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Immune function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719799/mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived-neurotrophic-factor-manf-a-new-player-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-diseases-structure-biology-and-therapeutic-roles
#1
REVIEW
Yeawon Kim, Sun-Ji Park, Ying Maggie Chen
Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), a newly identified 18-kDa soluble protein, localizes to the luminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whose stress can stimulate MANF expression and secretion. In Drosophila and zebrafish, MANF regulates dopaminergic neuron development. In contrast, in mice, MANF deficiency leads to diabetes and activation of the unfolded protein response. Recent studies in rodent models have demonstrated that MANF mitigates diabetes, exerts neurotrophic function in neurodegenerative disease, protects cardiomyocytes and neurons in myocardial infarction and cerebral ischemia, respectively, and promotes immune cell phenotype switch from proinflammatory macrophages to prorepair anti-inflammatory macrophages...
June 29, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719652/long-term-follow-up-of-human-t-cell-responses-to-conserved-hiv-1-regions-elicited-by-dna-simian-adenovirus-mva-vaccine-regimens
#2
Nathifa Moyo, Nicola J Borthwick, Edmund G Wee, Silvia Capucci, Alison Crook, Lucy Dorrell, Tomáš Hanke
BACKGROUND: Durability of vaccine-elicited immune responses is one of the key determinants for vaccine success. Our aim is to develop a vaccination strategy against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which induces protective and durable CD8+ T-cell responses. The central theorem of our approach is to focus T cells on highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome and this is achieved through the use of the first-generation conserved vaccine immunogen HIVconsv. This immunogen vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and poxvirus MVA was tested in healthy, HIV-1-negative adults in UK and induced high magnitudes of HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional CD8+ T cells capable of in vitro HIV-1 inhibition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719632/viscum-album-neutralizes-tumor-induced-immunosuppression-in-a-human-in-vitro-cell-model
#3
Carmen Steinborn, Amy Marisa Klemd, Ann-Sophie Sanchez-Campillo, Sophie Rieger, Marieke Scheffen, Barbara Sauer, Manuel Garcia-Käufer, Konrad Urech, Marie Follo, Annekathrin Ücker, Gunver Sophia Kienle, Roman Huber, Carsten Gründemann
Tumor cells have the capacity to secrete immunosuppressive substances in order to diminish dendritic cell (DC) activity and thereby escape from immune responses. The impact of mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts (VAE), which are frequently used as an additive anti-cancer therapy to stimulate the immune response, is still unknown. Using a human cellular system, the impact of two different VAE (VAEA + VAEI) on the maturation of human dendritic cells and on T cell function has been investigated using flow cytometry, automated fluorescence microscopy and cytokine bead array assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719615/a-human-tissue-based-functional-assay-platform-to-evaluate-the-immune-function-impact-of-small-molecule-inhibitors-that-target-the-immune-system
#4
Cristina St Pierre, Jane Guo, John D Shin, Laura W Engstrom, Hyun-Hee Lee, Alan Herbert, Laura Surdi, James Baker, Michael Salmon, Sanjiv Shah, J Michael Ellis, Hani Houshyar, Michael A Crackower, Melanie A Kleinschek, Dallas C Jones, Alexandra Hicks, Dennis M Zaller, Stephen E Alves, Ravisankar A Ramadas
While the immune system is essential for the maintenance of the homeostasis, health and survival of humans, aberrant immune responses can lead to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Pharmacological modulation of drug targets in the immune system to ameliorate disease also carry a risk of immunosuppression that could lead to adverse outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the 'immune fingerprint' of novel therapeutics as they relate to current and, clinically used immunological therapies to better understand their potential therapeutic benefit as well as immunosuppressive ability that might lead to adverse events such as infection risks and cancer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719602/prehospital-immune-responses-and-development-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-following-traumatic-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Jon Hazeldine, David N Naumann, Emma Toman, David Davies, Jonathan R B Bishop, Zhangjie Su, Peter Hampson, Robert J Dinsdale, Nicholas Crombie, Niharika Arora Duggal, Paul Harrison, Antonio Belli, Janet M Lord
BACKGROUND: Almost all studies that have investigated the immune response to trauma have analysed blood samples acquired post-hospital admission. Thus, we know little of the immune status of patients in the immediate postinjury phase and how this might influence patient outcomes. The objective of this study was therefore to comprehensively assess the ultra-early, within 1-hour, immune response to trauma and perform an exploratory analysis of its relationship with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719496/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-children-aged-6-to-17-years-in-india-an-open-label-trial
#6
Sharad Agarkhedkar, Christine Juergens, Krishnamurthy Balasundaram, Shalaka Agarkhedkar, Vani Sundaraiyer, Natacha Le Dren-Narayanin, Mark W Cutler, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Beate Schmoele-Thoma
In an open-label study in India, 200 healthy participants aged 6-17 years received 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). PCV13 elicited robust functional antibody immune responses. No adverse events were reported by caregivers at the 1-month follow-up visit. The immunogenicity results together with the known favorable risk-benefit profile of PCV13 support extension of the indication to this age group in India.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02034877.
