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Immune function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232699/cxcr4-blockade-decreases-cd4-t-cell-exhaustion-and-improves-survival-in-a-murine-model-of-polymicrobial-sepsis
#1
Kimberly M Ramonell, Wenxiao Zhang, Annette Hadley, Ching-Wen Chen, Katherine T Fay, John D Lyons, Nathan J Klingensmith, Kevin W McConnell, Craig M Coopersmith, Mandy L Ford
Sepsis is a dysregulated systemic response to infection involving many inflammatory pathways and the induction of counter-regulatory anti-inflammatory processes that results in a state of immune incompetence and can lead to multi-organ failure. CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor that, following ligation by CXCL12, directs cells to bone marrow niches and also plays an important role in T cell cosignaling and formation of the immunological synapse. Here, we investigated the expression and function of CXCR4 in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232670/some-galeomorph-sharks-express-a-mammalian-microglia-specific-protein-in-radial-ependymoglia-of-the-telencephalon
#2
Skirmantas Janušonis
Ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), also known as allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF-1), is a highly conserved cytoplasmic scaffold protein. Studies strongly suggest that Iba1 is associated with immune-like reactions in all Metazoa. In the mammalian brain, it is abundantly expressed in microglial cells and is used as a reliable marker for this cell type. The present study used multiple-label microscopy and Western blotting to examine Iba1 expression in the telencephalon of 2 galeomorph shark species, the swellshark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) and the horn shark (Heterodontus francisci), a member of an ancient extant order...
December 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232411/rev-erb-agonist-improves-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-and-survival-in-myocardial-infarction-through-an-anti-inflammatory-mechanism
#3
Endin Nokik Stujanna, Nobuyuki Murakoshi, Kazuko Tajiri, DongZhu Xu, Taizo Kimura, Rujie Qin, Duo Feng, Saori Yonebayashi, Yukino Ogura, Fumi Yamagami, Akira Sato, Akihiko Nogami, Kazutaka Aonuma
Rev-erb α, known as nuclear receptor 1D1 (NR1D1), regulates circadian rhythm, modulates glucose and lipid metabolism, and inflammatory response. However, little is known about the effect of Rev-erb agonist on the progression of myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure. To investigate it, wild-type male mice underwent sham-operation or permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery to create MI model. Rev-erb agonist SR9009 (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was intraperitoneally administered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232318/significant-effect-of-acupressure-in-elevating-blood-stem-cell-factor-during-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-gynecologic-cancer
#4
Ya-Wen Shih, Shun-Fa Yang, Ming-Hsien Chien, Ching-Wen Chang, Vincent H S Chang, Hsiu-Ting Tsai
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy is used mainly to treat and control the progression of gynecological cancer. Bone marrow suppression, one of the adverse side effects of chemotherapy, may decrease immune function, increasing the risk of serious, fatal infections. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of noninvasive acupressure in preventing and diminishing chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression in patients with gynecologic cancer and to determine whether this effect is associated with the regulation of the expressions of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and stem cell factor (SCF)...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232054/high-speed-microscopy-for-in-vivo-monitoring-of-lymph-dynamics
#5
Mustafa Sarimollaoglu, Amanda J Stolarz, Dmitry A Nedosekin, Brittney R Garner, Terry W Fletcher, Ekaterina I Galanzha, Nancy J Rusch, Vladimir P Zharov
The lymphatic system contributes to body homeostasis by clearing fluid, lipids, plasma proteins, and immune cells from the interstitial space. Many studies have been performed to understand lymphatic function under normal conditions and during disease. Nevertheless, a further improvement in quantification of lymphatic behavior is needed. Here, we present advanced bright-field microscopy for in vivo imaging of lymph vessels and automated quantification of lymphatic function at temporal resolution of 2 ms. Full frame videos were compressed and recorded continuously at up to 540 frames per second...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232015/constant-vigilance-plant-functions-guarded-by-resistance-proteins
#6
Jianbin Su, Benjamin J Spears, Sang Hee Kim, Walter Gassmann
Unlike animals, plants do not have an adaptive immune system and have instead evolved sophisticated and multi-layered innate immune mechanisms. To overcome plant immunity, pathogens secrete a diverse array of effectors into the apoplast and virtually all cellular compartments in order to dampen immune signaling and interfere with plant functions. Here we describe the scope of the arms race throughout the cell and summarize various strategies used by both plants and pathogens. Through studying the ongoing evolutionary battle between plants and key pathogens, we may yet uncover potential ways to achieve the ultimate goal of engineering broad-spectrum resistant crops without affecting food quality or productivity...
