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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913731/inter-and-intra-observer-reproducibility-of-quantitative-analysis-for-fp-cit-spect-in-patients-with-dlb
#1
Atsutaka Okizaki, Michihiro Nakayama, Kaori Nakajima, Takayuki Katayama, Takahiro Uno, Fumiyoshi Morikawa, Juichiro Naoe, Koji Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Dopamine transporter single photon emission CT (DAT-SPECT) is useful in the evaluation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The specific binding ratio (SBR) is an index to measure DAT density. However, poorly reproducible cases are occasionally experienced in clinical practice. We hypothesized that distance-weighted histogram (DWH) may be useful to improve the reproducibility of SBR. The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of SBR with conventional and DWH methods, and to visually evaluate the precision in reference voxel of interest (VOI) definition using these methods...
September 14, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905079/-falsified-medicines-in-parallel-trade
#2
REVIEW
Heide Muckenfuß
The number of falsified medicines on the German market has distinctly increased over the past few years. In particular, stolen pharmaceutical products, a form of falsified medicines, have increasingly been introduced into the legal supply chain via parallel trading. The reasons why parallel trading serves as a gateway for falsified medicines are most likely the complex supply chains and routes of transport. It is hardly possible for national authorities to trace the history of a medicinal product that was bought and sold by several intermediaries in different EU member states...
September 13, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904560/antidiabetic-effect-of-tibetan-medicine-tang-kang-fu-san-on-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#3
Bailu Duan, Zhongqiu Zhao, Ling Lin, Jing Jin, Lijun Zhang, Hui Xiong, Na Ta, Tiexiang Gao, Zhinan Mei
The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of a Tibetan medicine, Tang-Kang-Fu-San (TKFS), on experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Firstly two major chemical compositions of TKFS, gallic acid and curcumin, were characterized by HPLC fingerprint analysis. Next T2DM in rats was induced by high-fat diet and a low-dose streptozotocin (STZ 35 mg/kg). Then oral gavage administration of three different doses of TKFS (0.3 g/kg, 0.6 g/kg, and 1...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894278/agerarin-identified-from-ageratum-houstonianum-stimulates-circadian-clock-mediated-aquaporin-3-gene-expression-in-hacat-keratinocytes
#4
Soon Young Shin, Da Hyun Lee, Ha-Na Gil, Beom Soo Kim, Jeong-Sook Choe, Jung-Bong Kim, Young Han Lee, Yoongho Lim
The juice of Ageratum houstonianum is used in folk medicine as an external wound healing aid for skin injuries. However, the active component of A. houstonianum and its mode of action in skin wound healing has not been investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of A. houstonianum ethanolnolic extract (AHE) on the expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3), an integral membrane protein for water and glycerol transport in keratinocytes, and to identify the structure of the A. houstonianum bioactive compound...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893735/access-to-healthcare-for-men-and-women-with-disabilities-in-the-uk-secondary-analysis-of-cross-sectional-data
#5
Dikaios Sakellariou, Elena S Rotarou
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in access to healthcare between people with and without disabilities in the UK. The hypotheses were that: (1) people with disabilities would be more likely to have unmet healthcare needs and (2) there would be gender differences, with women more likely to report unmet needs. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed secondary analysis, using logistic regressions, of deidentified cross-sectional data from the European Health Interview Survey, Wave 2...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893323/out-of-pocket-expenditure-for-seeking-health-care-for-sick-children-younger-than-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-bangladesh-findings-from-cross-sectional-surveys-2009-and-2012
#6
Tazeen Tahsina, Nazia Binte Ali, D M Emdadul Hoque, Tanvir M Huda, Shumona Sharmin Salam, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan, Md Altaf Hossain, Ziaul Matin, Lianne Kuppen, Sarah P Garnett, Shams El Arifeen
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh has committed to universal health coverage, and options to decrease household out-of-pocket expenditure (OPE) are being explored. Understanding the determinants of OPE is an essential step. This study aimed to estimate and identify determinants of OPE in seeking health care for sick under-five children. METHODS: Cross-sectional data was collected by structured questionnaire in 2009 (n = 7362) and 2012 (n = 6896) from mothers of the under-five children...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892154/pharmacogenetics-of-opioid-analgesics-in-dogs
#7
REVIEW
K Kongara
Genetic variation causes interindividual variability in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. These pharmacokinetic processes will influence the observed efficacy and toxicity of a drug. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the metabolizing enzymes, transport proteins and receptors have been linked to the inconsistency in responses to opioid treatment in humans and laboratory animals. Pharmacogenetics is relatively less developed field in veterinary medicine compared to significant advances in knowledge on genetic basis of variation in drug responses and clinical applications in human medicine...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890865/functional-imaging-of-paragangliomas-with-an-emphasis-on-von-hippel-lindau-associated-disease-a-mini-review
#8
REVIEW
Ioannis Ilias, Georgios Meristoudis
Few reports have presented data and results on functional (i.e., nuclear medicine) imaging of paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas (PGLs/PHEOs) for von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) patients. Nuclear medicine localization modalities for chromaffin tumors can be specific or nonspecific. Specific methods make use of the expression of the human norepinephrine transporter (hNET) and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) by these tumors. These permit the use of radiolabeled ligands that enter the synthesis and storage pathway of catecholamines...
