Tillson, Carl Leukefeld, J Matthew Webster, Jennifer R Havens
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to examine drug use and incarceration history among rural Appalachian women. METHODS: This study involved random selection, screening, and interviews with rural women from local jails in Appalachia. RESULTS: Of the women randomly selected and screened, 97% met criteria for substance use intervention. Significant factors associated with incarceration history included age, education, custody status, and mental health...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Maya Sabatello, Paul S Appelbaum
Although emerging findings in psychiatric and behavioral genetics create hope for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders, the introduction of such data as evidence in criminal and civil proceedings raises a host of ethical, legal, and social issues. Should behavioral and psychiatric genetic data be admissible in judicial proceedings? If so, what are the various means for obtaining such evidence, and for what purposes should its admission be sought and permitted? How could-and should-such evidence affect judicial outcomes in criminal and civil proceedings? And what are the potential implications of using behavioral and psychiatric genetic evidence for individuals and communities, and for societal values of equality and justice? This article provides an overview of the historical and current developments in behavioral genetics...
November 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Elizabeth Wall-Wieler, Leslie L Roos, James Bolton, Marni Brownell, Nathan Nickel, Dan Chateau
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare mental illness diagnoses and treatment use among mothers who lost custody of their child through involvement with child protection services and those seen in mothers dealing with the death of a child. METHODS: We studied mental health outcomes of a cohort of women whose first child was born in Manitoba, Canada between 1 April 1997 and 31 March 2015. Of these women, 5,792 had a child taken into care, and 1,143 mothers experienced the death of a child (<18 y old) before 31 March 2015...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Louis Ehwerhemuepha, Sandra Schultz, William Feaster
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and psychosocial factors associated with patient experience with care. METHODS: We analyzed patient experience surveys, corresponding clinical and psychosocial the data of 1567 encounters using survey-weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis with willingness to recommend the facility as outcome variable. RESULTS: Parents are less likely to recommend the facility if there were custody issues with the child during their stay, if the child has history of chronic medical condition, and if the child is male with odds ratio and corresponding 95% confidence interval of 0...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
Faith Summersett-Ringgold, Neil Jordan, Cassandra Kisiel, Rachel M Sax, Gary McClelland
While all children deserve a stable living environment, national data illustrate that many states struggle to achieve placement stability for youth in the child welfare system as a significant number of children in foster care continue to experience multiple placements while in state custody. Prior research has not considered the impact of youth protective factors or strengths on the frequency of placement changes that youth experience while in the child welfare system. This study examined the association between strengths measured at multiple levels (i...
September 20, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Eva Cuypers, Robert J Flanagan
INTRODUCTION: Head hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites has been used widely with the aim of detecting exposure in the weeks or months prior to sample collection. However, inappropriate interpretation of results has likely led to serious miscarriages of justice, especially in child custody cases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to assess critically what can, and perhaps more importantly, what cannot be claimed as regards the interpretation of hair test results in a given set of circumstances in order to inform future testing...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Rhonda N T Nese, Cynthia M Anderson, Traci Ruppert, Philip A Fisher
Behavioral parent training programs have documented efficacy for improving behaviors among parents and their children and are frequently used by child welfare agencies to prevent removal of a child from the parental home or to facilitate reunification. Although an ideal time for parent training might be during supervised visits where parents may practice skills with their children under the guidance and support of a therapist or caseworker, this is not typically the case. Most often, parents within the child welfare system receive parent training in small groups without their children present, and to date, few studies have examined effects of behavioral parent training interventions during supervised visitation...
December 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Lorin R Browne, Hamilton Schwartz, Fahd A Ahmad, Michael Wallendorf, Nathan Kuppermann, E Brooke Lerner, Julie C Leonard
BACKGROUND: Investigators have derived cervical spine injury (CSI) decision support tools from physician observations. There is a need to demonstrate that prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers can use these tools to appropriately determine the need for spinal motion restrictions and make field disposition decisions. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine the interobserver agreement between EMS and emergency department (ED) providers for CSI risk assessment variables and overall gestalt for CSI in children after blunt trauma...
December 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
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