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Bayes theorem diagnosis

Humaira Batool, M Usman Akram, Fouzia Batool, Wasi Haider Butt
OBJECTIVES: Frozen shoulder is a disease in which shoulder becomes stiff. Accurate diagnosis of frozen shoulder is helpful in providing economical and effective treatment for patients. This research provides the classification of unstructured data using data mining techniques. Prediction results are validated by K-fold cross-validation method. It also provides accurate diagnosis of frozen shoulder using Naïve Bayesian and Random Forest models. At the end results are presented by performance measure techniques...
2016: SpringerPlus
Sarah J Price, Sal A Stapley, Elizabeth Shephard, Kevin Barraclough, William T Hamilton
OBJECTIVES: To estimate data loss and bias in studies of Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) data that restrict analyses to Read codes, omitting anything recorded as text. DESIGN: Matched case-control study. SETTING: Patients contributing data to the CPRD. PARTICIPANTS: 4915 bladder and 3635 pancreatic, cancer cases diagnosed between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2009, matched on age, sex and general practitioner practice to up to 5 controls (bladder: n=21 718; pancreas: n=16 459)...
May 13, 2016: BMJ Open
Roger S Day
PURPOSE: Despite an explosion of translational research to exploit biomarkers in diagnosis, prediction and prognosis, the impact of biomarkers on clinical practice has been limited. The elusiveness of clinical utility may partly originate when validation studies are planned, from a failure to articulate precisely how the biomarker, if successful, will improve clinical decision-making for patients. Clarifying what performance would suffice if the test is to improve medical care makes it possible to design meaningful validation studies...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Joann G Elmore, Heidi D Nelson, Margaret S Pepe, Gary M Longton, Anna N A Tosteson, Berta Geller, Tracy Onega, Patricia A Carney, Sara L Jackson, Kimberly H Allison, Donald L Weaver
BACKGROUND: The effect of physician diagnostic variability on accuracy at a population level depends on the prevalence of diagnoses. OBJECTIVE: To estimate how diagnostic variability affects accuracy from the perspective of a U.S. woman aged 50 to 59 years having a breast biopsy. DESIGN: Applied probability using Bayes' theorem. SETTING: B-Path (Breast Pathology) Study comparing pathologists' interpretations of a single biopsy slide versus a reference consensus interpretation from 3 experts...
May 17, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jonne J Sikkens, Djoeke G Beekman, Abel Thijs, Patrick M Bossuyt, Yvo M Smulders
Ruling out disease often requires expensive or potentially harmful confirmation testing. For such testing, a less invasive triage test is often used. Intuitively, few negative confirmatory tests suggest success of this approach. However, if negative confirmation tests become too rare, too many disease cases could have been missed. It is therefore important to know how many negative tests are needed to safely exclude a diagnosis. We quantified this relationship using Bayes' theorem, and applied this to the example of pulmonary embolism (PE), for which triage is done with a Clinical Decision Rule (CDR) and D-dimer testing, and CT-angiography (CTA) is the confirmation test...
2016: PloS One
Andreas Tsiakkas, Youssef Saiid, Alan Wright, David Wright, Kypros H Nicolaides
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) affects 2-3% of all pregnancies and is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. We have proposed a 2-stage strategy for the identification of pregnancies at high risk of developing PE. The objective of the first stage, at 11-13 weeks' gestation, is a reduction in the prevalence of the disease through pharmacological intervention in the high-risk group. The objective of the second stage, during the second and/or third trimesters, is to improve perinatal outcome through close monitoring of the high-risk group for earlier diagnosis of the clinical signs of the disease and selection of the appropriate, time, place, and method of delivery...
July 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hasan Yazici, Yusuf Yazici
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Currently, there are no diagnostic criteria for vasculitides. To this end, there is a current European League Against Rheumatism and American College of Rheumatology initiative for formulating separate classification and diagnostic criteria for different forms of vasculitis. The authors of this review previously disagreed to separate classification and diagnostic criteria. They now expand this disagreement in light of both of more recent information and a reassessment of older communications...
January 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Yi Lu, Ye Yuan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum level of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-35 in thyroid cancer patients and its diagnostic value as a biomarker. METHODS: Sixty-one thyroid carcinoma patients were recruited from January 2012 to December 2014 in our hospital. Of the 61 included cases, 42 subjects were pathology confirmed with thyroid cancer and other 19 cases were diagnosed with thyroid adenoma. The serum level of IL-17 and IL-35 were compared between the two groups...
October 2015: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Emily Oster, Shirley W Eberly, E Ray Dorsey, Elise Kayson-Rubin, David Oakes, Ira Shoulson
BACKGROUND: The cohort-level risk of Huntington disease (HD) is related to the age and symptom level of the cohort, but this relationship has not been made precise. OBJECTIVE: To predict the evolving likelihood of carrying the Huntington disease (HD) gene for at-risk adults using age and sign level. METHODS: Using data from adults with early signs and symptoms of HD linked to information on genetic status, we use Bayes' theorem to calculate the probability that an undiagnosed individual of a certain age and sign level has an expanded CAG repeat...
2015: Journal of Huntington's Disease
K S Jacob
Arriving at a medical diagnosis is a complex process, which requires clinical skill. However, the need for clear decisions has to be balanced by an acceptance of the ambiguity of many clinical situations. Complex presentations often require probabilistic inferences rather than presumed diagnostic certainty. The demands, logic and process of clinical diagnosis are highlighted. The multiple aspects of clinical reality and the impact of gold standards, nature of evidence and dichotomous disease/no disease categorization are discussed...
