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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545004/autophagy-as-an-emerging-arena-for-plant-pathogen-interactions
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Hofius, Liang Li, Anders Hafrén, Nuria S Coll
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation and recycling process that controls cellular homeostasis, stress adaptation, and programmed cell death in eukaryotes. Emerging evidence indicates that autophagy is a key regulator of plant innate immunity and contributes with both pro-death and pro-survival functions to antimicrobial defences, depending on the pathogenic lifestyle. In turn, several pathogens have co-opted and evolved strategies to manipulate host autophagy pathways to the benefit of infection, while some eukaryotic microbes require their own autophagy machinery for successful pathogenesis...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544850/pcpp-adjuvanted-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-sf-subunit-vaccine-self-assembled-supramolecular-complexes-enable-enhanced-immunogenicity-and-protection
#2
Corinne Cayatte, Alexander Marin, Gaurav Manohar Rajani, Kirsten Schneider-Ohrum, Angie Snell Bennett, Jason D Marshall, Alexander K Andrianov
PCPP, a well-defined polyphosphazene macromolecule, has been studied as an immunoadjuvant for a soluble form of the post-fusion glycoprotein (RSV sF) of RSV, which is an attractive vaccine candidate for inducing RSV-specific immunity in mice and humans. We demonstrate that RSV sF-PCPP formulations induce high neutralization titers to RSV comparable to Alum formulations even at a low PCPP dose and protect animals against viral challenge both in the lung and upper respiratory tract. PCPP formulations were also characterized by Th1-biased responses, compared to Th2-biased responses that are more typical for RSV sF alone or RSV sF-Alum formulations, suggesting an inherent immunostimulating activity of the polyphosphazene adjuvant...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544640/an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-demonstrates-the-potential-of-neoplastic-human-germ-cells-to-influence-the-tumour-microenvironment
#3
B Klein, H-C Schuppe, M Bergmann, M P Hedger, B E Loveland, K L Loveland
Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) typically contain high numbers of infiltrating immune cells, yet the functional nature and consequences of interactions between GCNIS (germ cell neoplasia in situ) or seminoma cells and immune cells remain unknown. A co-culture model using the seminoma-derived TCam-2 cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, n = 7 healthy donors) was established to investigate how tumour and immune cells each contribute to the cytokine microenvironment associated with TGCT...
May 23, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544607/spotted-gar-and-the-evolution-of-innate-immune-receptors
#4
Dustin J Wcisel, Tatsuya Ota, Gary W Litman, Jeffrey A Yoder
The resolution of the gar genome affords an opportunity to examine the diversification and functional specialization of immune effector molecules at a distant and potentially informative point in phylogenetic development. Although innate immunity is effected by a particularly large number of different families of molecules, the focus here is to provide detailed characterization of several families of innate receptors that are encoded in large multigene families, for which orthologous forms can be identified in other species of bony fish but not in other vertebrate groups as well as those for which orthologs are present in other vertebrate species...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544530/denatonium-induced-sinonasal-bacterial-killing-may-play-a-role-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-outcomes
#5
Ryan M Carey, Alan D Workman, Kyle M Hatten, Adam P Siebert, Steven G Brooks, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Sinonasal bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) contribute to upper airway innate immunity and correlate with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) clinical outcomes. A subset of T2Rs expressed on sinonasal solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) are activated by denatonium, resulting in a calcium-mediated secretion of bactericidal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in neighboring ciliated epithelial cells. We hypothesized that there is patient variability in the amount of bacterial killing induced by different concentrations of denatonium and that the differences correlate with CRS clinical outcomes...
May 23, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544484/neglected-issues-concerning-teaching-human-adrenal-steroidogenesis-in-popular-biochemistry-textbooks
#6
Zhiyong Han, Mark S Elliott
In the human body, the adrenal steroids collectively regulate a plethora of fundamental functions, including electrolyte and water balance, blood pressure, stress response, intermediary metabolism, inflammation, and immunity. Therefore, adrenal steroidogenesis is an important biochemistry topic for students to learn in order for them to understand health consequences caused by deficiencies of enzymes in the adrenal steroidogenic pathways. However, popular biochemistry textbooks contain insufficient information and may sometimes give students a misimpression about certain aspects of human adrenal steroidogenesis...
May 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544327/genetic-variation-at-the-th2-immune-gene-il13-is-associated-with-ige-mediated-paediatric-food-allergy
#7
S E Ashley, H-T T Tan, R Peters, K J Allen, P Vuillermin, S C Dharmage, M L K Tang, J Koplin, A Lowe, A-L Ponsonby, J Molloy, M C Matheson, R Saffery, J A Ellis, D Martino
BACKGROUND: Food allergies pose a considerable world-wide public health burden with incidence as high as one in ten in 12-month-old infants. Few food allergy genetic risk variants have yet been identified. The Th2 immune gene IL13 is a highly plausible genetic candidate as it is central to the initiation of IgE class switching in B cells. OBJECTIVE: Here, we sought to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms at IL13 are associated with the development of challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy...