July 15, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719392/intestinal-microbiome-in-scleroderma-recent-progress
#7
Elizabeth R Volkmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our evolving understanding of how gut microbiota affects immune function and homeostasis has led many investigators to explore the potentially pathologic role of gut microbiota in autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss the rapidly advancing field of microbiome research in systemic sclerosis (SSc), an incurable autoimmune disease with significant gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports have identified common perturbations in gut microbiota across different SSc cohorts...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719181/differential-ligand-binding-specificities-of-the-pulmonary-collectins-are-determined-by-the-conformational-freedom-of-a-surface-loop
#8
Michael J Rynkiewicz, Huixing Wu, Tanya R Cafarella, Nikolaos M Nikolaidis, James Frederick Head, Barbara A Seaton, Francis X McCormack
Lung surfactant proteins (SP) play critical roles in surfactant function and innate immunity. SP-A and SP-D, members of the collectin family of C-type lectins, exhibit distinct ligand specificities, effects on surfactant structure, and host defense functions despite extensive structural homology. SP-A binds to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major surfactant lipid component, but not phosphatidylinositol (PI), whereas SP-D shows the opposite preference. Additionally, SP-A and SP-D recognize widely divergent pathogen-associated molecular patterns...
July 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719141/neonatal-infection-produces-significant-changes-in-immune-function-with-no-associated-learning-deficits-in-juvenile-rats
#9
Brittany F Osborne, Jasmine I Caulfield, Samantha A Solomotis, Jaclyn M Schwarz
The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719070/sirtuin-1-attenuates-inflammation-and-hepatocellular-damage-in-liver-transplant-ischemia-reperfusion-from-mouse-to-human
#10
Kojiro Nakamura, Shoichi Kageyama, Bibo Ke, Takehiro Fujii, Rebecca A Sosa, Elaine F Reed, Nakul Datta, Ali Zarrinpar, Ronald W Busuttil, Jerzy W Kupiec-Weglinski
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), an inevitable antigen-independent inflammation response in cadaveric liver transplantation, correlates with poor early graft function, rejection episodes, and contributes to donor organ shortage. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a histone deacetylase which may regulate inflammatory cell activity and manage liver function in IRI, though its functional role and clinical relevance remains to be elucidated. We investigated the efficacy of SIRT1 activation in murine liver IRI model and verified the concept of putative SIRT1-mediated hepatoprotection in clinical liver transplantation...
July 18, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719054/evolutionary-cell-biology-of-proteins-from-protists-to-humans-and-plants
#11
REVIEW
Helmut Plattner
During evolution, the cell as a fine-tuned machine had to undergo permanent adjustments to match changes in its environment, while "closed for repair work" was not possible. Evolution from protists (protozoa and unicellular algae) to multicellular organisms may have occurred in basically two lineages, Unikonta and Bikonta, culminating in mammals and angiosperms (flowering plants), respectively. Unicellular models for unikont evolution are myxamoebae (Dictyostelium) and increasingly also choanoflagellates, whereas, for bikonts, ciliates are preferred models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719012/the-impact-of-immunoglobulin-in-acute-hiv-infection-on-the-hiv-reservoir-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
J Tiraboschi, S Ray, K Patel, A Teague, M Pace, P Phalora, N Robinson, E Hopkins, J Meyerowitz, Y Wang, J Cason, S Kaye, J Sanderson, P Klenerman, S Fidler, J Frater, J Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection (AHI) restricts the HIV reservoir, but additional interventions are necessary to induce a cure. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is not HIV-specific but is safe and temporarily reduces the HIV reservoir in chronic HIV infection. We present a randomized controlled trial to investigate whether IVIG plus ART in AHI reduces the HIV reservoir and immune activation compared with ART alone. METHODS: Ten men with AHI (Fiebig II-IV) initiated ART (tenofovir, entricitabine, ritonavir boosted darunavir and raltegravir) at HIV-1 diagnosis and were randomized to ART alone or ART plus 5 days of IVIG, once virally suppressed (week 19)...
July 18, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718997/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-factors-immuno-modulatory-effects-and-therapeutic-potential
#13
REVIEW
Vladislav Volarevic, Marina Gazdic, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Nemanja Jovicic, Valentin Djonov, Nebojsa Arsenijevic
Stem cell-based therapy is considered to be a new hope in transplantation medicine. Among stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are, due to their differentiation and immuno-modulatory characteristics, the most commonly used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. MSCs migrate to the site of inflammation and modulate immune response. The capacity of MSC to alter phenotype and function of immune cells are largely due to the production of soluble factors which expression varies depending on the pathologic condition to which MSCs are exposed...