January 2015: National Medical Journal of India
Paulo Camargos, Ana Cristina Fonseca, Sérgio Amantéa, Elizabeth Oliveira, Maria das Graças Benfica, Chequer Chamone
INTRODUCTION: The etiological diagnosis of pleural effusion is a difficult task because the diagnostic tools can only establish a definitive etiological diagnosis in at most 76% of cases. OBJECTIVES: to verify the diagnostic accuracy of the latex agglutination test (LAT) for the etiological diagnosis of pleural effusions caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b. METHODS: after thoracocentesis, paired fresh samples of pleural fluid from 418 children and adolescents were included in this investigation...
July 6, 2015: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Vidar Søyseth, Trond Mogens Aaløkken, Georg Mynarek, Anne Naalsund, Erik H Strøm, Helge Scott, Alf Kolbenstvedt
OBJECTIVE: To identify the combination of clinical data and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features that best identified biopsy verified usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). METHODS: The study included 91 patients with a tentative diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. All underwent clinical investigation, surgical lung biopsy and HRCT. Two independent readers assessed the HRCT images for the extent and pattern of abnormality. On the basis of the biopsy result the patients were categorized in three groups: 1) Usual interstitial pneumonia, 2) Other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis and 3) Other interstitial lung diseases...
July 2015: Respiratory Medicine
Jorge López Puga, Martin Krzywinski, Naomi Altman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: Nature Methods
Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Joël Fokom-Domgue, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Eric V Balti, Eugène Sobngwi, André Pascal Kengne
INTRODUCTION: Fructosamine is a marker of glucose control reflecting the average glycaemic level over the preceding 2-3 weeks. Fructosamine has not gained as much popularity as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for diabetes mellitus (DM) control monitoring, and the related underlying reasons remain unclear. We aim to search for and summarise available evidence on the accuracy of fructosamine measurements to diagnose and monitor DM. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review will include randomised control trials, controlled before-and-after studies, time series designs, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys reporting the diagnosis and/or monitoring of DM (type 1 DM, type 2 DM and gestational DM) with fructosamine compared with other measures of glycaemia (fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, random glucose, HbA1c), without any language restriction...
2015: BMJ Open
Seung-Pyo Lee, Eun Jin Jang, Yong-Jin Kim, Myung-Jin Cha, Sun-Young Park, Hyun Jin Song, Ji Eun Choi, Jung-Im Shim, Jeonghoon Ahn, Hyun Joo Lee
BACKGROUND: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has been proven accurate and is incorporated in clinical recommendations for coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis workup, but cost-effectiveness data, especially in comparison to other methods such as myocardial single photon emission CT (SPECT) are insufficient. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of CCTA and myocardial SPECT in a real-world setting. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on consecutive patients with suspected CAD and a pretest probability between 10% and 90%...
September 2015: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Ryan Sullivan, Robert Yao, Randa Jarrar, Jeffrey Buchhalter, Graciela Gonzalez
When attempting to identify a specific epilepsy syndrome, physicians are often unable to make or agree upon a diagnosis. This is further complicated by the fact that the current classification and diagnosis of epilepsy requires specialized training and the use of resources not typically available to the average clinician, such as training to recognize specific seizure types and electroencephalography (EEG). Even when training and resources are available, expert epileptologists often find it challenging to identify seizure types and to distinguish between specific epilepsy syndromes...
2014: AMIA ... Annual Symposium Proceedings
Cauchy Pradhan, Max Wuehr, Farhoud Akrami, Maximilian Neuhaeusser, Sabrina Huth, Thomas Brandt, Klaus Jahn, Roman Schniepp
OBJECTIVE: Automated pattern recognition systems have been used for accurate identification of neurological conditions as well as the evaluation of the treatment outcomes. This study aims to determine the accuracy of diagnoses of (oto-)neurological gait disorders using different types of automated pattern recognition techniques. METHODS: Clinically confirmed cases of phobic postural vertigo (N = 30), cerebellar ataxia (N = 30), progressive supranuclear palsy (N = 30), bilateral vestibulopathy (N = 30), as well as healthy subjects (N = 30) were recruited for the study...
April 2015: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Priscyla Waleska Simões, Geraldo Doneda da Silva, Gustavo Pasquali Moretti, Carla Sasso Simon, Erik Paul Winnikow, Silvia Modesto Nassar, Lidia Rosi Medeiros, Maria Inês Rosa
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of Bayesian networks in supporting breast cancer diagnoses. Systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out, including articles and papers published between January 1990 and March 2013. We included prospective and retrospective cross-sectional studies of the accuracy of diagnoses of breast lesions (target conditions) made using Bayesian networks (index test). Four primary studies that included 1,223 breast lesions were analyzed, 89.52% (444/496) of the breast cancer cases and 6...
January 2015: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Andrew J Schoenfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
C Godefroid, F Buttafuoco, T Richard, A Goubella, M Vanhaeverbeek
The diagnosis of acute neuroborreliosis may be difficult if it's regarded as a "classical" infectious disease. Through a clinical case, we illustrate the difficulties met and we suggest two ways of reflexion to assist in the diagnosis:--firstly, we explain how the comprehension of the behavior of the pathogen agent, which is similar to a parasitic behavior, can help to choose and interpret the results of additional tests;--secondly, we develop practically the clinical form of Bayes's theorem to demonstrate the interest of a rational Bayesian and abductive approach which should be preferred to the classical hypothetical and deductive reasoning...
September 2014: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
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