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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107583/chronic-hepatitis-c-and-chronic-kidney-disease-advances-limitations-and-unchartered-territories
#1
Manuel Mendizabal, K Rajender Reddy
Over the past few years, treatment options for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have evolved dramatically. The current approved interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have been shown to be safe and effective with sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of >90% in most patients. Unique issues yet remain such as the challenges in patients with impaired renal function or decompensated cirrhosis. Patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher prevalence of HCV infection compared with the general population...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107476/origin-and-dispersal-history-of-two-colonial-ascidian-clades-in-the-botryllus-schlosseri-species-complex
#2
Marie L Nydam, Kirsten B Giesbrecht, Emily E Stephenson
Human-induced global warming and species introductions are rapidly altering the composition and functioning of Earth's marine ecosystems. Ascidians (Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Tunicata, Class Ascidiacea) are likely to play an increasingly greater role in marine communities. The colonial ascidian B. schlosseri is a cryptic species complex comprising five genetically divergent clades (A-E). Clade A is a global species, and Clade E has so far been identified in European waters only. Using the largest mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I datasets yet assembled, we determine the origin and dispersal history of these species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107384/an-approach-to-elucidate-nbs1-function-in-dna-repair-using-frequent-nonsynonymous-polymorphism-in-wild-medaka-oryzias-latipes-populations
#3
Kento Igarashi, Junya Kobayashi, Takafumi Katsumura, Yusuke Urushihara, Kyohei Hida, Tomomi Watanabe-Asaka, Hiroki Oota, Shoji Oda, Hiroshi Mitani
Nbs1 is one of the genes responsible for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, which is marked with high radiosensitivity. In human NBS1 (hNBS1), Q185E polymorphism is known as the factor to cancer risks, although its DSB repair defect has not been addressed. Here we investigated the genetic variations in medaka (Oryzias latipes) wild populations, and found 40 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in medaka nbs1 (olnbs1) gene within 5 inbred strains. A mutation to histidine in Q170 residue in olNbs1, which corresponds to Q185 residue of hNBS1, was widely distributed in the closed colonies derived from the eastern Korean population of medaka...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107378/polymorphisms-in-stat4-ptpn2-psors1c1-and-traf3ip2-genes-are-associated-with-the-response-to-tnf-inhibitors-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
Paola Conigliaro, Cinzia Ciccacci, Cristina Politi, Paola Triggianese, Sara Rufini, Barbara Kroegler, Carlo Perricone, Andrea Latini, Giuseppe Novelli, Paola Borgiani, Roberto Perricone
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a progressive autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation and structural damage. Remission or at least low disease activity (LDA) represent potentially desirable goals of RA treatment. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes might be useful for prediction of response to therapy. We aimed at exploring 4 SNPs in candidate genes (STAT4, PTPN2, PSORS1C1 and TRAF3IP2) in order to investigate their potential role in the response to therapy with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF-i) in RA patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107367/first-molecular-characterization-of-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-in-domestic-cats-from-mainland-china
#5
Jilei Zhang, Liang Wang, Jing Li, Patrick Kelly, Stuart Price, Chengming Wang
The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the Lentivirus genus that was initially isolated from a colony of domestic cats in California in 1986 and has now been recognized as a common feline pathogen worldwide. To date, there is only one recent serology-based report on FIV in mainland China which was published in 2016. We designed this study to investigate the molecular prevalence and diversity of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in domestic cats from mainland China. We studied the prevalence of FIV in whole blood samples of 615 domestic cats in five cities (Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai and Yangzhou) of mainland China and examined them using FRET-PCR (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Polymerase Chain Reaction) and regular PCRs for the gag and env genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107349/using-breast-cancer-risk-associated-polymorphisms-to-identify-women-for-breast-cancer-chemoprevention
#6
Elad Ziv, Jeffrey A Tice, Brian Sprague, Celine M Vachon, Steven R Cummings, Karla Kerlikowske
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer can be prevented with selective estrogen receptor modifiers (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women with a 5-year breast cancer risk ≥3% consider chemoprevention for breast cancer. More than 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with breast cancer. We sought to determine how to best integrate risk information from SNPs with other risk factors to risk stratify women for chemoprevention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107343/mutations-in-the-non-catalytic-subunit-dpb2-of-dna-polymerase-epsilon-affect-the-nrm1-branch-of-the-dna-replication-checkpoint
#7
Michał Dmowski, Justyna Rudzka, Judith L Campbell, Piotr Jonczyk, Iwona J Fijałkowska
To preserve genome integrity, the S-phase checkpoint senses damaged DNA or nucleotide depletion and when necessary, arrests replication progression and delays cell division. Previous studies, based on two pol2 mutants have suggested the involvement of DNA polymerase epsilon (Pol ε) in sensing DNA replication accuracy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we have studied the involvement of Pol ε in sensing proper progression of DNA replication, using a mutant in DPB2, the gene coding for a non-catalytic subunit of Pol ε...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106804/ultrafast-electronic-deactivation-dynamics-of-xanthosine-monophosphate
#8
Katharina Röttger, Rebecca Stellmacher, Mayra C Stuhldreier, Friedrich Temps
Ultrafast energy dissipation is a crucial factor for the photostability of DNA and RNA, but even some of the key electronic deactivation pathways in monomeric nucleic acid building stones are still controversial. Here, we report on the excited-state dynamics of the rare nucleotide xanthosine monophosphate as a function of deprotonation state (XMP vs. XMP - ) and excitation wavelength ( λ pump = 278-243 nm) by femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. We show that the predominating relaxation channel leads to a return of the photo-excited molecules to the electronic ground state in τ∼1 ps...
