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child custody

Suzanne Brown, Laurel M Hicks, Elizabeth M Tracy
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 73% of women entering treatment for substance use disorders are mothers of children under the age of 18 (SAMHSA, 2009), and the high rate of mental health disorders among mothers with substance use disorders increases their vulnerability to poor parenting practices. Parenting efficacy and social support for parenting have emerged as significant predictors of positive parenting practices among families at risk for child maltreatment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of parenting support and parenting efficacy on the likelihood of out-of-home placement and custody status among the children of mothers with dual substance use and mental health disorders...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Linda Lewin, Kathleen Farkas, Maryam Niazi
BACKGROUND: Mothers who abuse substances are more likely to have impaired parenting and lose custody of their young children. OBJECTIVE: The pilot study described mother-child relational quality of women in substance abuse treatment. The identification of mothers' perceptions of being parented, current level of depression, discrete and potentially modifiable mothering behaviors, and self-appraisals of their role. DESIGN: The descriptive study implemented audio-video-recorded mother-child interactions for coding...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
Kathi L H Harp, Carrie B Oser
African American families are overrepresented in the Child Welfare System; however, extant research on this phenomenon has (1) focused mostly on Caucasian or mixed-race samples and (2) has not examined informal custody arrangements alongside official child custody loss. This research addresses these gaps in the literature by examining factors associated with both official and informal child custody loss among a sample of African American mothers. Multinomial regression results show that having ever been incarcerated following a conviction increases the odds of experiencing both types of custody loss relative to no loss...
November 2016: Social Science Research
Maya Sabatello, S Appelbaum
This paper considers the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the prospect of increasing use of psychiatric genetic data in child custody litigation. Although genetic tests cannot currently confirm a parent or child's psychiatric diagnosis, it is likely that as relevant findings emerge, they will be introduced in family courts to challenge parental capacity. Here, we draw on three projected, but plausible, scenarios for obtaining psychiatric data about parents -- imposed genetic testing, access to medical records, and genetic theft -- then consider the use of psychiatric genetic data of children, to highlight the issues that judges, child custody evaluators, and clinicians who may provide treatment for parents or children with mental health issues will need to consider...
September 2016: Current Genetic Medicine Reports
Tamsen J Rochat, Joanie Mitchell, Alan Stein, Ntombizodumo Brilliant Mkwanazi, Ruth M Bland
Advances in access to HIV prevention and treatment have reduced vertical transmission of HIV, with most children born to HIV-infected parents being HIV-uninfected themselves. A major challenge that HIV-infected parents face is disclosure of their HIV status to their predominantly HIV-uninfected children. Their children enter middle childhood and early adolescence facing many challenges associated with parental illness and hospitalization, often exacerbated by stigma and a lack of access to health education and support...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Zenita Alidina, Anne E Wormsbecker, Marcelo Urquia, Jay MacGillivray, Evan Taerk, Mark H Yudin, Douglas M Campbell
Background. Perinatal HIV transmission is less than 1% with antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis. Transmission risk appears higher in "high risk" dyads, yet this is not well defined, possibly exposing more infants to combination ARV compared with standard care. Objective. To describe characteristics of mother-infant dyads where infants received ARVs and how these characteristics relate to specific ARV regimens. Methods. Retrospective chart review of ARV-receiving newborns at St. Michael's Hospital from 2007 to 2012 (and their mothers)...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Amy J L Baker, Mariann Asayan, Alianna LaCheen-Baker
State statutes regarding the best interests of the child (BIC) in deciding disputed custody were reviewed and independently coded with respect to three issues (i) the child's preference and any limits (ii) parental alienation and (iii) psychological maltreatment. Results revealed that many states allowed for the child's preferences to be considered and none qualified that preference when undue influence has occurred; parental alienation as a term was not found in any state statutes but 70% of the states included at least one BIC factor relevant to its core construct of the parent supporting the child's relationship to the other parent; and many states included a history of domestic violence or child abuse but only three states explicitly mentioned psychological maltreatment...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
David Solomon, Kia Åsberg, Samuel Peer, Gwendolyn Prince
Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk...
August 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Hayley M Passmore, Roslyn Giglia, Rochelle E Watkins, Raewyn C Mutch, Rhonda Marriott, Carmela Pestell, Stephen R Zubrick, Candice Rainsford, Noni Walker, James P Fitzpatrick, Jacinta Freeman, Natalie Kippin, Bernadette Safe, Carol Bower
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause lifelong disability, including physical, cognitive and behavioural deficits, known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Among individuals with FASD, engagement with justice services is common. Little is known about the prevalence of FASD among young people engaged with the Australian justice system. This study aims to establish FASD prevalence among sentenced young people in detention in Western Australia (WA), and use the findings to develop a screening tool for use among young people entering detention...
2016: BMJ Open
Shreemanta Kumar Dash, Shailendra Patel, Krishnadutt Chavali
Sexual violence is a significant cause of physical and psychological harm and suffering for women and children. Although sexual violence mostly affects women and girls, boys are also subject to child sexual abuse. Nurse is the person who attends the victim first. In order to meet the rigid and ever-changing demands of providing care to the victim and complying with our confusing system of laws, the nursing should has been forced to expand into a Forensic nursing, specialty of its own. Nursing roles in the criminal justice service known by many names worldwide-Custody nursing, Prison/Correctional nursing, Immigration centre nursing, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) or Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner (SAFE), SARTs (Sexual assault response team), SARCs (Sexual assault referral centre) and FNDIs (Forensic nurse death investigator)...