April 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543935/neurodegeneration-in-ataxia-telangiectasia-multiple-roles-of-atm-kinase-in-cellular-homeostasis
#8
REVIEW
Kay Rui Choy, Dianne J Watters
Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by neuronal degeneration, cancer, diabetes, immune deficiency and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. A-T is attributed to the deficiency of the protein kinase coded by the ATM (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated) gene. ATM is a sensor of DNA Double Strand Breaks and signals to cell cycle checkpoints and the DNA repair machinery. ATM phosphorylates numerous substrates and activates many cell-signalling pathways. There has been considerable debate about whether a defective DNA damage response is causative of the neurological aspects of the disease...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543738/crispr-editing-in-biological-and-biomedical-investigation
#9
Xing-Da Ju, Jing Xu, Zhong Sheng Sun
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas (CRISPR--associated protein) system, a prokaryotic RNA-based adaptive immune system against viral infection, is emerging as a powerful genome editing tool in broad research areas. To further improve and expand its functionality, various CRISPR delivery strategies have been tested and optimized, and key CRISPR system components such as Cas protein have been engineered with different purposes. Benefiting from more in-depth understanding and further development of CRISPR, versatile CRISPR-based platforms for genome editing have been rapidly developed to advance investigations in biology and biomedicine...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543687/effect-of-a-single-intravenous-zoledronic-acid-administration-on-biomarkers-of-acute-kidney-injury-aki-in-patients-with-osteoporosis-a-pilot-study
#10
C Cipriani, J Pepe, C Clementelli, R Manai, L Colangelo, V Fassino, L Nieddu, S Minisola
AIMS: The pilot study was designed to evaluate the early effect of intravenous (iv) zoledronic acid (ZA) on renal function. METHODS: Five mg iv ZA was administered to 23 patients with osteoporosis (17 women and 6 men, mean age 73±7 SD years). Urinary NGAL, KIM-1, and MCP-1, plasma (p) MCP-1 and serum (s) IL-18, serum calcium (sCa), Creatinine clearance (CrCl), parathyroid hormone (PTH), plasma C-terminal FGF23 (pFGF23), serum (s) Klotho, calcium excretion (CaEx) and renal threshold phosphate concentration/GFR (TmPO4/GFR) were assessed at baseline, 24 hours (h) and day (d) 30 after administration...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543406/novel-murine-xenograft-model-for-the-evaluation-of-stem-cell-therapy-for-profound-dysphagia
#11
Maggie A Kuhn, Amanda B Black, M Tausif Siddiqui, Jan A Nolta, Peter C Belafsky
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Dysphagia is common and costly. Treatments are limited and innovative therapies are required. The tongue is essential for safe, effective swallowing and is a natural target for regenerative therapy. Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) hold potential to restore dynamic function, and their application in the damaged tongue is appealing. We examined the safety and efficacy of human MDSC implantation into a novel mouse tongue model. STUDY DESIGN: Animal study...
May 23, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542923/the-polysialic-acid-mimetics-idarubicin-and-irinotecan-stimulate-neuronal-survival-and-neurite-outgrowth-and-signal-via-protein-kinase-c
#12
Gabriele Loers, Steven Astafiev, Yuliya Hapiak, Vedangana Saini, Bibhudatta Mishra, Sheraz Gul, Gurcharan Kaur, Melitta Schachner, Thomas Theis
Polysialic acid (PSA) is a large, negatively charged, linear homopolymer of alpha2-8-linked sialic acid residues. It is generated by two polysialyltransferases and attached to N- and/or O-linked glycans, and its main carrier is the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. PSA controls the development and regeneration of the nervous system by enhancing cell migration, axon pathfinding, synaptic targeting, synaptic plasticity, by regulating the differentiation of progenitor cells and by modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542882/butyrate-and-retinoic-acid-synergistically-imprint-mucosal-like-dendritic-cell-development-from-bone-marrow-cells
#13
Yetao Qiang, Jie Xu, Cheng Yan, Huimin Jin, Tengfei Xiao, Nannan Yan, Liping Zhou, Huazhang An, Xiaoming Zhou, Qixiang Shao, Sheng Xia
Accumulating data show that the phenotypes and functions of distinctive mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) in the gut are regulated by retinoic acid (RA). Unfortunately, the exact role of butyrate in RA mediated mucosal DC differentiation has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Mucosal like dendritic cell differentiation was completed in vitro by culturing bone marrow cells with growth factors (GM-CSF/IL-4), RA and/or butyrate. The phenotypes, cytokine secretion, immune functions and levels of retinal dehydrogenase of different DCs were detected using qPCR, ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542832/integrated-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-reveals-adaptive-changes-of-hibernating-retinas
#14
Yizhao Luan, Jingxing Ou, Vincent P Kunze, Fengyu Qiao, Yan Wang, Lai Wei, Wei Li, Zhi Xie