January 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106725/bacterial-responses-to-glyoxal-and-methylglyoxal-reactive-electrophilic-species
#9
REVIEW
Changhan Lee, Chankyu Park
Glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MG), belonging to α-oxoaldehydes, are produced by organisms from bacteria to humans by glucose oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA oxidation. Since glyoxals contain two adjacent reactive carbonyl groups, they are referred to as reactive electrophilic species (RES), and are damaging to proteins and nucleotides. Therefore, glyoxals cause various diseases in humans, such as diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, from which all living organisms need to be protected. Although the glyoxalase system has been known for some time, details on how glyoxals are sensed and detoxified in the cell have not been fully elucidated, and are only beginning to be uncovered...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106707/association-study-between-polymorphisms-of-the-p53-and-lymphotoxin-alpha-lta-genes-and-the-risk-of-proliferative-vitreoretinopathy-retinal-detachment-in-a-mexican-population
#10
Natalia Quiroz-Casian, David Lozano-Giral, Antonio Miranda-Duarte, Ivan Garcia-Montalvo, Jose L Rodriguez-Loaiza, Juan C Zenteno
PURPOSE: To report the results of an association study between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the p53 and LTA genes and the risk of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR)/retinal detachment (RD) in a Mexican cohort. METHODS: A total of 380 unrelated subjects were studied, including 98 patients with primary rhegmatogenous RD without PVR, 82 patients with PVR after RD surgery, and 200 healthy, ethnically matched subjects. Genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1042522 (p53 gene) and rs2229094 (LTA gene) was performed by direct nucleotide sequencing...
January 18, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106558/validation-of-suspected-somatic-single-nucleotide-variations-in-the-brain-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#11
Alberto Gomez-Ramos, Angel J Picher, Esther García, Patricia Garrido, Felix Hernandez, Eduardo Soriano, Jesús Avila
Next-generation sequencing techniques and genome-wide association study analyses have provided a huge amount of data, thereby enabling the identification of DNA variations and mutations related to disease pathogenesis. New techniques and software tools have been developed to improve the accuracy and reliability of this identification. Most of these tools have been designed to discover and validate single nucleotide variants (SNVs). However, in addition to germ-line mutations, human tissues bear genomic mosaicism, which implies that somatic events are present only in low percentages of cells within a given tissue, thereby hindering the validation of these variations using standard genetic tools...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106544/association-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-coding-region-of-bcl-2-with-the-occurrence-and-prognosis-of-colorectal-cancer-a-case-control-study
#12
Baohua Huang, Meiling Tian, Chengming Sun, Lipeng Wang, Liping Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region of Bcl-2 with the occurrence and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was used detect Bcl-2 gene polymorphisms (rs1800477A/G and rs1801018A/G) in 185 patients with CRC (case group) and 177 healthy subjects (control group). The relationships of Bcl-2 gene polymorphisms with clinicopathological features and prognosis of CRC patients were analyzed...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106538/a-polymorphism-in-mir-34b-c-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-early-onset-of-hereditary-retinoblastoma
#13
Ivna N S R Carvalho, Adriana H O Reis, Anna C E Dos Santos, Fernando R Vargas
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma (RB) is a malignant pediatric tumor and, mainly because of late diagnosis, most patients undergo enucleation. The tumor almost always initiates by two inactivation events at the RB1 gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in p53 pathway have been found to represent genetic modifiers of RB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a SNP (rs4938723T > C) in mir-34b/c gene, a key effector of p53, could influence RB risk and patients' age of onset...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106497/association-of-renin-angiotensin-system-genetic-polymorphisms-and-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#14
Christoph J Griessenauer, R Shane Tubbs, Paul M Foreman, Michelle H Chua, Nilesh A Vyas, Robert H Lipsky, Mingkuan Lin, Ramaswamy Iyer, Rishikesh Haridas, Beverly C Walters, Salman Chaudry, Aisana Malieva, Samantha Wilkins, Mark R Harrigan, Winfield S Fisher, Mohammadali M Shoja
OBJECTIVE Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genetic polymorphisms are thought to play a role in cerebral aneurysm formation and rupture. The Cerebral Aneurysm Renin-Angiotensin System (CARAS) study prospectively evaluated common RAS polymorphisms and their relation to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). METHODS The CARAS study prospectively enrolled aSAH patients and controls at 2 academic centers in the United States. A blood sample was obtained from all patients for genetic evaluation and measurement of plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) concentration...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106300/expression-profiles-analysis-and-functional-characterization-of-microrna-660-in-skeletal-muscle-differentiation
