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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087770/article-discoveries
#1
Anke Konrad, Owen Thompson, Robert H Waterston, Donald G Moerman, Peter D Keightley, Ulfar Bergthorsson, Vaishali Katju
Mitochondrial genomes of metazoans, given their elevated rates of evolution, have served as pivotal markers for phylogeographic studies and recent phylogenetic events. In order to determine the dynamics of spontaneous mitochondrial mutations in small populations in the absence and presence of selection, we evolved mutation accumulation (MA) lines of Caenorhabditis elegans in parallel over 409 consecutive generations at three varying population sizes of N = 1, 10 and 100 hermaphrodites. The N =1 populations should have a minimal influence of natural selection to provide the spontaneous mutation rate and the expected rate of neutral evolution, whereas larger population sizes should experience increasing intensity of selection...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080060/pharmacokinetics-of-the-individual-major-components-of-polymyxin-b-and-colistin-in-rats
#2
Sivashangarie Sivanesan, Kade Roberts, Jiping Wang, Soon-Ee Chea, Philip E Thompson, Jian Li, Roger L Nation, Tony Velkov
The pharmacokinetics of polymyxin B1, polymyxin B2, colistin A, and colistin B were investigated in a rat model following intravenous administration (0.8 mg/kg) of each individual component. Plasma and urine concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS, and plasma protein binding was measured by ultracentrifugation. Total and unbound pharmacokinetic parameters for each component were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. All of the polymyxin components had a similar clearance, volume of distribution, elimination half-life, and urinary recovery...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073993/daily-goals-formulation-and-enhanced-visualization-of-mechanical-ventilation-variance-improves-mechanical-ventilation-score
#3
Brian K Walsh, Craig Smallwood, Jordan Rettig, Robert Kacmarek, John Thompson, John H Arnold
BACKGROUND: The systematic implementation of evidence-based practice through the use of guidelines, checklists, and protocols mitigates the risks associated with mechanical ventilation, yet variation in practice remains prevalent. Recent advances in software and hardware have allowed for the development and deployment of an enhanced visualization tool that identifies mechanical ventilation goal variance. Our aim was to assess the utility of daily goal establishment and a computer-aided visualization of variance...
January 10, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073983/a-novel-embryo-culture-media-supplement-that-improves-pregnancy-rates-in-mice
#4
A R Highet, T Bianco-Miotto, K G Pringle, A Peura, S Bent, J Zhang, M B Nottle, J G Thompson, C T Roberts
The preimplantation embryo in vivo is exposed to numerous growth factors in the female reproductive tract, which are not recapitulated in embryo culture media in vitro The IGF2 and plasminogen activator systems facilitate blastocyst development. We hypothesized that the addition of IGF2 in combination with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen could improve rates of blastocyst hatching and implantation in mice. B6BcF1 and CBAB6F2 mouse embryos were divided into one of four supplemented culture media treatment groups: (1) control (media only); (2) 12...
March 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073615/randomized-trial-of-a-question-prompt-list-to-increase-patient-active-participation-during-interactions-with-black-patients-and-their-oncologists
#5
Susan Eggly, Lauren M Hamel, Tanina S Foster, Terrance L Albrecht, Robert Chapman, Felicity W K Harper, Hayley Thompson, Jennifer J Griggs, Richard Gonzalez, Lisa Berry-Bobovski, Rifky Tkatch, Michael Simon, Anthony Shields, Shirish Gadgeel, Randa Loutfi, Haythem Ali, Ira Wollner, Louis A Penner
OBJECTIVE: Communication during racially-discordant interactions is often of poor quality and may contribute to racial treatment disparities. We evaluated an intervention designed to increase patient active participation and other communication-related outcomes during interactions between Black patients and non-Black oncologists. METHODS: Participants were 18 non-Black medical oncologists and 114 Black patients at two cancer hospitals in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Before a clinic visit to discuss treatment, patients were randomly assigned to usual care or to one of two question prompt list (QPL) formats: booklet (QPL-Only), or booklet and communication coach (QPL-plus-Coach)...
December 27, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073053/applying-3d-measurements-and-computer-matching-algorithms-to-two-firearm-examination-proficiency-tests
#6
Daniel Ott, Robert Thompson, Junfeng Song
In order for a crime laboratory to assess a firearms examiner's training, skills, experience, and aptitude, it is necessary for the examiner to participate in proficiency testing. As computer algorithms for comparisons of pattern evidence become more prevalent, it is of interest to test algorithm performance as well, using these same proficiency examinations. This article demonstrates the use of the Congruent Matching Cell (CMC) algorithm to compare 3D topography measurements of breech face impressions and firing pin impressions from a previously distributed firearms proficiency test...