Hibernation is a seasonally adaptive strategy that allows hibernators to live through extremely cold conditions. Despite the profound reduction of blood flow to the retinas, hibernation causes no lasting retinal injury. Instead, hibernators show an increased tolerance to ischemic insults during the hibernation period. To understand the molecular changes of the retinas in response to hibernation, we applied an integrative transcriptome and metabolome analysis to explore changes in gene expression and metabolites of 13-lined ground squirrel retinas during hibernation...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542641/platelet-proteome-reveals-novel-pathways-of-platelet-activation-and-platelet-mediated-immunoregulation-in-dengue
#15
Monique Ramos de Oliveira Trugilho, Eugenio Damaceno Hottz, Giselle Villa Flor Brunoro, André Teixeira-Ferreira, Paulo Costa Carvalho, Gustavo Adolfo Salazar, Guy A Zimmerman, Fernando A Bozza, Patrícia T Bozza, Jonas Perales
Dengue is the most prevalent human arbovirus disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes syndromes varying from self-limiting febrile illness to severe dengue. Although dengue pathophysiology is not completely understood, it is widely accepted that increased inflammation plays important roles in dengue pathogenesis. Platelets are blood cells classically known as effectors of hemostasis which have been increasingly recognized to have major immune and inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, the phenotype and effector functions of platelets in dengue pathogenesis are not completely understood...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542608/increase-in-complement-ic3b-is-associated-with-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-during-late-pregnancy-in-mice
#16
Keigo Nakamura, Kazuya Kusama, Rulan Bai, Sadamasa Ishikawa, Sayuri Fukushima, Yoshihito Suda, Kazuhiko Imakawa
Immunological tolerance between fetal allograft and mother is crucial for pregnancy establishment and maintenance; however, these mechanisms particularly those during the latter part of pregnancy have not been definitively elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the presence and potential function of innate immunity characteristic to the middle to late pregnancy. We first characterized up-regulated proteins in decidua from day 11 pregnant (P11) mice using 2D-PAGE, followed by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542595/antifungal-tc17-cells-are-durable-and-stable-persisting-as-long-lasting-vaccine-memory-without-plasticity-towards-ifn%C3%AE-cells
#17
Som Gowda Nanjappa, Andrew J McDermott, J Scott Fites, Kevin Galles, Marcel Wüthrich, George S Deepe, Bruce S Klein
Our understanding of persistence and plasticity of IL-17A+ memory T cells is clouded by conflicting results in models analyzing T helper 17 cells. We studied memory IL-17A+ CD8+ T-cell (Tc17) homeostasis, persistence and plasticity during fungal vaccine immunity. We report that vaccine-induced memory Tc17 cells persist with high fidelity to the type 17 phenotype. Tc17 cells persisted durably for a year as functional IL-17A+ memory cells without converting to IFNγ+ (Tc1) cells, although they produced multiple type I cytokines in the absence of residual vaccine antigen...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542591/molecular-characterization-of-mudskipper-boleophthalmus-pectinirostris-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-hif-1%C3%AE-and-analysis-of-its-function-in-monocytes-macrophages
#18
Feng Guan, Xin-Jiang Lu, Chang-Hong Li, Jiong Chen
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays a critical role in immune and inflammatory responses and is important in controlling a variety of processes in monocytes and macrophages. However, very little information is available about the functions of HIF-1α in fish monocytes/macrophages (MO/MФ). In this study, the cDNA sequence of the mudskipper (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris) HIF-1α gene (BpHIF-1α) was determined. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that BpHIF-1α is clustered in the fish HIF-1α tree...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542521/regeneration-of-myelin-sheaths-of-normal-length-and-thickness-in-the-zebrafish-cns-correlates-with-growth-of-axons-in-caliber
#19
Marja J Karttunen, Tim Czopka, Marieke Goedhart, Jason J Early, David A Lyons
Demyelination is observed in numerous diseases of the central nervous system, including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the endogenous regenerative process of remyelination can replace myelin lost in disease, and in various animal models. Unfortunately, the process of remyelination often fails, particularly with ageing. Even when remyelination occurs, it is characterised by the regeneration of myelin sheaths that are abnormally thin and short. This imperfect remyelination is likely to have implications for the restoration of normal circuit function and possibly the optimal metabolic support of axons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542410/gla-rich-protein-function-as-an-anti-inflammatory-agent-in-monocytes-macrophages-implications-for-calcification-related-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#20
Carla S B Viegas, Rúben M Costa, Lúcia Santos, Paula A Videira, Zélia Silva, Nuna Araújo, Anjos L Macedo, António P Matos, Cees Vermeer, Dina C Simes
Calcification-related chronic inflammatory diseases are multifactorial pathological processes, involving a complex interplay between inflammation and calcification events in a positive feed-back loop driving disease progression. Gla-rich protein (GRP) is a vitamin K dependent protein (VKDP) shown to function as a calcification inhibitor in cardiovascular and articular tissues, and proposed as an anti-inflammatory agent in chondrocytes and synoviocytes, acting as a new crosstalk factor between these two interconnected events in osteoarthritis...
2017: PloS One
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