#15
Binglin Yue, Jiyao Wu, Yanhuan Wang, Chunlei Zhang, Xingtang Fang, Hong Chen
MicroRNA are a series of small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as critical regulators of skeletal muscle development. Here, we concentrated on the function of miR-660 during bovine skeletal myogenesis from our previous high-throughput sequencing results, then analyzed its expression profiles and characterized related functional roles. Overexpression of miR-660 significantly attenuated myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells, whereas miR-660 inhibition enhanced C2C12 differentiation. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay went for demonstrating that miR-660 directly targeted the 3'-UTR of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 12(ARHGEF-12)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106166/rapid-generation-of-hypomorphic-mutations
#16
Laura L Arthur, Joyce J Chung, Preetam Jankirama, Kathryn M Keefer, Igor Kolotilin, Slavica Pavlovic-Djuranovic, Douglas L Chalker, Vojislava Grbic, Rachel Green, Rima Menassa, Heather L True, James B Skeath, Sergej Djuranovic
Hypomorphic mutations are a valuable tool for both genetic analysis of gene function and for synthetic biology applications. However, current methods to generate hypomorphic mutations are limited to a specific organism, change gene expression unpredictably, or depend on changes in spatial-temporal expression of the targeted gene. Here we present a simple and predictable method to generate hypomorphic mutations in model organisms by targeting translation elongation. Adding consecutive adenosine nucleotides, so-called polyA tracks, to the gene coding sequence of interest will decrease translation elongation efficiency, and in all tested cell cultures and model organisms, this decreases mRNA stability and protein expression...
January 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106148/complete-genome-sequencing-elucidates-outbreak-dynamics-of-ca-mrsa-usa300-st8-spa-t008-in-an-academic-hospital-of-paramaribo-republic-of-suriname
#17
Artur J Sabat, Sandra M Hermelijn, Viktoria Akkerboom, Amadu Juliana, John E Degener, Hajo Grundmann, Alexander W Friedrich
We report the investigation of an outbreak situation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that occurred at the Academic Hospital Paramaribo (AZP) in the Republic of Suriname from April to May 2013. We performed whole genome sequencing with complete gap closure for chromosomes and plasmids on all isolates. The outbreak involved 12 patients and 1 healthcare worker/nurse at the AZP. In total 24 isolates were investigated. spa typing, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, ad hoc whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST), stable core genome MLST (cgMLST) and in silico PFGE were used to determine phylogenetic relatedness and to identify transmission...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106101/the-systematic-analysis-of-coding-and-long-non-coding-rnas-in-the-sub-chronic-and-chronic-stages-of-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Raquel Cuevas-Diaz Duran, Han Yan, Yiyan Zheng, Xingfan Huang, Raymond Grill, Dong H Kim, Qilin Cao, Jia Qian Wu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains one of the most debilitating neurological disorders and the majority of SCI patients are in the chronic phase. Previous studies of SCI have usually focused on few genes and pathways at a time. In particular, the biological roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have never been characterized in SCI. Our study is the first to comprehensively investigate alterations in the expression of both coding and long non-coding genes in the sub-chronic and chronic stages of SCI using RNA-Sequencing...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106079/modification-of-tumour-cell-metabolism-modulates-sensitivity-to-chk1-inhibitor-induced-dna-damage
#19
Andrew J Massey
Chk1 kinase inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation as potentiators of cytotoxic chemotherapy and demonstrate potent activity in combination with anti-metabolite drugs that increase replication stress through the inhibition of nucleotide or deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis. Inhibiting other metabolic pathways critical for the supply of building blocks necessary to support DNA replication may lead to increased DNA damage and synergy with an inhibitor of Chk1. A screen of small molecule metabolism modulators identified combinatorial activity between a Chk1 inhibitor and chloroquine or the LDHA/LDHB inhibitor GSK 2837808A...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106073/high-resolution-cryo-em-structure-of-the-proteasome-in-complex-with-adp-alfx
#20
Zhanyu Ding, Zhenglin Fu, Cong Xu, Yifan Wang, Yanxing Wang, Junrui Li, Liangliang Kong, Jinhuan Chen, Na Li, Rongguang Zhang, Yao Cong
The 26S proteasome is an ATP-dependent dynamic 2.5 MDa protease that regulates numerous essential cellular functions through degradation of ubiquitinated substrates. Here we present a near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM map of the S. cerevisiae 26S proteasome in complex with ADP-AlFx. Our biochemical and structural data reveal that the proteasome-ADP-AlFx is in an activated state, displaying a distinct conformational configuration especially in the AAA-ATPase motor region. Noteworthy, this map demonstrates an asymmetric nucleotide binding pattern with four consecutive AAA-ATPase subunits bound with nucleotide...
January 20, 2017: Cell Research
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