December 21, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071053/functional-characterization-of-the-unique-terminal-thioesterase-domain-from-polymyxin-synthetase
#7
Charles A Galea, Kade D Roberts, Yan Zhu, Philip E Thompson, Jian Li, Tony Velkov
Polymyxins remain one of the few antibiotics available for treating antibiotic resistant bacteria. Here we describe polymyxin B thioesterase which performs the final step in polymyxin B biosynthesis. Isolated thioesterase catalyzed cyclization of an N-acetylcystamine polymyxin B analogue to form polymyxin B. The thioesterase contained a catalytic cysteine unlike most thioesterases which possess a serine. Supporting this, incubation of polymyxin B thioesterase with reducing agents abolished enzymatic activity while mutation of the catalytic cysteine to serine significantly decreased activity...
January 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070781/the-support-needs-of-children-with-intellectual-disability-and-autism-implications-for-supports-planning-and-subgroup-classification
#8
Karrie A Shogren, Leslie A Shaw, Michael L Wehmeyer, James R Thompson, Kyle M Lang, Marc J Tassé, Robert L Schalock
The Supports Intensity Scale-Children's version (SIS-C) was developed to provide a standardized measure of support needs of children with intellectual disability. Over half of the norming sample had a secondary diagnosis of autism. Using this subset of the sample, we engaged in exploratory analysis to examine the degree to which latent clusters were present in the data, and after identifying these clusters, the degree to which they mapped on the SIS-C standard scores. A four latent class solution provided the best fit to the data...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068394/prediction-of-small-for-gestational-age-infants-in-healthy-nulliparous-women-using-clinical-and-ultrasound-risk-factors-combined-with-early-pregnancy-biomarkers
#9
Lesley M E McCowan, John M D Thompson, Rennae S Taylor, Philip N Baker, Robyn A North, Lucilla Poston, Claire T Roberts, Nigel A B Simpson, James J Walker, Jenny Myers, Louise C Kenny
OBJECTIVE: Most small for gestational age pregnancies are unrecognised before birth, resulting in substantial avoidable perinatal mortality and morbidity. Our objective was to develop multivariable prediction models for small for gestational age combining clinical risk factors and biomarkers at 15±1 weeks' with ultrasound parameters at 20±1 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Data from 5606 participants in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study were divided into Training (n = 3735) and Validation datasets (n = 1871)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067894/unexpected-uvr-and-non-uvr-mutation-burden-in-some-acral-and-cutaneous-melanomas
#10
Robert V Rawson, Peter A Johansson, Nicholas K Hayward, Nicola Waddell, Ann-Marie Patch, Serigne Lo, John V Pearson, John F Thompson, Graham J Mann, Richard A Scolyer, James S Wilmott
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) mutagenesis causes nearly all cutaneous melanomas, however, since UVR signatures are largely absent in acral melanoma, as well as melanoma in sun-protected sites, the cause of these melanomas is unknown. Whole-genome sequencing data generated as part of the Australian Melanoma Genome Project was supplemented with a detailed histopathological assessment with the melanomas then classified as UVR or non-UVR related, based on their mutation signatures. The clinicopathological characteristics of melanomas with mutation signatures for their subtype were compared...
January 9, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056120/clinical-characterization-of-cngb1-related-autosomal-recessive-retinitis-pigmentosa
#11
Sarah Hull, Marcella Attanasio, Gavin Arno, Keren Carss, Anthony G Robson, Dorothy A Thompson, Vincent Plagnol, Michel Michaelides, Graham E Holder, Robert H Henderson, F Lucy Raymond, Anthony T Moore, Andrew R Webster
Importance: There are limited published data on the phenotype of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) related to CNGB1 variants. These data are needed both for prognostic counseling of patients and for understanding potential treatment windows. Objective: To describe the detailed clinical and molecular genetic findings in a series of patients with RP with likely pathogenic variants in CNGB1. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case series, 10 patients from 9 families underwent full ophthalmologic examination...