December 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231896/differential-expression-of-serum-micrornas-supports-cd4%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cell-differentiation-into-th2-th17-cells-in-severe-equine-asthma
#7
Alicja Pacholewska, Matthias F Kraft, Vincent Gerber, Vidhya Jagannathan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and may be exported from cells via exosomes or in partnership with RNA-binding proteins. MiRNAs in body fluids can act in a hormone-like manner and play important roles in disease initiation and progression. Hence, miRNAs are promising candidates as biomarkers. To identify serum miRNA biomarkers in the equine model of asthma we investigated small RNA derived from the serum of 34 control and 37 asthmatic horses. These samples were used for next generation sequencing, novel miRNA identification and differential miRNA expression analysis...
December 12, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231862/conserved-binding-regions-provide-the-clue-for-peptide-based-vaccine-development-a-chemical-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Hernando Curtidor, César Reyes, Adriana Bermúdez, Magnolia Vanegas, Yahson Varela, Manuel E Patarroyo
Synthetic peptides have become invaluable biomedical research and medicinal chemistry tools for studying functional roles, i.e., binding or proteolytic activity, naturally-occurring regions' immunogenicity in proteins and developing therapeutic agents and vaccines. Synthetic peptides can mimic protein sites; their structure and function can be easily modulated by specific amino acid replacement. They have major advantages, i.e., they are cheap, easily-produced and chemically stable, lack infectious and secondary adverse reactions and can induce immune responses via T- and B-cell epitopes...
December 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231805/understanding-host-parasite-relationship-the-immune-central-nervous-system-microenvironment-and-its-effect-on-brain-infections
#9
Laura Adalid-Peralta, Brenda Sáenz, Gladis Fragoso, Graciela Cárdenas
The central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized as an immunologically specialized microenvironment, where immune surveillance takes a distinctive character, and where delicate neuronal networks are sustained by anti-inflammatory factors that maintain local homeostasis. However, when a foreign agent such as a parasite establishes in the CNS, a set of immune defences is mounted and several immune molecules are released to promote an array of responses, which ultimately would control the infection and associated damage...
December 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231753/rates-of-insufficiency-and-deficiency-of-vitamin-d-levels-in-elite-professional-male-and-female-skiers-a-chronobiologic-approach
#10
Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Giovanni Lombardi, Luca Cavaleri, Rosa Graziani, Herbert Schoenhuber, Antonio La Torre, Giuseppe Banfi
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance and promotion of musculoskeletal health, for the functioning of the immune, cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and its main action is to keep calcium and phosphate plasmatic physiological concentrations at intestinal, renal and bony level. Vitamin D affects several parameters related to physical performance too and a particularly high percentage of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in professional athletes has been observed. Several variables are able to impair the synthesis of 25(OH)D in athletes, specifically both genetic and environmental factors, but the most probable explanation for the deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels is the insufficient ultraviolet B light (UVB) exposure during winter...
December 12, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231711/embedding-capture-magneto-catalytic-activity-into-a-nano-catalyst-for-the-determination-of-lipid-kinase
#11
Tao Gao, Chaoli Mu, Hai Shi, Liu Shi, Xiaoxia Mao, Genxi Li
Using emerging nano-catalysts to investigate the activity of bio-catalysts (protein enzymes, catalytic RNAs, ect.) is increasingly receiving attention from material, analytical and biomedical scientists. Here, we have first fabricated a three-in-one nano-catalyst, the nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-modified magnetite nanoparticle (NTA-MNPs), to develop an integrated magneto-colorimetric (MagColor) assay for lipid kinase activity, so as to solve the inherent problems in lipid kinase assay. Based on three integrated functions of the NTA-MNPs (capture, magnetic separation and peroxidase activity), catalytic activity of lipid kinase is directly converted to colorimetric signals...
December 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231590/-clinical-therapeutic-effect-on-bronchial-asthma-in-children-of-different-body-constitutions-treated-with-sanfu-pingchuan-plaster-and-sanjiu-zhichuan-plaster
#12
Yaning Deng, Hongxin Yang, Min Tang, Peng Wang, Lan Zhang, Yanying Shi
OBJECTIVE: To observe the difference in the clinical therapeutic effects on bronchial asthma in children of different body constitutions treated with sanfu pingchuan plaster and sanjiu zhichuan plaster. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-two children of bronchial asthma were divided into three groups according to TCM body constitutions, 42 cases in the qi deficiency constitution group, 40 cases in the yang deficiency constitution group and 40 cases in the phlegm damp constitution group...
April 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231431/-micro-invasive-embedding-combined-with-montelukast-sodium-for-children-cough-variant-asthma-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Xiaoyan Wang, Baoqin Liu, Bin Lu, Yanmei Zhang, Liran Wang, Haijin Li, Xue Han, Dan Ding
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of micro-invasive embedding combined with montelukast sodium and simple montelukast sodium for children cough variant asthma (CVA). METHODS: A total of 240 patients were randomly assigned into an observation group and a control group, 120 cases in each one. Considering of cases dropping, 101 patients in the observation group and 105 cases in the control group were included. Montelukast sodium chewable tablets were applied before sleep for 3 months in the control group, 5 mg a time, once a day...