July 18, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718965/long-term-effects-galectin-1-and-specific-immunotherapy-for-allergic-responses-in-the-intestine
#14
Li-Tao Yang, Qing Shu, Xiang-Qian Luo, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Shu-Qi Qiu, Jiang-Qi Liu, Hai-Jian Guo, Lin-Jing Li, Mao-Gang Li, Da-Bo Liu, Li-Xin Xia, Zhi-Gang Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mast cell activation interferes with the effects of allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is capable of regulating immune cells' functions. This study tests the hypothesis that administration of Gal-1 promotes and prolongs the efficacy of SIT via suppressing mast cell activation. METHODS: An intestinal allergy mouse model was developed. The co-administration of SIT and Gal-1 on suppression of the allergic responses, prevention of mast cell activation, and generation of antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Treg) in the intestine were observed in sensitized mice...
July 18, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718514/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-a1-regulates-energy-metabolism-in-adipocytes-from-different-species
#15
Kefeng Yang, Christopher Adin, Qiwen Shen, Ly James Lee, Lianbo Yu, Paolo Fadda, Arpad Samogyi, Kathleen Ham, Lu Xu, Chen Gilor, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
BACKGROUND: Survival and longevity of xenotransplants depend on immune function and ability to integrate energy metabolism between cells from different species. However, mechanisms for interspecies cross talk in energy metabolism are not well understood. White adipose tissue stores energy and is capable of mobilization and dissipation of energy as heat (thermogenesis) by adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Both pathways are under the control of vitamin A metabolizing enzymes...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718505/immunogenomic-approaches-to-understand-the-function-of-immune-disease-variants
#16
REVIEW
Dafni Anna Glinos, Blagoje Soskic, Gosia Trynka
Mapping hundreds of genetic variants through genome wide association studies provided an opportunity to gain insights into the pathobiology of immune mediated diseases. However, since most of the disease variants fall outside the gene coding sequences, thereby implicating gene expression regulation as the causal mechanism, the functional interpretation of the exact role of the associated variants remains to be determined. Despite these challenges, integration of disease associated variants with large scale genomic maps of cell type specific gene regulation both at chromatin and transcript levels deliver examples of functionally prioritised causal variants and genes...
July 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718445/mouse-versus-human-neutrophils-in-cancer-a-major-knowledge-gap
#17
REVIEW
Evgeniy B Eruslanov, Sunil Singhal, Steven M Albelda
Many types of cancer recruit neutrophils that could have protumor or antitumor effects on tumor development. Numerous findings in murine models suggest a predominantly protumoral role for neutrophils in cancer development. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human tumors in the evolution of tumors, genetic diversity, immune response, and also in the intrinsic biology of neutrophils that might have a profound impact on tumor development and the function of these cells. A crucial difference is that the majority of mouse tumor models lack the prolonged initial phases of multistage tumor evolution present in humans when antitumoral mechanisms are activated...
February 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718416/the-untold-story-of-granzymes-in-oncoimmunology-novel-opportunities-with-old-acquaintances
#18
REVIEW
Maykel Arias, Luis Martínez-Lostao, Llipsy Santiago, Angel Ferrandez, David J Granville, Julián Pardo
For more than 20 years perforin and granzymes (GZMs) have been recognized as key cell death executors of cytotoxic T (Tc) and natural killer (NK) cells during cancer immunosurveillance. In immune surveillance, perforin and GZMB, the most potent cytotoxic molecules, act mainly as antitumoral and anti-infectious factors. However, when expressed by immune regulatory cells they may contribute to immune evasion of specific cancer types. By contrast, the other major granzyme, GZMA, seems not to play a major role in Tc/NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, but acts as a proinflammatory cytokine that might contribute to cancer development...
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718404/emerging-role-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-tumor-immunosurveillance
#19
REVIEW
Hélène Vanacker, Jessica Vetters, Lyvia Moudombi, Christophe Caux, Sophie Janssens, Marie-Cécile Michallet
Disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis results in ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). This response alleviates cell stress, and is activated in both tumor cells and tumor infiltrating immune cells. The UPR plays a dual function in cancer biology, acting as a barrier to tumorigenesis at the premalignant stage, while fostering cancer maintenance in established tumors. In infiltrating immune cells, the UPR has been involved in both immunosurveillance and immunosuppressive functions...
July 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718274/-microbiome-and-next-generation-sequencing
#20
REVIEW
A Suárez Moya
The human microbiome is an internal ecosystem that refers to the community of microorganisms that populate the human body. These microorganisms are essential to support his health, because the interaction between the host immune system and microorganisms, provide the host with protection against pathogens, and contributes to the preservation of health. Bacteriological culture has been the basis for traditional microbiology; however, most of the bacterial forms observed in nature cannot be isolated with laboratory culture methods...
July 17, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
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