2017: Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890383/interaction-between-rhein-acyl-glucuronide-and-methotrexate-based-on-human-organic-anion-transporters
#9
Yuan Yuan, Hua Yang, Linghua Kong, Yuan Li, Ping Li, Hongjian Zhang, Jianqing Ruan
Rhein, a major bioactive compound of many medicinal herbs and the prodrug of diacerein, is often used with low dose of methotrexate as drug combination to treat rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, potential drug-drug interaction between methotrexate and rhein was investigated based on organic anion transporters (OAT). Our study demonstrated that rhein acyl glucuronide (RAG), the major metabolite of rhein in the human blood circulation, significantly inhibited the uptake of p-aminohippurate in hOAT1 transfected cells with IC50 value of 691 nM and estrone sulfate uptake in hOAT3 transfected cells with IC50 value of 78...
September 7, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886689/predator-versus-pathogen-how-does-predatory-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-interface-with-the-challenges-of-killing-gram-negative-pathogens-in-a-host-setting
#10
David Negus, Chris Moore, Michelle Baker, Dhaarini Raghunathan, Jess Tyson, R Elizabeth Sockett
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small deltaproteobacterial predator that has evolved to invade, reseal, kill, and digest other gram-negative bacteria in soils and water environments. It has a broad host range and kills many antibiotic-resistant, clinical pathogens in vitro, a potentially useful capability if it could be translated to a clinical setting. We review relevant mechanisms of B. bacteriovorus predation and the physiological properties that would influence its survival in a mammalian host. Bacterial pathogens increasingly display conventional antibiotic resistance by expressing and varying surface and soluble biomolecules...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886521/permeability-through-the-caco-2-cell-monolayer-of-42-bioactive-compounds-in-the-tcm-formula-gegen-qinlian-decoction-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#11
Qi Wang, Yi Kuang, Wei Song, Yi Qian, Xue Qiao, De-An Guo, Min Ye
Caco-2 cell monolayer model was used to evaluate the intestinal permeability of 42 bioactive compounds in the famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Gegen-Qinlian Decoction (GQD). These compounds include alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides, triterpenoid saponins, and coumarins. Their transportations across the cell monolayers in the forms of herb extract and formula extract were monitored by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis. Most alkaloids from Huang-Lian; flavonoid C-glycosides from Ge-Gen and Huang-Qin; O-glycosides from Ge-Gen, Huang-Qin and Gan-Cao; O-glucuronides from Huang-Qin; and coumarins from Gan-Cao exhibited favorable permeability...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885074/clinical-risks-of-st-john-s-wort-hypericum-perforatum-co-administration
#12
Samaneh Soleymani, Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Roja Rahimi, Mohammad Abdollahi
St. John's wort (SJW) is a common medicinal herb used for the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Hyperforin, one of the chief components of SJW, plays an important role in the induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) and P-glycoprotein transporter (P-gp), and therefore, affects the pharmacokinetics of various drugs. There are several clinical studies demonstrating the interaction of SJW with the metabolism of conventional drugs which may cause life-threatening events. Areas covered: This review focuses on human studies that have evaluated pharmacokinetic alterations of conventional drugs in concomitant use with different SJW preparations...
September 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883884/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomics-analysis-of-the-protective-effect-of-yinchenwuling-powder-on-hyperlipidemic-rats
#13
Zheyu Zhang, Wenbo Wang, Ling Jin, Xin Cao, Gonghui Jian, Ning Wu, Xia Xu, Ye Yao, Dongsheng Wang
Yinchenwuling powder (YCL) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine formula to modulate lipid levels. In this study, we established hyperlipidemic rat models and treated them with YCL. The serum concentrations of lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were measured. Adventitia-free vascular proteins between hyperlipidemic rats and YCL-treated rats were identified using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics research approach. Proteins with 1.3-fold difference were analyzed through bioinformatics, and proteomic results were verified by Western blot...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883792/antidiabetic-effect-of-tibetan-medicine-tang-kang-fu-san-in-db-db-mice-via-activation-of-pi3k-akt-and-ampk-pathways
#14
Bailu Duan, Zhongqiu Zhao, Weifang Liao, Hui Xiong, Sisi Liu, Liang Yin, Tiexiang Gao, Zhinan Mei
This study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects and molecular mechanisms of Tang-Kang-Fu-San (TKFS), a traditional Tibetan medicine, in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus of spontaneous diabetic db/db mice. Firstly HPLC fingerprint analysis was performed to gain the features of the chemical compositions of TKFS. Next different doses of TKFS (0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, and 2.0 g/kg) were administrated via oral gavage to db/db mice and their controls for 4 weeks. TKFS significantly lowered hyperglycemia and ameliorated insulin resistance (IR) in db/db mice, indicated by results from multiple tests, including fasting blood glucose test, intraperitoneal insulin and glucose tolerance tests, fasting serum insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment of IR analysis as well as histology of pancreas islets...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876911/interaction-of-engineered-nanoparticles-with-agri-environment
#15
Saheli Pradhan, Damodhara Mailapalli