August 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Sonja Merten, Harriet Ntalasha, Maurice Musheke
This article investigates reasons why children who were considered at risk of HIV were not taken for HIV testing by their caregivers. Qualitative and quantitative data collected in Zambia from 2010-11 revealed that twelve percent of caregivers who stated that they had been suspecting an HIV infection in a child in their custody had not had the child tested. Fears of negative reactions from the family were the most often stated reason for not testing a child. Experience of pre-existing conflicts between the couple or within the family (aOR 1...
2016: PloS One
Scott C Leon, Grace Jhe Bai, Anne K Fuller
Nonresident fathers can have a significant impact on children's behavioral outcomes. Unfortunately, the impact of nonresident father involvement on the behavioral outcomes of children with child welfare involvement has received scant attention in the literature, a limitation the current study sought to address. A sample of 333 children in state custody in Illinois between the ages of six and 13 participated and were assessed using the externalizing behavior scale of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) at regular intervals throughout their time in care...
May 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Deborah Blythe Doroshow
In the 1930s, children who were violent, depressed, psychotic, or suicidal would likely have been labeled delinquent and sent to a custodial training school for punitive treatment. But starting in the 1940s, a new group of institutions embarked on a new experiment to salvage and treat severely deviant children. In the process, psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers at these residential treatment centers (RTCs) made visible, and indeed invented, a new patient population. This article uses medical literature, popular media, and archival sources from several RTCs to argue that staff members created what they called the "emotionally disturbed" child...
2016: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Na Zhang, Scottie Bussell, Guoyong Wang, Xiaoyan Zhu, Xingguang Yang, Tao Huang, Yuesheng Qian, Xiaorun Tao, Dianmin Kang, Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: The 90-90-90 targets recommended by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS require strengthening human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care, which includes diagnosis, linkage to and retention in care, assessment for treatment suitability, and optimization of HIV treatment. We sought to quantify patient engagement along the continuum, 10 years after introduction of Chinese HIV care policies. METHODS: We included patients from Shandong, China, who were diagnosed with HIV from 1992 to 2013...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
J Huemer, S Völkl-Kernstock, A Yee, T Bruckner, Katrin Skala
BACKGROUND: This investigation intended to assess the use of an outpatient clinic providing low-threshold, short-term trauma therapy for children and adolescents across the first 6 years of its existence. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the records of all patients undergoing treatment in this institution between 2001 and 2007 (n = 2510) has been performed. We evaluated demographic data, reason for contacting the unit, the referring person or institution, the person or institution in charge of the care and custody of the child, the number of contacts with the clinic, presence of physical or psychiatric illness of a parent, and medications prescribed...
March 2016: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Mike O'Connor
In light of the Royal Commission into Institutional Child Sexual Abuse, this article analyses the custodial sentences of 143 Australian Catholic clergy. The majority of these sentences were for convictions for indecent assault for which the median sentence was two years' imprisonment. It is doubtful whether the Australian community would consider such sentences as adequate, particularly where offences were against children. Current Australian legislation allows for ongoing long-term sanctions, including judicial orders for chemical castration, to be imposed on convicted sex offenders, especially those assessed as being at high risk of re-offending...
December 2015: Journal of Law and Medicine
Linda C Lewin, Thomas N Templin
A sensitive, secure, and consistent relationship with their mother is critical for young children. There is a dearth of knowledge about the quality of mothering of young children by women with bipolar disorder. These mothers are frequently challenged, unable to provide consistency, and are at risk for loss of child custody. The model described in this article reflects a critical analysis of conceptual and empirical literature regarding mothering quality, resourcefulness, disorder severity, medication adherence, social supports, and child-rearing beliefs...
2016: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Hygiea Casiano, Shay-Lee Bolton, Keith Hildahl, Laurence Y Katz, James Bolton, Jitender Sareen
BACKGROUND: Suicide is the number one cause of death among incarcerated youth. We examined the demographic and forensic risk factors for self-harm in youth in juvenile detention using a Canadian provincial correctional database. METHOD: We analyzed data from de-identified youth aged 12 to 18 at the time of their offense who were in custody in a Manitoba youth correctional facility between January 1, 2005 and December 30, 2010 (N = 5,102). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses determined the association between staff-identified self-harm events in custody and demographic and custodial variables...
2016: PloS One
Luisa Orza, Susan Bewley, Cecilia Chung, E Tyler Crone, Hajjarah Nagadya, Marijo Vazquez, Alice Welbourn
INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV are vulnerable to gender-based violence (GBV) before and after diagnosis, in multiple settings. This study's aim was to explore how GBV is experienced by women living with HIV, how this affects women's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and human rights (HR), and the implications for policymakers. METHODS: A community-based, participatory, user-led, mixed-methods study was conducted, with women living with HIV from key affected populations...
2015: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Emma Fransson, Jani Turunen, Anders Hjern, Viveca Östberg, Malin Bergström
AIMS: Increasing proportions of Scandinavian children and children in other Western countries live in joint physical custody, moving between parents' homes when parents live apart. Children and parents in non-intact families are at risk of worse mental health. The potential influence of parental ill-health on child well-being in the context of differing living arrangements has not been studied thoroughly. This study investigates the psychological complaints of children in joint physical custody in comparison to children in sole parental care and nuclear families, while controlling for socioeconomic differences and parental ill-health...
March 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
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