January 5, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056114/diagnosis-and-management-of-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-macroglobulinemia-mayo-stratification-of-macroglobulinemia-and-risk-adapted-therapy-msmart-guidelines-2016
#12
Prashant Kapoor, Stephen M Ansell, Rafael Fonseca, Asher Chanan-Khan, Robert A Kyle, Shaji K Kumar, Joseph R Mikhael, Thomas E Witzig, Michelle Mauermann, Angela Dispenzieri, Sikander Ailawadhi, A Keith Stewart, Martha Q Lacy, Carrie A Thompson, Francis K Buadi, David Dingli, William G Morice, Ronald S Go, Dragan Jevremovic, Taimur Sher, Rebecca L King, Esteban Braggio, Ann Novak, Vivek Roy, Rhett P Ketterling, Patricia T Greipp, Martha Grogan, Ivana N Micallef, P Leif Bergsagel, Joseph P Colgan, Nelson Leung, Wilson I Gonsalves, Yi Lin, David J Inwards, Suzanne R Hayman, Grzegorz S Nowakowski, Patrick B Johnston, Steven J Russell, Svetomir N Markovic, Steven R Zeldenrust, Yi L Hwa, John A Lust, Luis F Porrata, Thomas M Habermann, S Vincent Rajkumar, Morie A Gertz, Craig B Reeder
Importance: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), an IgM-associated lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, has witnessed several practice-altering advances in recent years. With availability of a wider array of therapies, the management strategies have become increasingly complex. Our multidisciplinary team appraised studies published or presented up to December 2015 to provide consensus recommendations for a risk-adapted approach to WM, using a grading system. Observations: Waldenström macroglobulinemia remains a rare, incurable cancer, with a heterogeneous disease course...
January 5, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053063/correction-to-unravelling-darwin-s-entangled-bank-architecture-and-robustness-of-mutualistic-networks-with-multiple-interaction-types
#13
Wesley Dáttilo, Nubia Lara-Rodríguez, Pedro Jordano, Paulo R Guimarães, John N Thompson, Robert J Marquis, Lucas P Medeiros, Raul Ortiz-Pulido, Maria A Marcos-García, Victor Rico-Gray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049168/2017-ers-ats-standards-for-single-breath-carbon-monoxide-uptake-in-the-lung
#14
Brian L Graham, Vito Brusasco, Felip Burgos, Brendan G Cooper, Robert Jensen, Adrian Kendrick, Neil R MacIntyre, Bruce R Thompson, Jack Wanger
This document provides an update to the European Respiratory Society (ERS)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) technical standards for single-breath carbon monoxide uptake in the lung that was last updated in 2005. Although both DLCO (diffusing capacity) and TLCO (transfer factor) are valid terms to describe the uptake of carbon monoxide in the lung, the term DLCO is used in this document. A joint taskforce appointed by the ERS and ATS reviewed the recent literature on the measurement of DLCO and surveyed the current technical capabilities of instrumentation being manufactured around the world...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049167/executive-summary-2017-ers-ats-standards-for-single-breath-carbon-monoxide-uptake%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-the-lung
#15
Brian L Graham, Vito Brusasco, Felip Burgos, Brendan G Cooper, Robert Jensen, Adrian Kendrick, Neil R MacIntyre, Bruce R Thompson, Jack Wanger
This document summarises an update to the European Respiratory Society (ERS)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) technical standards for single-breath carbon monoxide uptake in the lung that was last updated in 2005. The full standards are also available online as https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00016-2016 The major changes in these technical standards relate to DLCO measurement with systems using rapidly responding gas analysers for carbon monoxide and the tracer gas, which are now the most common type of DLCO instrumentation being manufactured...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041643/comprehensive-rare-variant-analysis-via-whole-genome-sequencing-to-determine-the-molecular-pathology-of-inherited-retinal-disease
#16
Keren J Carss, Gavin Arno, Marie Erwood, Jonathan Stephens, Alba Sanchis-Juan, Sarah Hull, Karyn Megy, Detelina Grozeva, Eleanor Dewhurst, Samantha Malka, Vincent Plagnol, Christopher Penkett, Kathleen Stirrups, Roberta Rizzo, Genevieve Wright, Dragana Josifova, Maria Bitner-Glindzicz, Richard H Scott, Emma Clement, Louise Allen, Ruth Armstrong, Angela F Brady, Jenny Carmichael, Manali Chitre, Robert H H Henderson, Jane Hurst, Robert E MacLaren, Elaine Murphy, Joan Paterson, Elisabeth Rosser, Dorothy A Thompson, Emma Wakeling, Willem H Ouwehand, Michel Michaelides, Anthony T Moore, Andrew R Webster, F Lucy Raymond