Nanoparticles with their unique surface properties can modulate the physiological, biochemical and physicochemical pathways like photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen metabolism, solute transport. In this context, researchers have developed a wide range of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) for the improvement of growth and productivity by modulating the metabolic pathways in plants. This class of tailor-made materials can potentially lead to the development of a new group of agrochemical nano fertilizer. However, there are reports that engineered nanomaterials could impart phytotoxicity to the edible as well as medicinal plants...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875958/5-hydroxytryptamine-changes-under-different-pretreatments-on-rat-models-of-myocardial-infarction-and-or-depression
#16
Mei-Yan Liu, Li-Jun Zhang, Yu-Xin Zhou, Wan-Lin Wei
Background: Psychocardiological researches have suggested a central role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on psychocardiological mechanism. This study aimed to further explore the central role of 5-HT and pretreatment effects of XinLingWan on rats with myocardial infarction (MI) and/or depression. Methods: Ninety Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: MI group, depression group, and MI + depression group (n = 30 in each group). Each group was then divided into three subgroups (n = 10 in each subgroup): a negative control subgroup (NCS), a Western medicine subgroup (WMS), and a traditional Chinese medicine subgroup (TCMS), which were received pretreatment once a day for 4 weeks by saline, 20 mg/kg sertraline mixed with 2 ml saline, and 40 mg/kg XingLingWan mixed with 2 ml saline, respectively...
September 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873014/impact-of-preanalytical-variations-in-blood-derived-biospecimens-on-omics-studies-toward-precision-biobanking
#17
Jae-Eun Lee, Young-Youl Kim
Research data and outcomes do vary across populations and persons, but this is not always due to experimental or true biological variation. Preanalytical components of experiments, be they biospecimen acquisition, preparation, storage, or transportation to the laboratory, may all contribute to apparent variability in research data, outcomes, and interpretation. The present review article and biobanking innovation analysis offer new insights with a summary of such preanalytical variables, for example, the type of blood collection tube, centrifugation conditions, long-term sample storage temperature, and duration, on output of omics analyses of blood-derived biospecimens: whole blood, serum, plasma, buffy coat, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
September 5, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867638/zebrafish-a-promising-in-vivo-model-for-assessing-the-delivery-of-natural-products-fluorescence-dyes-and-drugs-across-the-blood-brain-barrier
#18
REVIEW
Ye Li, Tongkai Chen, Xiaoqing Miao, Xiang Yi, Xueqing Wang, Haitao Zhao, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Ying Zheng
The blood brain barrier (BBB) is the network of capillaries that controls the passage of substances from the blood into the brain and other parts of the central nervous system (CNS). As this barrier is the major obstacle for drug delivery into CNS, a credible BBB model is very necessary to assess the BBB permeability of novel neuroactive compounds including thousands of bioactive compounds which have been extracted from medicinal plants and have the potential for the treatment of CNS diseases. Increasing reports indicated that zebrafish has emerged as a timely, reproducible model for BBB permeability assessment...
August 31, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867436/effects-of-diosmetin-on-nine-cytochrome-p450-isoforms-ugts-and-three-drug-transporters-in-vitro
#19
Jun-Jun Chen, Jing-Xian Zhang, Xiang-Qi Zhang, Mei-Juan Qi, Mei-Zhi Shi, Jiao Yang, Ke-Zhi Zhang, Cheng Guo, Yong-Long Han
Diosmetin (3', 5, 7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone), a natural flavonoid from traditional Chinese herbs, has been used in various medicinal products because of its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, estrogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. However, flavonoids could affect the metabolic enzymes and cause drug-drug interactions (DDI), reducing the efficacy of co-administered drugs and potentially resulting in serious adverse reactions. To evaluate its potential to interact with co-administered drugs, the IC50 value of phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), phase II UDP-glucuronyltransferases (UGTs) and hepatic uptake transporters (organic cation transporters (OCTs), organic anion transporter polypeptides (OATPs) and Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptides (NTCPs)) were examined in vitro by LC-MS/MS...
September 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867225/laser-microdissection-hyphenated-with-high-performance-gel-permeation-chromatography-charged-aerosol-detector-and-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-for-histochemical-analysis-of-polysaccharides-in-herbal-medicine-ginseng
#20
Qi-Lei Chen, Yu-Jie Chen, Shan-Shan Zhou, Ka-Man Yip, Jun Xu, Hu-Biao Chen, Zhong-Zhen Zhao
This study establishes a new combinatorial approach for histochemical analysis of polysaccharides in herbal medicines using laser microdissection followed by high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector and ultra-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Ginseng was employed as a study model. Tissue-specific qualitative and quantitative characterization of ginseng polysaccharides was performed by determining their molar masses and monosaccharide compositions in three macro-dissected parts (rhizome, main and branched roots) and five micro-dissected tissues (cork, cortex, xylem, phloem and resin canal)...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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