March 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231333/-from-bonghan-system-to-primo-vascular-system-the-thought-on-the-substantial-study-on-meridian-points
#14
Dong Lin, Xiaozhen Huang, Wanyu Zhuang, Lili Lin
Through the systematic analysis on the primo vascular system (PVS) in recent years, we believe that in recent years, more and more studies have indicated that PVS is distributed in reticulate structure in every part of body, such as vessels, lymphangions, nerves, brain, spinal cords and internal organs, and it contains a large amount of immunocytes and has involved in the physiological or pathological process of the immunity and circulation in the body. There are the evidences to prove that in morphology and cytobiology...
January 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231267/contribution-of-the-two-dsrbm-motifs-to-the-double-stranded-rna-binding-and-protein-interactions-of-pact
#15
Evelyn Chukwurah, Victoria Willingham, Madhurima Singh, David Castillo-Azofeifa, Rekha C Patel
PACT is a stress-modulated activator of protein kinase PKR (protein kinase, RNA activated), which is involved in antiviral innate immune responses and stress-induced apoptosis. Stress-induced phosphorylation of PACT is essential for PACT's increased association with PKR leading to PKR activation, phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α, inhibition of protein synthesis, and apoptosis. PACT-induced PKR activation is negatively regulated by TRBP (Transactivation response element RNA-binding protein), which dissociates from PACT after PACT phosphorylation in response to stress signals...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230812/the-gut-microbiota-an-emerging-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-disease
#16
REVIEW
Stefanie Ascher, Christoph Reinhardt
Commensal gut microbiota have recently been implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cerebrovascular disease. Atherosclerotic plaque formation depends on the colonization status of the host. In addition to host nutrition and the related microbiota-dependent metabolic changes, activation of innate immune pathways triggers the development of atherosclerosis and supports arterial thrombosis. Gnotobiotic mouse models have uncovered that activation of Toll-like receptor-2 by gut microbial ligands supports von Willebrand factor-integrin mediated platelet deposition to the site of vascular injury...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230705/crosstalk-between-tlr4-and-notch1-signaling-in-the-iga-nephropathy-during-inflammatory-response
#17
Xuxiang Sheng, Xiaoyan Zuo, Xihui Liu, Yang Zhou, Xia Sun
PURPOSE: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is an immune complex-mediated disease involved in the kidney disease. Recent studies have revealed that Notch signaling-related genes are aberrantly expressed in various cell types and maybe associate with inflammation-induced carcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to investigate the function of Notch1 in the inflammatory response of IgAN. METHODS: The expression of Notch1, Jagged1 and NICD1 in 52 IgAN renal tissues and 20 control renal tissues was first determined using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot...
December 11, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230664/cd14-%C3%A2-hla-dr-low-mdscs-are-elevated-in-the-periphery-of-early-stage-breast-cancer-patients-and-suppress-autologous-t-cell-proliferation
#18
Lisa Speigl, Helen Burow, Jithendra Kini Bailur, Nicole Janssen, Christina-Barbara Walter, Graham Pawelec, Christopher Shipp
PURPOSE: Despite the recent expansion in the use of immunotherapy for many cancer types, it is still not a standard treatment for breast cancer. Identifying differences in the immune systems of breast cancer patients compared to healthy women might provide insight into potential targets for immunotherapy and thus may assist its clinical implementation. METHODS: Multi-colour flow cytometry was used to investigate myeloid and lymphoid populations in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients (n = 40) and in the blood of healthy age-matched women (n = 25)...
December 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230423/immune-dysfunction-in-hiv-a-possible-role-for-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-in-hiv-staging
#19
Iorhen Ephraim Akase, Bolanle O P Musa, Reginald Onyedumarakwe Obiako, Abdurrahman Ahmad Elfulatiy, Abdullahi Asara Mohammed
HIV infection is a chronic infection that almost inevitably progresses to AIDS. The infection is characterized by the deterioration in the immune function leading to opportunistic infections and malignancies. Additionally, there is an associated immune dysfunction characterized by a persistent inflammatory state and unhealthy elaboration of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The CD4+ T cell count has been used as a surrogate for the level of immune dysfunction that exists in patients with HIV infection...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230285/cellular-senescence-associated-immune-responses-in-liver-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Tim F Greten, Tobias Eggert
Cellular senescence is a stress-induced cell-cycle arrest program that prevents malignant transformation of senescent cells following oncogenic pathway activation and DNA damage. Senescent cells are metabolically active and secrete cytokines and chemokines that shape the function and composition of their microenvironment. These cytokines can recruit immune cells such as lymphocytes and myeloid cells that depending on the context can either promote or inhibit liver tumor development and progression. Accordingly, pharmacologically targeting of secreted cytokines or reprogramming the expression of these cytokines in senescent cells represents a promising approach to skew senescence-associated immune responses toward cancer cell killing...
October 2017: Hepatic Oncology
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