Inherited retinal disease is a common cause of visual impairment and represents a highly heterogeneous group of conditions. Here, we present findings from a cohort of 722 individuals with inherited retinal disease, who have had whole-genome sequencing (n = 605), whole-exome sequencing (n = 72), or both (n = 45) performed, as part of the NIHR-BioResource Rare Diseases research study. We identified pathogenic variants (single-nucleotide variants, indels, or structural variants) for 404/722 (56%) individuals. Whole-genome sequencing gives unprecedented power to detect three categories of pathogenic variants in particular: structural variants, variants in GC-rich regions, which have significantly improved coverage compared to whole-exome sequencing, and variants in non-coding regulatory regions...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032757/polymer-stabilized-perfluorobutane-nanodroplets-for-ultrasound-imaging-agents
#17
Yuran Huang, Alexander M Vezeridis, James Wang, Zhao Wang, Matthew Thompson, Robert F Mattrey, Nathan C Gianneschi
In this paper, we describe a method for the stabilization of low-boiling point (low-bp) perfluorocarbons (PFCs) at physiological temperatures by an amphiphilic triblock copolymer which can emulsify PFCs and be cross-linked. After UV-induced thiol-ene cross-linking, the core of the PFC emulsion remains in liquid form even at temperatures exceeding their boiling points. Critically, the formulation permits vaporization at rarefactional pressures relevant for clinical ultrasound.
December 29, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018841/1-low-fat-milk-has-perks-an-evaluation-of-a-social-marketing-intervention
#18
Karla Jaye Finnell, Robert John, David M Thompson
This study evaluated the effect of a 12-week social marketing intervention conducted in 2012 promoting 1% milk use relying on paid advertising. Weekly milk sales data by type of milk (whole, 2%, 1%, and nonfat milk) were collected from 80 supermarkets in the Oklahoma City media market, the intervention market, and 66 supermarkets in the Tulsa media market (TMM), the comparison market. The effect was measured with a paired t-test. A mixed segmented regression model, controlling for the contextual difference between supermarkets and data correlation, identified trends before, during, and after the intervention...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017661/recent-h3n2-viruses-have-evolved-specificity-for-extended-branched-human-type-receptors-conferring-potential-for-increased-avidity
#19
Wenjie Peng, Robert P de Vries, Oliver C Grant, Andrew J Thompson, Ryan McBride, Buyankhishig Tsogtbaatar, Peter S Lee, Nahid Razi, Ian A Wilson, Robert J Woods, James C Paulson
Human and avian influenza viruses recognize different sialic acid-containing receptors, referred to as human-type (NeuAcα2-6Gal) and avian-type (NeuAcα2-3Gal), respectively. This presents a species barrier for aerosol droplet transmission of avian viruses in humans and ferrets. Recent reports have suggested that current human H3N2 viruses no longer have strict specificity toward human-type receptors. Using an influenza receptor glycan microarray with extended airway glycans, we find that H3N2 viruses have in fact maintained human-type specificity, but they have evolved preference for a subset of receptors comprising branched glycans with extended poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (poly-LacNAc) chains, a specificity shared with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (Cal/04) hemagglutinin...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017559/spread-of-yellow-fever-virus-outbreak-in-angola-and-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-2015-16-a-modelling-study
#20
Moritz U G Kraemer, Nuno R Faria, Robert C Reiner, Nick Golding, Birgit Nikolay, Stephanie Stasse, Michael A Johansson, Henrik Salje, Ousmane Faye, G R William Wint, Matthias Niedrig, Freya M Shearer, Sarah C Hill, Robin N Thompson, Donal Bisanzio, Nuno Taveira, Heinrich H Nax, Bary S R Pradelski, Elaine O Nsoesie, Nicholas R Murphy, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, John S Brownstein, Andrew J Tatem, Tulio de Oliveira, David L Smith, Amadou A Sall, Oliver G Pybus, Simon I Hay, Simon Cauchemez
BACKGROUND: Since late 2015, an epidemic of yellow fever has caused more than 7334 suspected cases in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, including 393 deaths. We sought to understand the spatial spread of this outbreak to optimise the use of the limited available vaccine stock. METHODS: We jointly analysed datasets describing the epidemic of yellow fever, vector suitability, human demography, and mobility in central Africa to understand and predict the spread of yellow fever virus...
December 22, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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